Reasons why the Amazon River is Important to People
Facts about the Amazon River
The Amazon River is one of the largest rivers in the world. Even though it is found in South America, its importance goes way beyond the region. Experts state that this 4,200 km long river provides the earth with up to a fifth of its fresh water. The fresh water is drained into the oceans and dilutes some of the saltiness of these oceans. 12 billion liters of water flow along the Amazon River every 60 seconds.
Importance of the Amazon River to the People
The Amazon River is relied upon by many people in different parts of the world for several reasons.
- Source of Water. The Amazon River is the largest source of water for the South American countries along which it flows. Most of the inhabitants directly or indirectly use the water from this river for their daily needs.
- Determines Climate around the world. The Amazon River is surrounded by a large rainforest. The rain forest depends on the river for survival and it determines the climate of the entire earth. Without this rain forest and the river, the climate cycle of the earth would be destroyed and people would suffer.
- Source of Food. The people who live along the Amazon River depend on it for food. The river is said to have as many as 1,500 species of fishes. The inhabitants derive most of their protein from the fish as well as other water animals that thrive in these waters. Oil is also gotten from some of the fishes and creatures harvested from the river.
- Source of Energy. The Amazon River is an important source of hydro energy. This is used by the governments in South America to harvest hydroelectric power which they supply to the people who live along the river.
- Source of Livelihood. There are many minerals along the Amazon River. These are usually mined by the people and they provide a source of livelihood. Some of the common minerals that are harvested around the Amazon River include bauxite and iron. There are large deposits of bauxite around the Amazon River and 15% of the world’s share is mined from this area. There are also minerals such as gold, nickel, tin and steel which the inhabitants and immigrants living around the Amazon River depend on for livelihood. Lumbering is also another major source of livelihood practiced along the river. Many of the locals harvest rubber from the rubber trees and other woods found in the Amazon rain forest for commercial purposes.
- Most farmers who live around the Amazon River depend on its waters as well as silt for their farming activities. There are both small scale farmers and subsistence ones who depend on the river for irrigation and farming. One of the common crops that is grown along the river is soya beans.
- Source of Medicine. From time immemorial, the inhabitants have always looked up to the rain forest and some of the plants that grow along the Amazon River for medicine. This is a practice that is still observed by the natives who live along the river banks.
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Ecosystem of the Nile River
There is a rich history on the ecosystem of river Nile. Many times, people look at the river on its own, but there is a lot also know. Ecosystem of the Nile River is made up of many things. It is made up of many inter-related living and non-living parts. Nile River has been able to provide free ecosystem services for many years. Hydrology is the core driving force when it comes to river Nile. The many living organisms within the river help create stability and resiliency by easily moderating environment change.
The flow of the Nile River is one of the great areas to look at while gathering facts or information on Nile. The flow of the Nile or any other river is made up of a number of elements and this include magnitude, duration, timing rate of change and frequency. The Nile is known as the longest river in the world and has two chief tributaries the White Nile and the Blue Nile. There is a smooth water flow from White Nile in Khartoum and the Blue Nile joins it from Ethiopia. The basin is complex as water discharge at any position along the mainstream depends on factors such as groundwater flow, evaporation, diversions and weather.
The main source of the Nile is Lake Victoria, but there are also feeder rivers that offer enough amount of water. TheKagera River that flows into Lake Victoria near Tanzania is the longest feeder, however, many historians dispute on which is the possibly largest tributary. Atbara River is the major tributary with Blue Nile and it originates from Lake Tana. The Nile River water chemistry varies greatly. The water chemistry of the Nile River is determined by the inputs from the geology of its watershed or mainstay catchment area. However pollution in the Nile River has great impact on its water chemistry.
There are many living systems in river Nile. They are made up of individual organisms that work together and interact with non-living organism to form the large ecosystem. Within the Nile, floodplains, wetlands, the river itself and the riparian areas detail its great ecosystem. The living systems use complex systems to moderate the flow of the Nile River and provide stability in times of environmental changes such as floods and drought.
River Nile is a source of fish and many legal fishermen are making good income from the River. Food production is the in-thing for the many farmers embracing the Nile waters. Floods have also been controlled since the construction of the Aswan Dam. Hence, migration from the most areas that used to be hit by floods has decreased. Energy production has also become easy has the river offers enough water for hydroelectricity production. Unfortunately, the human impacts on the Nile have been unbearable. Water pollution has impacted living organisms in the river and many people who depend on the water for irrigation and daily consumption. Nevertheless, many policies that have been introduced by the nations that depend on river Nile have aided greatly.
