- Explain the three points of the Kantian triangle. How do they help reduce uncertainty among states?
The three points of the Kantian triangle are democracy, economic interdependence and international organizations. There is an appeal for countries to build more democratic institutions, increase membership in the international intergovernmental organizations and improve involvement in the foreign markets to include as many importers and exporters as possible.
They help in reducing uncertainty by: –
- Preventing existence of secret treaties among nations
- Disallowing dominance of one state over another’s constitution
- States not acting in a manner likely to prevent end of war in another country for example through use of assassins.
- Having a plan to abolish all standing armies in the long run.
- Explain the three main aspects of the Bretton Woods system. How did it help preserve economic stability between states?
This refers to the Bretton Woods Agreement made in the year 1944 with a view to provide a mechanism for managing monetary factors and the exchange rates. It led to the formation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This system led to all currencies being pegged to gold, hence a fixed exchange rate system. Through the IMF, this system would provide economic stability of states by: –
- Monitoring countries’ foreign exchange rates.
- Bridging gaps in countries’ Balance of Payments.
- How have East Asian states pursued economic development, in contrast to South American and African states that have more closely followed the Washington Consensus?
One of the secrets to the success of the East Asian states is having managed their budget deficits, exchange rates and external debt. Secondly, the states introduced trade blocs within themselves to allow for free flow of exports. They have also invested in high levels of education. African and South American states on the other hand suffer from neo colonialism as a result of huge external debts which they owe the International Monetary Fund (IMF). They have not recovered from these debts leading to budget deficits year in year out, hence depressed economic growth.
- Why is the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) accused of having an anti- Israel bias?
The UNHRC is continually accused of anti-Israel bias due to its unfair rulings and actions against. One of those occurrences where unfairness has been spotted by the international community was the announcement made in May 2015 that Israel was a “violator of health rights.” About this time when the declaration was made by the UN World Health Organization, Israel provided daily health care for the injured Syrians and Palestinians and so this action by the UN was uncalled for. Secondly, there exists a motion known as ‘agenda item 7’ which exists particularly to yearly discuss the “Israel’s violation of Human Rights.” This agenda is applied to no other country of the world. Thirdly, in the year 2010, Israel was commanded to compensate Palestine for the Gaza damage during the Operation Cast Lead. This was an unjust order since Israel was only responding to terrorist attacks on its territory.
- Why are many Northern and Southern countries resistant to accepting limits on carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) emissions?
This is because the limits constitute challenges such as neo-colonial exploitation which these countries do not want to open up themselves to. In addition to this, the South-North countries’ relations have been savored due to ecological debt. Therefore, they need to be engaged in mediation or arbitration to work on their relations before they can work together on the limits posed. A wide range of compliance options need to be provided to countries to avoid resistance.