Essay 8: American Concert Music to 1945 Quiz
Essay 8: American Concert Music to 1945 Quiz
- St. Cecilia Society’s purpose was to enhance organization of concerts
- Its location was Charleston, North America
- It was established in 1762
- Dilettante refers to an individual who involves himself or herself in a certain area that interests him/her such as arts without real commitment or knowledge of that area.
- A dilettante and a “Gentleman Amateur” are the same
- Thomas Jefferson and Francis Hopkinson are two dilettantes of the early colonial times
- People know Francis Hopkinson for composing an ancient song in art, My Days Have Been so Wondrous Free, Thomas Jefferson on the other had is popularly known as a violin player as well as a writer of important essays regarding the African slaves’ music.
- William Billings became a famous person after composing the fuguing tunes
- A fuguing tune refers to a hymn that was particularly sacred and deployed by ancient American composers during the American Revolution. The tunes are composed for a cappella with a four-part chorus and placed in the tenor voice. The tune is later harmonized to rhyme with the block chords. Once a fuguing section has been included, every voice must enter at a time while singing an original tune although there may be a slight version with the last phrase being chordal.
- Anthony Philip Heinrich refers to an immigrant from Bohemian who visited America in 1805 after which he immigrated into America in 1910 with the intention of becoming a businessman. Later, he reversed the initial intention and became a composer, a musician and eventually a conductor.
- While in Europe and America, he was known by the nickname “America’s Beethoven”.
- He passed away in 1861.
- Louis Moreau Gottschalk wrote The Last Hope and The Banjo
- The sound difference between the Union and The Last Hope as well as The Banjo is that the union includes patriotic airs and rolling drums. It is also written in a virtuosic manner which is different from The Last Hope and The Banjo. The rhythm of The Banjo is syncopated which is a characteristic of the music of the African slaves. The Last Hope is a flowery saccharine piece with a European style.
- The birth land of Gottschalk was Creole South, New Orleans
- Gottschalk passed away in Brazil
- Initially, he was buried in a cemetery in Rio de Janeiro. However, he was reburied in the Brooklyn Cemetery that is located in New York.
- John Knowles Paine was the academic composer’s prototype
- He pursued advanced training in music in Germany
- He taught music that was German-oriented at Harvard in the US
- He had an association with a composers’ group called The Second New England School
- The work of the Americans, George Whitefield Chadwick and Charles Martin Loeffler indicates a shift in preference of the American composers from France in terms of music.
- Loeffler had a colleague student, a Frenchman Claude Debussy during his childhood years.
- Programmatic music refers to a special music style that uses a kind of additional non-musical effects and material that give the audience information which enhances listening experience. The additional material can be a type of events, pictures, poems, painting, texts or dancing. Instrumental music that does not include a text or a vocalist is also called program music.
- “To a Wild Rose” is an example of programmatic music by MacDowell.
- “First Piano Concerto” is an example of abstract music by MacDowell.
- MacDowell embraced abstract music writing style in Europe. This music style is about tones only without any attachment to a visual scene or story.
- The father of Charles Ives used to conduct sessions of ear training at the table where the family used to have dinner. Some family members would sing the accompaniment as one key and the others would sing the melody as the other key.
- The fragments of the song by Stephen Foster that are heard in the Black March by Ives come from the Old Black Joe
- The work of Ives, The Housatonic at Stockbridge may be seen as his transcendental experience since it paints his tone’s picture and that of his wife as they walk along River Housatonic which has a mist of the church choir’s sound that come from the bank on the opposite side. This feeling causes an extraordinary sensation of divinity.
- No, my view is that Ives would not call me “sissy ears”
- This is because of the truth that I like creative music as well as cases where musicians go beyond their method of mixing different classes and genres of music in order to come up with an extra ordinary and creative piece.
- Yes, I have enjoyed a transcendental experience in the past
- I had this experience while viewing the Giatto’s “Mother and Child Enthroned”. This was a divine experience where I felt The Virgin Mary’s and Jesus Christ’s presence inside the room. I could feel God’s presence though invisible. I could sense God guiding me. He was telling me that if I believed in Jesus, my life would be improved.