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Facts about the Nile River
There are many resources in the world that have made life smooth and interesting. Rivers are substantial natural resources that present many benefits to human beings. A river is a natural watercourse usually of freshwater flowing towards ocean, lake, a sea or another river. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle and there are numerous roles used as source of water, for food production, for transport or as a source of hydropower. One of the famous and widely acknowledged rivers is Nile River.
Nile River is the longest river in the world and got its name from the Greek word Neilos- meaning a valley. The Nile River floods into the lands in Egypt and usually leaves behind black sediment and this made the ancient Egyptians name the river Ar to stand for black. The Nile River serves 11 countries and this includes Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eretria, Sudan and Egypt. Above all, Nile is the core water source for Egypt and Sudan. There are incredible facts about the Nile River that you should be well-versed and they include;
- Many people know Nile is the longest river, but many do not have clues on the actual size. Surprisingly, Nile is 6695 kilometers or 4148 miles long.
- For many people, it is a fact that the Nile winds from Uganda to Ethiopia flowing via a total of nine countries that entail Ethiopia, Zaire, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania , Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan and Egypt. A navigation team recently revealed more on Nile, by following it from the main source to the final destination.
- The Nile river flows from the high mountain of the eastern part of Africa and middle regions within the northern section of Africa to Nile Delta.
- There are two major branches of the Nile; the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The two branches join at Khartoum.
- The core sources of Nile are Lake Victoria which feeds the White Nile branch and Lake Tana that feeds the Blue Nile.
- The ancient Egyptians used the Nile in many ways. The river helped greatly during the civilization period and helped shape the life and history of the Citizens. The river has helped to produce extremely fertile soils which made it easy for the focused farmers to excel in food production. The waterway also offered fresh drinking water and for irrigation. The river also made it easy grow papyrus reeds making it easy to make papers and quality building materials. The river also served as a great source of transportation.
- You can also find the largest crocodiles in the Nile River. Other animals living in and within the surrounding region close to the river include mongoose, turtles, hippopotamus, tortoise, baboons, frogs, different types of fish and hundred species of birds.
- The Aswan High Dam was built in 1970 to help regulate flooding of the Nile River. The dam has offered immeasurable benefits in controlling floods and drought within the river basin.
Today the Nile River has brought a lot of changes in the regions. Attractive and refined cities like Cairo, situated within the banks of the river are great attraction not only for the African people, but also foreigners from every walk of life. More matchless developments are also taking place in the regions and more is anticipated in the future.
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Importance of the Amazon River
Rivers are a great resource for every nation. In every continent there is that river that attracts the residents and even foreign to experienced great wonders of the world. Despite Nile River being widely acknowledged as the longest river, Amazon River is the largest river according to survey and research conducted by a number of historians and ecologists in the world. It averages about 7,050000 square kilometers and it drains it water from west to east in Iquitos, Peru and across Brazil and the Atlantic. The local people refer to Amazon River as El Jefe Negro to refer to an ancient god of fertility.
Amazon River is indeed a wonder and it presents many benefits to the people who rely on it within South America. The Amazon River and its tributaries are characterized by far-reaching forested areas that are flooded on rainy seasons. The river is known to rise more than 30 feet making the amazon flooded forest as the most widespread example of a great habitat type globally. The amazon basin is the largest drainage basin that changed the lives of many people in South America. Its incomparable benefits to the many people and nations out there have been matchless.
Many rivers in the world have disappeared due to human activities regardless of their sizes, but amazon has been a great wonder to treasure. And here goes the mainstay significances of the Amazon River;
- Its great ecological importance- The Amazon River helps feed the large rainforest with enough water. Plants cannot grow without enough water and with the Amazon basin which is the largest reservoir of freshwater many plants growing within the forest are not easily affected during dry seasons.
- Amazon River is a great place to tour- There are incomparable attractions within the amazon that presents great sight-seeing scenes that you can find nowhere else. Local residents and foreigners can visit the areas where river passes through and see the largest rainforest in the world and many other attractions within the region.
- Provides fresh water for domestic and industrial uses- Thousands rely on the Amazon River for fresh water whereas there many industries that use the water for industrial purposes.
- Offers thousands of fish species for consumption- There are more than 3,000 species of fish that offer enough food for the people. Hence, they offer and alternative diet for better health.
- Easy for shipping and boating- The Amazon River offer a great means of transport within many nations, thus trade has been quite effective ever since.
The Amazon River is quite substantial not only for the nations within the river basin, but also southern America in general. Despite all the afore-mentioned benefits, the Amazon River has posed many dangers to the people. There is increased pollution in the river and disease outbreak has been widespread. Plants, animals and the environment have been affected by human activities. Being the deepest and the largest river in the globe, there are dangers that came with unprofessional boating and shipping. Above all, Amazon River is a wonder of the world and every person should aid protect the river.
