Zoology Paper on Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a lentivirus. When FIV is compared to feline leukemia virus (FeLV), differences in shape and genetic composition are evident. FeLV is circular in shape while FIV is elongated. In addition, genetic composition of FELV and FIV vary since they have different proteins in terms of size and structure. For this reason, it can be deduced that FeLV and FIV have varying ways of causing diseases in living organisms (Aranyos 1482).
FIV mainly infects cats. This has been confirmed as a worldwide crisis with the highest number of infections recorded in the United States. The main means of transmission of this virus is through biting. This means that the male aggressive cats are likely to get infected as compared to those that stay indoors. This holds to the fact that they rarely engage in fights that would lead to bite wounds through which FIV would be transmitted. Other methods of the disease spread may involve infection from mother cat to the kitten at birth. Although sexual contact may contribute to FIV infection, cases of such are rarely attributed to this.
The FIV has early signs after infection which normally passes without being noticed. The virus is first received by the lymph nodes. Here, reproduction of more white cells occur. In effect, the lymph nodes temporarily enlarge. This is often accompanied by fever. From this stage of infection, the cat’s health is likely to deteriorate. The various signs and symptoms comprise: loss of appetite, severe fever and bad state of the cat’s condition, `high cancer and blood disease prevalence is normally associated with cats that are infected with FIV, infected cats are likely to experience seizures, neurological disorders and changes in behavior, female infected cats have continued to experience reproduction problems which often lead to abortion, various eye conditions are likely to emerge as wells cases of persistent diarrhea and continued loss of weight which can significantly affect the cat in the late stages of the infection and emergence of gingivitis as a result of inflammation of gums and mouth that would lead to infections of major organs such as skin, respiratory tract and the urinary bladder. These symptoms affect all stages from infection to late stages where signs become pronounced.
Tests done to determine infections are based on antibodies that would detect the presence of antibodies in the infected blood. Since few, assuming any, felines ever take out disease, the nearness of counter acting agent shows that a feline is positive. This test can be performed by most veterinary demonstrative research facilities furthermore is accessible in unit shape for use in veterinary centers. Since false-positive results may happen, veterinarians prescribe that positive results be affirmed utilizing a test with an alternate organization.
Infected mother felines exchange FIV antibodies to nursing little cats, so cats destined to contaminated moms may get positive test comes about for a while after birth. Be that as it may, few of these cats really are or will get to be tainted. To illuminate their contamination status, cats more youthful than six months of age accepting positive results ought to be retested at 60-day interims until they are no less than six months old (Larsen 3).
A negative test outcome demonstrates that antibodies coordinated against FIV have not been identified, and, much of the time, this infers the feline is not tainted. In any case, it takes eight to 12 weeks after disease (and here and there considerably more) before perceivable levels of counter acting agent show up, so if the test is performed amid this interim, incorrect results may be gotten. In this way, immunizer negative felines with either an obscure or a known introduction to FIV-contaminated felines, for example, through the chomp of an obscure feline ought to be retested at least 60 days after their latest presentation so as to permit satisfactory time for advancement of antibodies (Larsen 1).
On extremely uncommon events, felines in the later phases of FIV contamination may test negative on the grounds that their safe frameworks are compromised to the point that they no longer create recognizable levels of immune response.
Treatment of this virus can be ensured by administering antiviral medication. A few felines can be helped by this. However, treatment can be generally constrained to strong care and managing auxiliary wellbeing worries as they emerge. In addition, infected cats should be under good nutrition as this will help boost their immunity to FIV (Serriere 1).
FIV immunizations are accessible however may not ensure all felines. Moreover, these antibodies can meddle with testing for the infection. It is best to work with your feline’s veterinarian to figure out whether FIV inoculation is the best choice for your feline. Regardless of whether your feline is immunized, it is constantly critical to forestall introduction to FIV (Viita-aho 183). The most ideal approach to keep your feline from getting the infection is to keep him inside, maintaining a strategic distance from any shot of contact with contaminated cats. In the event that you walk your feline, keep him on a rope when outside. Also, if your feline will be investing any energy in a cattery or in a home with different cats, ensure all felines have tried negative for FIV (Asquith 2120).
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