- The decision of Ives was to write while on holidays and weekends only since he was not willing to abandon the music direction that he had chosen. He started living a dual life of a composer and a businessman on graduating from the Yale University in 1898. He compromised an insurance executive’s job by opting to compose his music during the holidays and weekends.
- The peak composing period of Ives was between 1890s and 1919.
- His composition was highly affected by the heart attack that he suffered in 1918.
- To me, Schelomo has a Jewish sound
- The song uses musical instruments in a conservative manner which gives it a Jewish sound
- Ernest Block composed Schelomo.
- La Creation du Monde by Milhaud and Rhapsody in Blue by Gershwin differ in that, the piece by Milhaud presents a two-part composition that has a slower Prelude that has a beginning section with a contrapuntal section that follows it like the Bach Chorale Prelude. The end points or cadences have notable jazz elements. These used obvious clichés of jazz. Rhapsody in Blues (1924) by Gershwin on the other had is a true synthesis between jazz and classical music.
- Gershwin blended the European jazz. However, the classical music gave it a more American sound.
- “Rhapsody in Blue” depicts a nature that is more of American that European
- This is due to the fact that this piece was composed with the thought of a European format while Gershwin work was composed without a hint of the European format.
- The term postmodern is used in reference to the past three decades’ music done in the 20th
- To fully comprehend the word postmodern, the word modern should be interpreted to mean anything innovative and new in music. It can also be used as a means of identifying new or latest things.
- Here are the meanings of modern:
- Something innovative and new in music. A means of identifying new or latest things
- Experimental or radical music body that was composed between 1920 and 1970 which separates it from the styles of the other periods.
- Five popular modernist composers before 1945:
- Edgard Varse (from 1883 to 1965)
- Henry Cowell (from 1897 to 1965)
- Harry Partch (from 1901 to 1974)
- Lou Harrison (from 1917 to 2003)
- John Cage (from 1912 to 1992)
- The first composer that was associated with the modern music via the publication of the book, New Musical Resources was Henry Cowell.
- The microtonal 43-tones to octave techniques were associated with Harry Partch.
- Music for Prepared Piano was written by John Cage.
- The Roll One sound clip produces the sounds of a piano, drums, xylophones, and propellers of a steel airplane, sirens and electric bells.
- Yes, my view is that the composer ought to be compared to Italian futurists.
- This is due to the fact that his music has tiny motives with accents that keep changing, endless repetition and superimposition which creates a music fabric with a Russian master’s resemblance which could be compared to the Italian futurists’ music. The futurists also used noise in creating their music.
- Aaron Copland could identify with the common man’s plight and he had leftist political ideas and beliefs that prompted him to compose audience-friendly music that the masses could access during the period of Depression.
- Four popular compositions that he came up with from 1936 to 1944 are:
- The Common Man Fanfare (1942)
- Rodeo (1942)
- The orchestra’s El Salon Mexico (1936)
- Billy the Kid (1938)
- Aaron Copland, in conjunction with Verese and Cowell was composing the modern music sounds in the 1920s.
- Adagio for strings is a composition by Samuel Barber that is used in the USA during crisis since the time when the death of President Roosevelt was announced officially in 1945 (through the radio) as well as the death of President Kennedy’s announcement (on the television).
- The dominant instrument in the sound clip is the violin. This includes viola, bass, cello and violin.
I was caught by surprise in terms of the American Classical music concert by the fact that America took a long time before having their original music. This is due to the fact that my thought was that America was the earliest society to compose music without foreign influences.
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The Samnite Wars refer to the three major armed conflicts between the Samnites or the Samnium tribes and the Romans. These wars were fought from 343 to 290 BC. The Roman Republic was fighting to take Italy’s control. These wars involved almost all Italy states and in the end, the Roman Republic dominated over the Samnites. Samnites controlled the Apennines towards the Latium’s southeast and they were among the earliest formidable rivals of Rome. Regardless of the many setbacks encountered, each of these wars ended in terms that increased the power of Rome and Rome took control of the entire central Italy by the time the third Samnite War ended.