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Importance of the Nile Delta
The Nile River is one of the greatest rivers with a rich and complex history. It runs back to the Egypt civilization era when it changes the lives of many people and helped the nation developed. It also played great roles in the civilization and development of 10 more countries that include Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The Nile delta made it easy for the river to spread out and drain into the Mediterranean Sea.
It is one of the largest deltas in the world and it has made the coastline of the richest agricultural region. The delta starts down-river from Cairo, Egypt. From the south to north, the Nile delta is about 160 kilometers in length and covers 240 kilometers from west to east. The delta had several tributaries, but the impact of controlled, changing relief and silting has all led to the loss of the delta. The Nile delta is usually described as arc-shaped as it resembles a triangle or lotus flower. People who have lived in the Nile Delta region for thousands of years have at all times enjoy the fertile soils within the region.
It used to flood on yearly basis leaving behind fertile soils and nutrients, unfortunately the construction of the Aswan dam have made it ineffective for farming. About half of the Egypt population of 80 million people lived in the Delta region. Alexandria is the largest city in the delta. The Nile delta has changed many lives. In fact, there are many reasons as to why many people rely on the Nile Delta.
- Wildlife- Nile Delta held the largest concentration of wildlife. Abundant plants grow in the Nile River including the Egyptian lotus. The lower Nile has abundant Cyperus papyrus; hence there is plenty for the wild animals. There is a widespread species of birds in the delta including little gulls and whiskered terns. The delta is also a great home for other bird species like grey herons, egrets, ibises and Kentish plovers. Tortoises, nile crocodile, Nile monitor, tortoises, turtle and hippopotamus habitat within the Nile delta.
- Agriculture- Prior to the construction of the Aswan dam, great fields around the Nile delta act as great site for farming as floods left behind fertile soils for growing crops and many other farm related produces. Reeds were also grown in the Nile basin and many farmers would make good profits from their produce.
- Tourism- Many people visit the Nile Delta to learn more about it was formed and the impact it has on the surrounding areas. More so, foreigners visit to enjoy boating and shipping within the river. Delta towns and landscapes also attracted many people and more so migrants.
- Hunting and fishing- In ancient Egyptian epoch, the Nile delta also translated into an invaluable source of hunting and fishing. Hence, the residents had plenty of food for consumption and sale.
The Nile delta has been quite substantial to the many Egyptian on the upper or lower parts of the Nile. Creation of new cities in the delta region led to development of residential areas, industries, learning institutions, health centers and temples. Unfortunately, construction of the Aswan High Dam and human activities has influenced efficiency of the Nile delta.
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Factors Affecting Egg Production
For every country to satisfy the needs of its citizens, food is one of the necessities to easily access in adequacy and the best quality. Farmers have always tried different ways of making income and egg production has been one of the greatest strategies on their agenda. Poultry enterprise has become the in-thing for many farmers out there. However, it varies from basic poultry keep approaches to mechanized and automated production. To excel in this enterprise, there are also factors that affect egg production that every entrepreneur should be well-versed with.
There are different types of poultry enterprises that every farmer or interested business personnel should be familiar with. This includes backyard egg production where birds live free range and hatch their own eggs. Their diet is supplemented with waste or food leftovers. We also have the farm flock production where eggs production involves hatching them at separate places where the hatch and the sexing of birds is controlled. Commercial poultry is where farm egg production involves full-time labor and is directed towards producing on a sufficient amount of eggs and meat for sale.
Another type off egg production is the specialized type where we separate meat and egg production. A specialized farmer will oversee every specific aspect of egg production. Lastly, integrated egg production is a type where most of full mechanization and automation of egg production including battery egg laying, scientific feeding, temperature controls and mechanized egg collection methods take place.
The egg production sector is highly disjointed as most of the production is done by vast number of farmers each with a certain number of flocks. Most of the produce is sold within the markets close to the farms. It is not a challenge to access chicks locally. There are also hatcheries licensed by international hybrid breeding companies that farmers can rely on. Depending on one’s goals, there are different varieties of chickens for egg production to go for. Unfortunately, there are factors affecting egg production that every farmer should be conversant with all the time. They include;
- Breed- The breed of the laying bird that farmers go for influence egg production. However, it is wise to consider the feeding practices and management factors.
- Mortality rat- Deaths of egg laying birds may rise due to disease, high temperatures or action of predators. The mortality rate of a flock ranges from 20 to 25 percent a year.
