The Global Economy and its Impact on Human Health
It is a known fact that Tuberculosis affects populations across the globe. The disease is easily transmitted through air when an infected person sneezes or cough and in most cases people infected do not exhibit symptoms associated with the disease. However, once the human immune system is compromises, a patient may begin to exhibit symptoms of the disease that include persistent cough, fewer, reduced weight, loss of appetite and pronounced fatigue. Globalization has necessitated the spread of the disease that is known to prevalent in regions characterized by dense population. Studies have revealed that as economies continues to be more global characterized by industrialization and rural-urban migration, the spread of diseases also increases (Heymann, 2010). Tuberculosis is a public concern in United States and as per CDC records, 9.951 new cases of the disease were reported in 2012. Populations prone to the disease include refugees, children in school and individuals whose immune systems are compromised due to HIV/AIDS. Specifically, the discussion focuses on prevalence of Tuberculosis in refugee population.
Impacts of globalization
It is difficult to dissect the impacts of globalization on human health in United States. However, in respect to spread of tuberculosis infections, it is worth mentioning that the spread has greatly increased as many people come into contact with other people and goods. For that matter, movement of people in and out of America coupled with rural-urban migrations has necessitated the spread of TB. The nutritional status in most refugee camps is also usually substandard, hence weakened immunity and ultimate progress into active TB. Additionally, due to the immorality cases witnessed in refugee camps, individuals who have HIV are at higher risk of contracting TB thus increasing the number of possible TB casualties in the camps. Increased population mobility has seen many people contract the disease, compared to the past where people stayed in places they were born raised. Further, globalization has skewed health care reforms especially to the poor refugees thus contributing to new and emergence of Tuberculosis. Rapid urbanization has seen many migrate to United States as refugees to achieve economic posterity leading to overcrowding in poor ventilated areas leading to increased chances of spreading Tuberculosis.
Disparity in Spending and Responsiveness
Disparity in medical spending has been witnessed between the American population and the refugees. Research studies have noted that refugees consume disproportionately small share of America’s health care costs and therefore does not burden the country (Labonté and Schrecker, 2007). This disparity in spending has been as a result on the unprecedented international migration witnessed, strict medical policies that limits spending on refugee with Tuberculosis. Further, barriers such as financial limitations and discrimination have made it an uphill task to provide appropriate medical assistance to refugee patients with Tuberculosis. Therefore, American citizens are given preferences when it comes to immunization using BCG vaccine. Notably, economic globalization has led to development of American economies and so they are able to access sophisticated and quality medical care in respect to TB compared to refugees. Increased poverty as a result of less development in refugee camps has adversely increased the risk of Tuberculosis because most refugees cannot access and afford medical care provisions.
Tuberculosis is a global epidemic spread through the air mostly in densely populated areas. Refugees are at risk of contracting the disease because of overcrowding, strict immigrant policies, discrimination and poor lifestyles. The American population is given preference when it comes to access of medical care and services. They are supported by the state comparable to refugees and therefore have exhibited fewer cases of TB infections. Therefore, there is need to harmonize medical care policies to allow all people to equally access medical support in order to stem the spread of Tuberculosis even further.
Heymann, J. (2010). Global health and social policy. Video retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbzM9wAMIVg. [Accessed on November 29, 2017].
Labonté, R, & Schrecker, T. (2007). Globalization and social determinants of health: the role of the global marketplace (part 2 of 3). Globalization and Health, 3(6), 1-17. Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1744-8603-3-6.pdf.[Accesed November 29, 2017]