Cause of the Samnite Wars
Rome survived Celtic Gauls’ invasion at the beginning of the 4th century BC. Therefore, it aimed at expanding its middle party further this century. Rome re-conquered Etruscan and Latin towns that were left during the occupation of Gallic and while absorbing others, its position was reconsolidated as a dominant force in Central Italy and Latium. Having a secured home turf, the Romans ventured southwards to Campania.
By this time, Samnites had already moved to Campania where there were fertile lands from their initial place in south central Apennines. Samnites were controlling Cumae and Capua towns in Southern Rome. They were also swaying to the east. In order to protect the flanks and still retake Etruria and Latium, Rome entered a joint alliance with Samnites in a wise move in 354 BC. This led to an inevitable conflict with the Samnium over the dominance of Campania. Eventually, this turned into several wars that lasted from 343 to 290 BC.
Events of the wars and how they were ended
- First Samnite war
The first Samnite war was fought between 343 and 338 B.C and it entailed a brief conflict after the Campania plain dwellers requested assistance of the Rome in fending off attacks by highland neighbors. This war ended with a revolt of the Latin allies of Rome and it was resolved with a Battle of Vesuvis. Campania and the Capua chief city became a protectorate of the Roman republic.
- Second Samnite War
This was the longest of the three wars and it was fiercely fought between 326 and 304 B.C. It lasted for more than 20 years during which the Roman army was captured by the Samnites for some years in what was called the Caudine Forks defile. Rather than killing the army, the Samnits released them so that Rome could give them favorable terms. The Romans were infuriated and humiliated and they resorted to hostilities that lasted for 5 years. The war continued, alternating between the samnite victories like the Lautulae victory and the Roman victories like the Ciuna victory. This was an attrition war though most suffering was felt by the Samnites. On failing to relieve the Bovianum siege, they sought peace.
- Third Samnite war
The peace that ended the second samnite war lasted for a few years. As of 298, the Samnite had formed an alliance with the Gauls and Etruscans in the Northern Italy in order to defeat the Romans. The fighting started disastrously because the Roman army routed at the Camerinum battle. Shortly, Rome established four legions in order to meet Samnites and their allies, the Gallic, in the colossal Sentinum battle. This ended in a decisive Roman victory with the Samnite side suffering heavy losses. Although this time the Samnite did not seek peace, they could make a feeble resistance. During the last battle of Apalonia, the camp of the Samnite was looted, their warriors killed and city taken. Finally, the persistent foes of Rome accepted peace when it was offered to them bringing the wars to an end. The third war was fought between 298 and 290 B.C.
Effects of the Samnite wars
Although the actual number of the casualties of these wars is not known, the wars were significant because they helped in the establishment of Rome as the Italy’s supreme power.
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SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc.
SWOT analysis of GAP is an effective method that the company applies in determining its ability to survive in the market, while also growing revenue base. GAP Inc. is a leading world-wide retailer that deals in clothing, accessories and personal care products for the whole family. It operates six globally recognized brands including, Old Navy, Banana Republic, Gap, Intermix, Athleta and Piperlime. GAP has several more than 3,200 stores across the world and also operates an e-commerce website from where customers can get products information and do their shopping.
What is SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc?
A SWOT analysis of GAP Inc. basically explores the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the clothing giant, with regards to the global market which targets. By determining the company’s strengths and opportunities, the management will be able to come up with measures on where emphasis is required for continued success.
The weaknesses and threats of a business are indicators of failure and by knowing them, the company can easily make decisions and plans for eliminating mistakes and avoiding losses in the future. The following is a comprehensive SWOT analysis of GAP Inc.
With the six brands that it operates globally, GAP has been able to attain a strong product portfolio and brand recognition. Coupled with its wide range of products that target the whole family, GAP Inc. enjoys global customer recognition and loyalty.
Its’ presence over a wider geographical area is also another strength that has made several people across the globe to identify with the company’s products.
Because of the global reach of GAP Inc. the business is able to record a high inventory turnover ratio. In fact, this is one of the main reasons the company commands a strong financial position in the market.
GAP Inc’s dedicated section for baby products is also another feature that has kept the business afloat since such products are always in demand even when the market is not doing well.