- Age- Egg chickens start producing eggs in their 20th or 21st week and continue laying for slightly over a year. The more chicken keep on producing eggs their sizes also increase until the end of the egg production phase.
- Feed- Hens will continue to produce more eggs depending on the supplemental food. Fresh and clean water should always be available. Selection of these hens should also be done depending in how resistance they are and best feeding strategy that they go well with.
- Laying house- The laying house should be well-built and according to local climatic conditions and farmer’s capital or finances. A good house will keep thieves away, predation, rain, wind and excessive direct sunlight.
- Climate- The optimal temperature should be between 11° and 26° C while the humidity level should not be above 75% as it will cause a reduction in egg production.
- Management – Effective and efficient management strategies should applied to aid increase egg production and increase income.
- Diseases and control- There are different diseases that affect hens and they can lead to low egg production. This includes Newcastle, fowl plague, coccidiosis and perosis among others.
- Egg collection- Frequent egg collection will make it hard for hens to brood eggs, eat them or damage them with house dirty.
In case of any change in egg production, it is wise to consider the above-mentioned factors. It is also wise to understand chicken nutrition to improve the quality of eggs. In case of any worries or complications in egg production, it is wise to seek help from private or state veterinarian or animal health technician and rest assured of more output and income.
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Factors Affecting Food Production in Africa
Agriculture is the spinal column of economy in Africa. Almost every nation in the second largest continent depends on agriculture for day to day survival. Food production industry is quite complex and holds a deep-rooted history. Advancements in technology have also impacted food production. It is a process that comprises factors such as land use and tenure, crop breeding and selection, crop and soil management, livestock breeding and harvesting and much more. A lot of factors have been cited to make it hard for many farmers to enjoy great outputs from their farmers.
Africa population has been increasing on daily basis and the demand for more food has also been affected in most of the nations in need. Millions of people in Africa fight with hunger every day. Most of those languishing in the menace are the victims of natural calamities, rural people and urban poor. African nations have chances of feeding their suffering people if they embrace better governance, better agricultural policies and rely on better agricultural training and many other effective measures.
Africa holds immeasurable potential for boosting food production in every nation. It can easily increase food crops and other profitable agricultural commodities by following the right ways of farming. According to the United Nations, if there is no progress in food production in the continent, then the estimated population of people suffering from hunger will increase rapidly and millions will relinquish to famine by 2050.
Notably, food production in Africa can easily increase with time if better strategies are embraced. For instance, Africa agriculture experienced a 3.5 percent growth in 2008. However, in the same year when recession hit the globe, food price spiked and this was a warning for better production. At the same time, the prices of staple foods also skyrocketed and this makes it clear that governments should be ready to take hold of factors affecting food production. These factors include;
- Water stress- agriculture amounts for 70% of the world’s consumption of fresh water that is also extracted for human use. The United Nations foresees that by 2025, irrigation demands will raise by 50 % to 100%. For farmers living in areas that receive low water amount will suffer greatly. Many countries in Africa take place in water wars, while a quarter of the population is languishing in water stress.
- Climate change- Agriculture is a great supplier of harmful greenhouse gases. Despite climate change been a
globe issue , it Alsip benefits agriculture by providing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere making it easy for plants to releasing more carbon and lead to global warming leading and this will lead to more industrial-scale farming. Unluckily, global warming will lead to increased localized drought. Climate change will also lead to an increase in pests activities which may mitigate food yields. In a sense, climate change can be good or bad for production, but with good agriculture zones, all can be well.
- Global economic crisis- World economic crisis have great impact on food production in Africa. Declining incomes worldwide and the effects of recession have impacted food production in Africa. Other nations that relied on food imports from africa have reduced their spending making it hard for Africa countries to make revenues in return. This has also led to lower exports and prices for agricultural commodities.
- Governmental and institutional policies or failings- many governments in Africa pay less attention on food production or security. Institutional problems have led to lack of funds and debt capital for farmers to invest on farming greatly. Without government incentives, many farmers have moved into other profit making ways.
- Poor access to the markets- Lack of proper infrastructures in Africa has proved to be a challenge to many farmers. Many farmers suffer losses when they lack quicker and better ways of delivering their produces.
Factors such as diseases like HIV/AIDS, slow progress in regional integration and lack sustainability have also made food production challenging in most of African nations. To meet the high demands for food in the continent, multinational and collaborative efforts that integrate the best research, training and technologies needed to increase food production for many decades.
