The Evolution Of Organizational Theory Or The History Of Management

The Evolution Of Organizational Theory Or The History Of Management

The organizational theory evolved from classical to modern organizational theory.

Classical Organization Theory

Classical organization theory progressed during the first half of the 20th century. It signified the amalgamation of scientific administration, bureaucratic model, and administrative theory. Frederick Taylor (1917) established the scientific management theory, which was mostly known as Taylorism. Its basic principles included establishing the best way of accomplishing every task, cautiously matching employee to every role, monitoring employees closely, and utilizing incentive and penalty as motivators. The scientific management theory highlighted the role of the management as planning as well as control. Max Weber (1947) extended Tylor’s theories and emphasized the importance of minimizing diversity as well as ambiguity in firms. He differentiated authority from control. Weber’s bureaucratic theory stressed the necessity for a hierarchical system of power. The theory identified the significance of division of labor and specialization. The administrative theory was formalized by Mooney and Reiley in 1931. The theory developed a common set of management principles applicable to all companies. The classical management theory was inflexible and mechanistic. The limitations of the classical organization theory were visible, and its main weakness was its determination to justify individuals’ motivation to work as a role of an economic recompense (Yang, Liu, and Wang 4471).

Neoclassical Organization Theory

The human relations association emerged as a response to the harsh, dictatorial structure of the classical theory. Neoclassical organization theory handled several challenges inherent in the classical theory. The main oppositions to classical theory were over compliance as well as inflexibility. Therefore, it suppressed creativity, individual progression, and enthusiasm. Neoclassical theory exhibited sincere concern for people’s needs, and its theorists were Elton Mayo and Roethlisberger (Yang, Liu, and Wang 4471).

Modern Organization Theories

During the mid-twentieth century, the third technical transformation stirred the rapid development of economics, resulting in several new economic events and impacted organizational environments intensely. The facts of classical and neoclassical organization theories could not describe these organizational changes in such forceful conditions, necessitating transformation of theories that put organization theories into a new level of growth. Regarding human environment-relationship view, modern organization theories, consider organizations as open systems, stress on their environmental influence, and derive new perspectives and techniques from complexity science (Yang, Chun-Xia, Han-Min Liu, and Xing-Xiu Wang 4472).

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The Three Main Theories Of Criminal Justice And The Prominent Theorist(s) Of The Two Administration Models.

The three major theories of criminal justice administration are psychological, sociological, and biological theories. Psychological theories of criminality affirm that personality is the main component that drives behavior in human beings. They analyze how personality may make individuals susceptible to engaging in criminal acts, for example, depression or other mental diseases. Psychological theories also suppose that a subsection of a psychological criminal category exists, which is presently referred to as an antisocial personality condition. Skinnerian stated that psychological theories of reinforcement as well as punishment are effective in this model of crime management. Based on cognitive behavioral psychological values, reintegration and relearning and educational courses for wrongdoers are types of psychologically based approaches to controlling crime.  Its proponents are Burrhus Frederic Skinner and Albert Bandura (Graves n.p).

Sociological theories associate the issues of individual’s criminality with the wider social structures as well as cultural values of society, family, or age group. Initial sociological theories suggested that crimes resulted from anomie, a word that means “normlessness” or a view of the absence of social norms, not being linked to society. One of the proponents of this model was Émile Durkheim (1897). Thus, criminality is caused by the inability to appropriately socialize people and inequitable chances among individuals. Durkheim supposed that crime was an inevitable element of society and supported upholding crime within sensible confines. Social plans intended for socializing young people appropriately and offering support for disadvantaged homes are examples of sociological techniques to managing crime.

Biological theories of criminal justice assert that criminal behaviors are caused by defects in individuals’ biological makeup. The physical defects can be genetic, or caused by neurotransmitter dysfunction and brain deformities resulting from abnormal growth or trauma. Biological theorists support sterner punishments and better law enforcement methods for crime control. Other methods of controlling criminal behavior specific to biological theories include utilization of pharmacological treatments and brain surgery (Graves n.p).

The Trait Leadership Theory

The trait leadership theory states that individuals are born or made with particular qualities that enable them to excel in leadership tasks. Such qualities include intelligence, sense of responsibility, creativity, honesty and integrity, and the desire to lead. Gordon Allport, an American psychologist, recognized several English personality-relevant terms (Derue 12). Stogdill (1948) also acknowledged five elements that influence success in leadership: capability, accomplishment, responsibility, involvement, and status. The trait theory examines the mental, physical, as well as social qualities to enable comprehension of qualities that most leaders have.

The trait theory analyzes personality, social, physical, or intellectual features that distinguish leaders from non-leaders. Its limitations include lack of a universal characteristic that forecasts leadership in all circumstances. Moreover, it foretells well the presence of leadership but it does not differentiate effective and ineffective leaders. Traits also forecast behavior in weak than strong circumstances (Derue 13). Based on the trait theory, for criminal justice leaders to succeed in the leadership positions, they need to have excellent administrative skills to manage various criminal justice departments. They should also be organized and knowledgeable about their work to enable them address challenges that arise. They need to be self-confident and creative to handle unique cases of crime that emerge as a result of advancement in technology.

Works Cited

Derue, D. Scott, et al. “Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta‐analytic test of their relative validity.” Personnel psychology 64.1 (2011): 7-52.

Graves, Carin. “LibGuides: Criminal Justice Resources: Criminal Justice Theories.” (2009).

Yang, Chun-Xia, Han-Min Liu, and Xing-Xiu Wang. “Organization theories: from classical to modern.” Journal of Applied Sciences 13.21 (2013): 4470-4476.