Despite the global customer base that GAP Inc. has, the company heavily relies on vendors from outside to sell its products. This is an area of weakness since such vendors are susceptible to various kinds of mistakes that may hinder the successful operations of the company.
The high competition in the apparel and accessories industry is also another point of weakness since it implies many customers are learning of new brands that could shift their buying trends. Besides, it also limits the market share of the company.
GAP has not fully focused onto penetrating the emerging economy markets and this has limited its ability for expansion and revenue growth.
One of the opportunities that GAP Inc. can exploit is the emerging markets in Asia and Europe. These markets present an ideal platform for expansion and profitability.
The growing use of technology in business is also another opportunity. Through effective online campaigns and shopping, the company can easily attract new customers for its products and brands across the globe.
Considering the good performance of GAP Inc. in operating six major brands is proof that it can still form franchise units and joint ventures with other companies in the industry for greater development.
The readily available market for kids’ apparel and products is also another opportunity that the company can fully explore for maximum profits.
The clothing and accessories market is experiencing a very stiff completion between various brands, offering more fashionable products at better prices than GAP Inc.
The rapid change in fashion trends is also another threat that the company has to plan on how to handle.
Counterfeits is yet another issue that is threatening the existence and success of businesses today.
Another threat is the increased production and operational costs, which could water down profits.
Conclusion on SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc.
According to this SWOT analysis of GAP Inc., the company is strong enough to withstand market forces considering its wide selection of products and brand portfolio, which have ensured global recognition, loyalty and financial power. However, it still needs to focus on international expansion into the emerging economies and intensifying its online presence. Besides, GAP Inc. also needs to consider the shifting fashion trends in order to meet customer needs.
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SWOT Analysis of Costco
SWOT analysis of Costco is among the best methods used by the company in evaluating itself and making decisions for sustainability in the market. Costco Wholesale is considered one of the largest retailers in the world today. Based in Seattle, Washington, Costco operates membership warehouses in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, Spain and Australia. Besides, it also has several subsidiaries in Korea and Taiwan.
What is SWOT Analysis of Costco?
SWOT analysis of Costco refers to the evaluation of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the company. Considering the majority of players and shifting trends in the retail warehousing industry, it is always advisable that a company conducts a SWOT analysis in order to determine areas of weakness that require fixing and potentialities that should be fully exploited.
By conducting a SWOT analysis, Costco Wholesale will be able to know how to package itself for continuous growth and development in the market. Below is a comprehensive SWOT analysis of Costco.
These are the outstanding features of Costco that makes it unique and different from other retailers in the sector. One of the strengths of Costco is its pricing authority. The company mainly focusses on offering its customers quality products at the most competitive prices. The fact that it does not emphasize on maximizing profits in the short term gives many customers the confidence of always obtaining high quality products.
Brand loyalty is another strength of the company, which it has been able to attain through its constant pursuit of high quality and great value. This has enabled it to attract customer loyalty too.
Costco often records high sales volumes, which contributes to increased revenues. As a result of this, the company is able to make high revenues even if its prices are than other retailers.
Although Costco is a renowned profitable retailer, it still suffers certain defects that if not solved on time, might negatively impact operations. One of them is the company’s business model which allows only the members of the club to use the warehouses. As much as this may encourage customers to buy at the company’s stores, it also limits the number since non-club members might not feel welcome.
Another weakness of Costco is that the stores do not offer a wide variety of goods and services like other retailers. This tends to send away many customers who will opt to shop from stores where they can easily find all the products they need at once.
One of the opportunities that Costco can exploit is the increasing number of younger customers. The recent months have seen the company’s management take measures aimed at attracting young customers, a move that can significantly help in driving long-term sales to the company.
The going numbers of people using e-commerce is yet another opportunity that Costco should look into tapping. Intensive online marketing could also be a great way of venturing into new markets and attracting more customers.
Costco has plans to continue growing its reach on the international map. There several foreign markets with better prospects like China, France among others.
The warehouse services industry is one which is quite competitive, considering the high number of players involved offering similar process, quality and selection. In the domestic market, Costco is facing stiff competition from companies like BJ’s Wholesale Club, Sam’s Club among others. Internationally, there are several other competitors like internet retailers and even others that do not require membership.