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Factors Affecting Hatchability of Eggs
The success of the poultry industry depends on how an entrepreneur or famer is determined and focuses on excelling in the field. Moreover, it all depends on a regular supply of day-old chicks a process that is impacted by the fertility and hatchability of the eggs. All is not well in egg production and when it comes to hatchability of eggs. There are both genetic and environmental factors that influence this process. Understanding these factors will make it easy to succeed in all scales of egg production.
Hatching of eggs is the production of baby chicks. Different methods have been embraced on how to hatch eggs. Decades ago, eggs were hatched by placing them under broody hens. About ten to twelve eggs were placed under one hen to hatch. This method of hatching eggs has not been effective for vast baby chick production. Today, for better and increased hatching of eggs, Incubators are the best method to go for.
Incubators are the vital equipment that makes the hatchery process easy and successful. Many types of incubators are available in the market, but you should always go for the best, although the principle of all modern machines for commercial egg hatching is the same. Incubators can occupy a capacity of approximately 14,000 to 100, 000 eggs. Nevertheless, the egg hatching process cannot be successful if a number of factors impacting the hatchability of eggs are not put into consideration. They include;
- Temperature- The hatching eggs must be kept at temperatures of 25 to 30BC before setting. Normal development of the embryo depends on the heat being held within the incubator. A still-air incubator should be operated at a higher heat than the forced-draft incubator. A temperature of 39BC should be considered to produce good hatching results. In essence, high temperatures at any time of incubation period will led to more harm than lower temperatures.
- Humidity- It is the amount of moisture in the incubator at any given temperature. The amount of humidity in the incubator will control the rate of evaporation from the set eggs that depends on air speed, heat, shell thickness and the size of the eggs. Too much moisture loss from the incubated egg will lead to death of the embryo. For correct amount of humidity in the incubator, it is wise to enlarge the air cells or consider the weight loss of the eggs.
- Ventilation- Free movement of air, water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide through the pore of the egg shells is vital for incubation. The developing embryo should be able to breathe well.
- Turning and position of the incubated eggs- In small incubators ,the eggs should be maintained in a horizontal position during the process while in large incubators, eggs should be placed in a vertical position. In addition, in small incubators, eggs are moved when turned while in large incubators, eggs remain in a stationary position and turned via an angle not less than 90 in opposite direction. The positioning and turning process of hatching eggs helps prevent the embryo from sticking to the egg shell membranes while turning makes it easy to complete contact of the embryonic membranes with food material in the egg.
- Hygiene- Hatching eggs should be clean and stored in neat containers in the sanitary room. Contaminated eggs do not hatch and their poor quality is reflected on the chicks if they hatch.
Other factors affecting hatchability of eggs are egg selection and candling, improper fumigation, egg handling and toxicity to name but a few. Hatchability of eggs requires a lot of efforts. The process can be demanding and costly. Thus, it is wise to pay attention and seek help if having any doubts or complications in the egg hatching procedure depending on the method that you go for. Veterinarian assistance will never disappoint and will guarantee better yields and income.
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How to Achieve Food Security
Food security is a responsibility of every country in the world. It is exists when every person in a nation at all times is physically or economically able to access sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet food preferences and needs. Unfortunately, hunger remains a great calamity in the world with one person out of eight dying on daily basis from hunger related complications. Food insecurity has been a challenge for many countries and achieving food availability, adequacy and free use is the agenda of every developing or developed country.
Food security for developing nations calls for a lot of governmental, intergovernmental and inter-agency cooperation. Good governance, leadership coordination mechanisms are necessary to aid poor countries overcome the consequences of food insecurity and the wrath that comes with fewer actions on eradicating this calamity. It is easy to achieve food security if countries affected corporate and seek regional or international aid if stuck. There are many ways on how to achieve food security; however, most of the strategies to go for are interwoven across wide range of complex issues.
Understanding the key causes of food insecurity is the very first step to put into consideration. These causes include war, migration, poor government policies on food production, water stress and food wastage to name but a few. There are four core pillars of food security monitoring systems that aid determining how to achieve food security, this includes agriculture production monitoring, the market information system, social monitoring and food and nutritional surveillance systems. To learn how to achieve food security, here are a few things to look at;
- Nutrition intermediations- Starvation as damaging effects on any population, as it increases mortality, reduces cognitive abilities of children, reduces labor output, morbidity rates are reduced and affects the quality of victims of hunger. To achieve food stability, each nation should invest on or increase investments on long-term interventions like dietary diversification, bio-fortification and food sufficiency.
- Facilitating easy market access- Countries need to get rid of any barriers on global trade. Increased trading in developing countries can easily consolidate their efforts in taking advantage of the market in future and acquire the necessary income and revenue.
- Capacity building – Countries that are ready to achieve food security should also focus on education, research, development of infrastructure and better access to capital. Benefits that come from any of the mention ways of building capacity must be of the highest priority.
- Gender sensitive development- gender is a common thing affecting many nations in many ways. Every individual should have the chance to lead, work and to enjoy life regardless of whether a male or a female. Every person in the society has a role to play in economy development.
- Maintain good governance- Through a corruption free or peaceful environment any strategy can help achieve food stability. When all political interests of nations or organizations are delinked everything can be possible.
Future food security will require utilization of advanced strategies and a new crop of farmers who have a diversity of approaches to aid in food production. Governments and independent organizations should also provide economic, humanitarian and development aid to meet the Millennium Development Goals in every nation. Explicit goals for agriculture sector that include marketing policies and agricultural pricing should be put into consideration worldwide.
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Human Impact on the Nile River
Nile River is the world’s longest river and it stretches at 954, 817 miles from its main source in the mountains of Burundi in Africa. The river flows north via Lake Nasser, the second largest man-made lake in the world and the Aswan dam prior to splitting into two core distributaries north of Cairo, Egypt. In the ancient Egypt, River Nile was worshiped as a God Hapi. Through the history, the river has been used in many ways, but it is human impacts that have increased its popularity worldwide. There is a complex history on River Nile.
Nile River is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa and it is an “international” river as its water is shared by a number of countries. the eleven countries that benefits from river Nile are Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, democratic of Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. River Nile has been the lifeline of civilization in Egypt. Most of the population and cities of Egypt are found along the parts of the Nile valley. Due to climatic changes and many other human impacts, the Nile River has gone through a lot of transformations.
The past ten decades have marked a great time for human developments. Most of these advancements have come with consequences, positive or negative. Nile River is one of the regions that have been impacted greatly by human innovations. Nile is a crucial part of Africa a s it has impacted many nations. It is a substantial resource that has affected the lives of many communities surrounding it. Nile has a deep-rooted history; moreover it has been used by the northeastern people many years. Unfortunately, humans have changed the uses of this river in many incredible ways.
Human presence in this region has shaped the Nile River in many ways. many communities have moved through these region and different cultures have left their mark in this region. Each community that has gone through the river has used it in many ways. For instance, many relied on the river for transportation, fishing from its deepest waters or have harnessed energy or power. In essence, humans have made their core impact on the river and much more is in the waiting and in the coming years.
The fishing industry has harnessed the resources within the river immensely. Its impact has been heavy than any other sector operating within the Nile. Not everything has been positive within the river. In mid-1900s, the introduction of the Nile perch into Nile River and Lake Victoria was a harmful move as the carnivorous fish consumed most of the small fish and many are extinct today. It is the dominant species in the river and the lake.
Another human impact on the Nile River is that of pollution. Sewage has been dumped into the river from local areas as a result of poor sanitation. The food many residents or communities surrounding the area are made of different chemicals which have great impact on the river. Industries do not follow the rules and regulations set on drainage and many untreated waste material are dumped into the river. Use of pesticides and fertilizers in nearby farms also pollutes the river.
All in all, the construction of the Aswan Dam was a great undertaking as it was able to control river Nile from flooding and leave many homeless or destroy crops and lands. There is overwhelming evidence on the impact of human activities on Nile River. Despite the river being affected, humans, animals and plants all depend on the same river for survival. Hence, communities within the region need to take proper actions and make an improvement to fully harness the river. Governments and agencies should offer funds and capital where necessary to make Nile River one of the greatest resources to exist.
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Problems Associated With the Nile River
Most of Egypt is made up of sandy terrain sand, but it remains to be the third-most populated country in Africa. Egypt has stood above other nations in Africa economic wise thank to the longest river in the world; Nile River. Water is essential for human survival. There are many countries that are facing water shortages on early basis. However, for Egypt and surrounding nations, this has been a gift that has been harnessed aptly. Unfortunately, there are a few problems that are associated with Nile River.
Along with direct human impacts, there exist some natural impacts that have altered the Nile River in some way. Scientists have suggested that rising sea levels coupled with more extreme weather events as a result of global warming have the potential to negatively affect the Nile River Delta. From the United Nations Environmental Program shows the impact of both a 0.5 m water rise and a 1.0 m water rise on the Delta. In the future, with the best case scenario, large areas from this area could be underwater. Since the Nile River Delta is one of the most fertile regions in northern Africa, the loss of cropland will be devastating for farmers.