The intensive marketing by other retailers dealing in similar products as Costco is yet another threat that the company needs to challenge in order to avoid being edged out.
Conclusion on SWOT Analysis of Costco
Costco Wholesale is a business with high viability, the reason it has continued to expand even poor economic times. Its competitive prices is a key strength that has kept the business afloat for long. The above SWOT analysis of Costco also reveals that the company has several opportunities it can exploit in order to tame the threats in the market. Through the firm’s website, intensive internet marketing and network of suppliers, it can effectively reach out to a wider customer base and scare away competitors.
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When, How and Where to Find a Sample of a Good Critique
Critique writing can sometimes be demanding and tedious. Unlike other general academic essays, your critique should be a detailed analysis of an author’s work, explaining why and how you reached a particular conclusion. To achieve this, you must convince your audience that you did your assignment and understand the text in all aspects. This task therefore poses a challenge to many students, who do not understand the basics of writing a standard critique. How do you overcome this? You must have in mind a place where to find a sample of a good critique whenever need arises. Today, the turning to the web is always the first thing to click whenever an assignment comes knocking.
While the internet offers a wide range of homework solutions, it also has far-reaching challenges. This manual covers the following areas:
- Finding a good critique
- Sources of good critiques
- Recommended critiques for you
Read on and discover new ways of finding quality sample papers to enhance your writing and boost your grades.
Things to remember when looking for where to find a sample of a good critique
As the world enjoys the fruits of the information age, students are not left behind in appreciating how the internet has transformed their academic life. Today, it is possible to order for a readymade essay and get professional services in less than 24 hours, courtesy of the internet.
With the internet, no assignment is too hard, because besides offering research services, the web allows you to link with writing specialists worldwide within a click of the mouse. This is the beauty of being in college in the 21st century. You do not have to miss your holiday or because of a research paper.
However, to get the best from the internet and score high in your exams without any hustle, here are general instructions that will help you discover where to find a sample of a good critique. Enjoy reading…
Finding a good sample Critique for your assignment
Know what you want – The best way of engaging the web is to be sure with what you are looking for. First, read and reread your assignment instructions to ensure that you understand what your professor wants from you.
Go for genuine writers – Since the internet is flooded with essay writers, it is important to find a formula of telling reliable from con service providers. Try these approaches when vetting online essay writers:
- Choose writers with good history and reputation by looking at their reviews.
- Choose writers with experience and high academic qualifications.
- Choose writers who allow you to track the progress of your paper to the end.
- Choose writers who do not exploit. However, cheap writers do not always offer the best.
- Choose writers who guarantee you free plagiarism essays.
- Choose writers with a good revision policy.
Have enough time – The best way of finding a good critique online is to avoid rushing. Always place your order when you have enough time to allow writers do through work. In addition, most writers will charge you high rates when your order is urgent.
Give clear instructions to the writer – As you think of where to find a sample of a good critique, remember that what you get depends on the instructions you give to the writer. Always specify the following:
- The deadline of your paper
- The size of your paper, including page numbers and word count
- The number of references
- Referencing style
- The title of your paper, course and year of study
- Mode of payment
By giving these details, the writer will be sure of what you want and deliver a befitting paper. Never assume anything. Below are recommended online essay providers with excellent sample critiques that can be of good help. Check them out and see what you have been missing.
Example #1: Websites with Good Critiques
Ideas to help you choose where to find a sample of a good critique
If you are working on your critique assignment, then you need a reliable writing partner to help you develop a goo paper that will appease your professor and guarantee you a good grade. However, here are the challenges you are likely to face as you look for a good sample essay from the web. These bottlenecks should give you more wisdom to help you choose where to find a sample of a good critique.
Disadvantages of finding sample critiques online
The risk of plagiarism – In case you are sourcing your critique online, beware of writers who deliver plagiarized papers to students. DO not submit such papers to your tutor for grading because you will score very low grades and face disciplinary action.
To avoid getting plagiarized papers, use anti-plagiarism scanners to detect any traces before accepting online essays and before handing your completed papers to the lecturer.
Online essays are expensive – If you are looking for good essays online, you must be ready to part with good cash. However, some service providers take advantage of the desperate situation of students to exploit them.