Runoff from the agricultural sector frequently contains pollutants that may have an adverse effect on the river. Pollutants such as salts, nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and pesticide residue can be found in this runoff. Agricultural runoff often is a “non-point” pollutant, in that it can come from anywhere in a region, and not from a specific drain. This can make it difficult to There are also problems associated with agricultural runoff seeping into the groundwater as well.
There has been some success in mitigating the effects of agricultural runoff as a pollutant. This is a result of increased regulation concerning the use of agrochemicals. A decrease in the use of these chemicals has tended to make the wastewater from this sector considerably healthier.
Being a highly urbanized region, the Nile River has its share of industry, and with that industrial pollution. There are about 700 industrial facilities along the river Industrial waste water is often highly toxic, containing heavy metals that can combine with the suspended solids in domestic waste water to form hard to manage sludge. Besides water pollution, industry has been linked to air pollution, and is responsible for much of the smog cloaking major cities such as Cairo and Alexandria.
Though pollution in the Nile River is certainly a large concern, it should be noted that much of the river water is acceptably healthy and free of toxins. It is only in “black zones” near major drains that the water becomes unhealthy. Still, future measures should certainly be sought out to solve this problem before it does develop into a crisis.
The Nile, of course, has long been a source of sustenance, all the way back to ancient Egyptian civilization. Just look again at where Egypt is situated amid lots and lots of sand. Usually, such a location is hardly conducive to a thriving ancient civilization. How could a people, no matter how advanced, grow crops and raise livestock among sand dunes? Nevertheless, ancient Egyptian civilization was able to thrive due to the Nile River. Every year, the water in the Nile rose and filled carefully engineered canal.
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Challenges Facing Enterprise Applications
While enterprise applications are great assets for businesses, they face numerous challenges. Some of the most common challenges can be easily highlighted as below:
- Difficulty getting cloud apps-Though infrastructure abstraction has assisted in application management and agility, it does not make things easier for the writing of sophisticated applications. As a matter of fact, developers of enterprise applications lose infrastructure visibility and services like elasticity, multi-tenancy and high availability of application responsibility.
- Technology bleed through-There are in-house development applications that have to be coerced so they can fit limitations and capabilities of development tools rather than meeting users needs within organizations.
- Bureaucracy-Changing technology is far easier than changing culture and developers of enterprise applications feel as if they code with one hand while the other is tied because they don’t have any ultra-conservative and burdensome operational models. However, they are pessimistic about adoption of new technology and tools because they are afraid they will get watered down and this could eliminate the possibility of application successes.
- Difficulty making a choice-With a myriad of choices to pick from when buying application components and services, it has become increasingly difficult for developers to choose the most suitable enterprise applications. Unlike in the past, they are no longer faced with the no option of using the default enterprise standard web server, database and app server. While this is a good thing (options to choose from) it is also quite a challenge as there is a need to map technical options and find appropriate training. These options have however increased the level of flexibility as well as opened a door to unlocking business value that previously was too complicated and costly.
- Mastery of technologies-Developers of enterprise applications are supposed to master different types of technologies and this can also prove to be a major challenge. Developers of these applications lack the mastery and skills needed to carry out a successful business domain.
- Inconsistent and conflicting data maintenance, presentation interfaces and capture are also some of the challenges that enterprise applications face.
These are major challenges and while most of them are not new, they are yet to be addressed. Users expect to get into a marketer that is ‘consumer style’ oriented and yet, the rapid integration and access makes it impossible to come up with practical and innovative solutions. Most of these challenges also have some inverse problems which should be addressed in order to ensure that they are effectively addressed.
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Challenges Posed by Al Qaeda
For the longest time, the Al-Qaeda was practically unnoticed in the United States and it was not seen as a major threat in the country. It was not until after the 2001, September 11 attacks that Americans became fully aware of the threat the group posed.
Known as one of the most dangerous terror group in the world, it posses unique challenges because of its versatility and strength. It is precisely for this reason that it is difficult to combat the group.
Though the Muslim world is largely torn by war between varying sects, they share the same ideologies that unite them in a miraculous manner because they have the same righteous cause. The ideology attracts Muslims from different ethnicities and backgrounds to produce a supply of supporters and recruits.
The organizational structure of the Al-Qaeda also makes it difficult to combat the terror group. Just like any other traditional terror organization, it is directed by leaders who are divided into 6 committees and a council. Another aspect that makes Al-Qaeda indestructible is the fact that it has a side structure. Rather than having one single structure under its leadership, it is actually made up of different cells that are found in every country across the globe.
While these cells maintain communication with leadership structure and cells that are close, most of them are designed to operate independent of the Al-Qaeda leadership. The most startling fact though is that there is no single face that can be linked to the terror group.
The terrorists come from different ethnic groups, backgrounds and nations. Some of the cells actually have individuals who are not even members of the terror group. They are devoted supporters, close allies and at times, members of other terror groups. Consequently, this means the individuals have the capability to blend easily and become part of a network that is far stronger.
The al Qaeda terror cells also have varying objectives for instance one cell might have the mandate of raising support within a specific area while another is supposed to collect intelligence. What is more, these cells can either be or not be in a given area for long before the attack.
There are cells which are established in a region for long periods of time so they can carefully make observations and prepare for an attack. Often, such cells are known as sleeper cells. The insurgencies of the terror group are focused around Gulf of Aden and most of the top commanders have either been killed or imprisoned as such, it no longer has the ability to replicate the threat and terror it once posed.
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Challenges Posed by Al Shabaab
Since Somalia emerged from colonialism era under Britain and Italy, the country has gone through civil war, famine and military dictatorship to regional fragmentation. Recently, pirates operate from the coast of Somalia coast hijacked ships attracting global attention.
The biggest threat in the country though is as a result of lack of internal order which has exposed the country to rise of Islamist groups that use hard stances. The greatest threat is that posed by Al-Shabaab which has risen from obscurity to become the most prominent international threat.
The ideological commitment the Al-Shabaab has to global jihadism, military capabilities, Al-Qaeda connections and ability to control and capture territories clearly suggests it will continue posing strategic challenge to Somalia neighbors and the United States.
Since the emergence of the group:
- It has played a significant role in insurgency that helped drive Ethiopian forces out of the country
- It received endorsement from Osama bin Laden
- A large number of Somalis from the West have been flocking its camps
Al-Shabaab is committed towards implementing a strict Shari’a version into key regions of Somalia. It has spread throughout the country with camps from which western Muslims graduate. It is because of this reason that the Al-Shabaab has become a major security threat to several countries and that includes the US.
Terrorist training is one of the major challenges posed by the group as it includes interlocking leadership and affinity in its training. There are also worries about the connections Al-Shabaab have to transnational terrorism. The concerns of terrorism are further bolstered by the operation of training camps for terrorists and ICU successor camps.
Most of the terrorist training camps in the country have been reopened and there are reports of young men from different regions such as Minneapolis-St. Paul and other regions of the US joining the training. Additionally, young Somali men go missing from Saudi Arabia, Canada, Australia and Europe which only proves that training has commenced.
The major isn’t what the individuals do in Somalia but rather, what follows once they get back to their countries of origin. This is a major concern for Britain and the US as well. While it is not easy to determine the total number of militia men that make up the Al-Shabaab, it is estimated they are somewhere between six thousand and seven thousand. Overall, the group will continue been a major threat and challenge to the rest of the world.
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Challenges Posed by Boko Haram in Nigeria
Boko Haram which operates in Nigeria has been performing terror acts since 2009 to create palpable fear not only in country but beyond. Boko Haram is a domestic terror organization that poses a major threat to the property of the Nigerian people as well as their lives.
It participates in nefarious activities and has attracted the attention of the international community following the 2009 July attacks in Nigeria and specifically the attack of the UN at Abuja in 2011.
The sect does not have any clear or known structure of command and is so far responsible for more than 1200 deaths. Boko Haram poses serious challenges key among them capitalizing on religious frustrations, social difficulties, economic difficulties and religious differences in order to undermine the Nigerian government and exploit religious differences for purposes of creating chaos making it ungovernable.
The group does not have any respect for human life and instead, it kills civilians in an indiscriminate manner. In addition to this, there is also an insurgency in the northeast part of the country that has created insecurity throughout northern Nigeria. The group has also created increased tension between different ethnic communities and also interrupted development of activities generated concerns and interrupted development activities.
Nigeria does not have the ability to become a stable leader unless it overcomes the challenges posed by the group successfully. While it is not an easy task, using a comprehensive approach is important in order to articulate engagement rules, socio-economic problems and accountability in order to ensure the future of Nigerians is brightened.
The insurgence also has a great effect on Nigeria’s corporate image within other committee nations. The image of the country is also dented as a result of drug trafficking, crime, high corruption level, fraud and prostitution that has affected the reputation of the Nigerians and Nigeria throughout the globe.
For close to a decade, efforts have been made without any success in order to rebrand Nigeria’s image. There is no image laundering level that will influence the international community to change the negative image they have about the country.
While it will not be easy to get rid of Boko Haram, the diverse people of Nigeria, their spirit and land will make it easy for the regional and national stability to be reestablished. The commitment to human dignity and life should be restored in order to prevent atrocities in the future and build peace.
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