Be wary of scammers – Not all online essay writers. Some are out to con unsuspecting students and ruin their academic dreams. Do not fall a victim to scammers. Do background check to ensure that you are dealing with genuine companies with the needs of students at heart.
Unqualified writers – While a few online essay providers like Essay Experts invest in qualified and highly skilled professionals with Masters and PhD, most companies do not care about having experienced writers. You do not want an amateur to handle your paper, which could determine your future.
Do you want to look at some of sample critiques? The following examples will help you make up your mind on where to find a sample of a good critique. Here we go…
Example #2: Good Sample Critiques
Tips on where to find a sample of a good critique
One reason why you will not like writing critiques is that they are demanding. To come up with a convincing critique, it takes time, research, commitment and hard work. For this reason, you must find a source of encouragement to help you complete your assignment without sleepless nights. Who then can help you complete your critique?
In this section, you will discover ways of completing your assignments by making use of the people around you.
Who can help you get a good critique sample?
Your professor – Your lecturer understands the assignment at hand. Do not be afraid to approach him or her and ask for further direction on the task. Go ahead and ask if there are archival, sample critiques to assist you develop an excellent paper.
Your classmates – Do no ignore your classmates and friends when handling written assignments. Engage in group discussions to understand the title better. Such discussions are important during brainstorming, as you will more insights and angles on the subject matter. Remember that a friend could be having a better understanding of the assignment.
Visit the library – Probably as your figure out where to find a sample of a good critique, the library should come first in your mind. Visit your college library and ask the librarian to help you locate some of the critiques available. This can be a good starting point that will cost you nothing.
Go to the net – Make a date with Google and search for sample critiques. The internet will give you numerous options. However, as you make use of the internet, remember the risks we discussed in the above section. Surf the net to gain general knowledge on the topic.
Online tricks that work:
- Avoid Wikipedia – Do not cite Wikipedia as an online source. This open source is unreliable since anyone can publish information on the site.
- Avoid dotcom domain – Websites with .com domain are highly commercial and less authentic.
- Consider .net and .org websites – These are mainly non-profit making organizations with reliable research information.
- Choose government and university sites – Government sites like .gov are more reliable. Top universities also have effective and trusted websites to help students complete their academic assignments.
Here are some top libraries to consider as you look for where to find a sample of a good critique.
Example #3: Top Libraries
- Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Canada
- New York Public Library, New York
- Seattle Central Library, Seattle, WA
- The Morgan Library & Museum, NY, USA
With this guide, you can now maneuver and find excellent critiques and other academic papers for your written assignments. Let us know how it goes. Good luck.
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How to Write an Expository Essay
As a student, you should know how to write an expository essay because teachers and professors ask students to write expository essays for different courses in college. Among the courses that involve expository essay writing include English, social sciences and history. An expository essay is an essay that explains a given concept, investigates a specific idea or presents evidence for a specific opinion.
Most exams and in-class assignments entail the use of the format of expository essays. This is because this essay uses a style that does not entail deep research. While developing an expository essay, you can use different patterns to organize it depending on the writing prompt, topic or assignment. Example of an expository essay is an essay in which the prompt requires the student to study and analyze a given work, expose or explain a topic or describe a given process.
What you should know even before knowing how to write an expository essay
An expository essay has certain characteristics that distinguish it from other essays.
- An expository essay is written to describe, inform or explain
- The writer of an expository essay acts like a teacher
- This essay presents information on the chosen topic exhaustively
- It is written in third person
A guide on how to write an expository essay in six steps
Step One: Organize your thoughts
Once the instructor, teacher or professor has given you the expository essay writing prompt or assignment, the first thing that you should do is to read it carefully and organize your thoughts. You will most probably have something to say about any topic that the instructor assigns you. Even if you do not know much about the assigned subject matter, you will realize that there is something you have read, heard or experienced about it. It is important that you brainstorm or consider what you already know about the topic. This will enable you to sort out your mind before you start writing.
To organize your thoughts, you can do one of the following:
- Free write: This entails writing what comes from your mind quickly without editing, stopping or self-correcting.
- List clustering: This entails allowing ideas to flow freely on the topic. The main topic is at the center of a circle with its associations linked to it.
- Subject tree: This involves a tree form in which the related ideas are connected to the main topic.
- Outlining: This entails the use of an essay framework in which the main points are included and sub-points’ breakdown.
While organizing thoughts, do not evaluate your ideas but outpour ideas on what you already know about the topic. With ideas on a paper, organize them into groups of ideas then identify the most important areas.
Step Two: Research the topic
At this step, you can conduct online research or visit a library. Conduct a research of current events but be careful to adhere to the time frames set by your instructor. Use acceptable sources such as books, scholarly articles and reference works. If you use a web site as a source, evaluate it first for reputability and timeliness. It is also important that you consider the purpose of a website, reliability of the sponsors and author’s credibility.
Step Three: Develop a thesis statement
To be effective, your thesis statement should express the major focus of your expository essay while stating an arguable claim. A thesis statement acts like a bridge of your essay. This is because it has a claim and its supporting details. Being able to develop a tentative thesis is an important step of a guide on how to write an expository essay. Therefore, come up with a claim or sentence that takes a stance on the given topic, debatable, and based on generalization. Ensure that your thesis statement tells readers the point that you will be making in the essay. Also include supporting details to reinforce your claim.
Claim: Depression as a condition is complex.
Supporting details: It can be caused by different factors including environmental, genetic and biological factors.
Thesis statement: Depression as a condition is complex because it can be caused by environmental, genetic and biological factors combined.
Step Four: Write the introduction
The introduction of your expository essay should reveal or introduce your topic while establishing a context for your essay to the readers. It is important that you consider your audience while writing the introduction. Make them excited or curious to read your essay. Give readers background information about your topic to enable them to understand the key point in your essay. Use the introduction to establish a roadmap for the analysis or discussion of the essay.
Step Five: Write the body
The body of an expository essay is a detailed part in which you present or address your supporting details in fully-developed, separate paragraphs. It is important that you include relevant information or evidence as gathered from research. Introduce the supporting details of your essay using a topic sentence to open each paragraph.
Generally, the body of an expository essay should have the following:
- A topic sentence
- Specific details and their explanation
- An example such as a quotation
- A transition paragraph that links one paragraph to the next
A good expository essay should have at least two body paragraphs with each having a minimum of 100 words.
Example of a topic sentence:
There are several factors which cause depression.
Step Six: Write the conclusion
The conclusion should bring your expository essay to a close. Though a conclusion ought to be like an introduction, it should be worded differently. Using the conclusion, you should summarize and reiterate your main points.
A good conclusion should have the following:
- Relevance: It should repeat the topic’s importance.
- Review: It should reiterate the main points of the essay.
- Summary: It should summarize the conclusions made in the essay.
Relevance: Thousands of women, children and men are affected by depression each year and majority of them do not get help.
Review: The focus of this essay was on causes, symptoms and the available depression treatments.
Summary: There are many devastating consequences of depression apart from its effects on the sufferers and those living with them. Through education however, people affected by this painful condition can be reached.
The conclusion should be like an introduction but it should restate the stated thesis statement using different words. Note that no new information should be included in the conclusion. Leave readers with a feeling that your expository essay has come to an end logically by wrapping up the main thoughts while reviewing the main points.
Five bonus tips on how to write an expository essay
- Structure your expository essay properly
Regardless of the pattern that you choose for organizing your expository essay, include an introduction that has a defined, clear thesis statement at the end. Have body paragraphs that cover your main points. Have a clear topic sentence for each body paragraph. Additionally, make sure that the information that you include in the body paragraphs is factual, statistical, anecdotal or logical. Finally, end your expository essay with a conclusion that reflects your thesis statement and main points of your body paragraphs. To know how to structure an expository essay, use an expository essay sample. Click here for an example of an expository essay.
- Write about something good
When allowed the freedom to choose the topic of your expository essay, choose something good. For instance, if you are required to write about a short story, read and understand before you start writing your expository essay. While reading, ask yourself questions that will enable you to understand the story better. For instance, what you would do if you were a character in the story? Do you like or hate the characters and why? Such questions will enable you to synthesize the story before you start writing.
- Make your essay informative
Remember that expository is the same as informative. Therefore, an important tip on how to write an expository essay is to flood readers with ideas or knowledge. However, make sure that they are relevant. Visit the library, read magazine and conduct online research to get detailed information. Be prudent and sensible while conducting research and reference your sources accordingly.
- Ensure that your brain is a roaring and seething idea-generator
Combine different techniques to generate ideas for your expository essay. Use graphical presentation and clustering to generate ideas. Ask meticulous questions and be self-inquisitive throughout the process of writing an essay.
- Revise your essay
Once you have written your essay, revise it and rewrite where necessary to ensure coherent flow of ideas and paragraphs. Make sure that each paragraph is developed properly with ideas flowing logically. Make sure that the main thesis statement is supported by the paragraphs of the body directly. The conclusion should match the essay.
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Writing an Argumentative Essay
An argumentative essay is an essay that requires you as a writer to defend a position on the subject or topic matter based on personal experience, historical or literature examples as well as research to support your point of view. When writing an argumentative essay, you can use different arguments to prove your point.
However, good argumentative essay writing should be based on three qualities including
- Being precise in the argument and in use of terms
- Grounding in evidence you provide
- Being clear and concise in prose
Therefore, it is imperative to follow a clear outline for writing the essay and follow a step by step process to help you write a successful essay
Writing an argumentative essay outline
An argumentative essay should have a
- Body paragraphs including paragraph 1 (topic sentence, main argument of the paragraph and specific examples supporting the main or topic sentence) and paragraph two and three……
- Conclusion which is a brief summary of the thesis and muses on the implications of the thesis
The Title– offer a brief and catchy summation of the main argument. The title should tell the reader what you will argue about in the essay and it depends on your stance.
The introduction– open your essay with a hook to grab the attention of readers. You can pose a question or puzzle that you the essay will later resolve. Whatever strategy you use, keep it brief, clear and ensure it offers a solid bridge to your thesis statement.
It is imperative to avoid general statements that make unsupportable and sweeping claims in the introduction. Warm up sentences are also not necessary in the introduction because they do not contribute anything important to your argument.
You should additionally include a thesis statement in the introduction. This should be one or two sentences long presenting your main idea to target audience. Ideally, you need a brief thesis that explains to readers your main reasons behind your stance or statement. Therefore, you need to brainstorm in length before you start writing an argumentative essay.
Body– each body paragraph should begin with a topic sentence. This is because it announces the argument of the paragraph and how the paragraph will support the overall argument of the essay. The other paragraphs should go ahead to present and explain evidence supporting the topic sentence.
When writing an argumentative essay body paragraphs, avoid putting everything in one paragraph. Have each idea in a paragraph to develop one distinct idea clearly. Squeezing all ideas in one paragraph makes your essay boring to read.
The conclusion-provide a simple summary of your main idea or argument in the conclusion. Note that a good argumentative essay will always have an established core argument by the end of the essay body. Therefore, it is essential to use the conclusion to raise sum up the paper and raise ideas that flow from your argument and evidence.
You can also use the conclusion to offer lessons that people should draw from your argument in today’s age and era. You will realize interesting parallels to another time, issue or place or you will have found interesting emotional or personal reaction to the material.
It is therefore important to be thoughtful and speculative in your conclusion. Note that after presenting solid evidence supporting your claim in the body of the essay, you will have earned the right as an author to share your ideas in broad with target audience in the conclusion.
The process of writing an argumentative essay
Start by reading and identifying the big questions and issues that the assignment focuses on. Your tutor or professor might have focused on the same during your course. Therefore, take clear notes on your readings and identify relevant examples in regards to the theme and issue of the paper. With a main theme, drafting your essay becomes an easy task
Ensure that you understand the argumentative essay question and follow the outline for writing an argumentative essay
Gather solid evidence to support your argument and build your outline. Review your readings and notes to include only relevant evidence to your assignment. Create an ideal spatial environment to allow you to develop each with evidence.
Write a rough draft by starting with a short introductory paragraph, body and conclusion. Do not forget to start each paragraph with a topic sentence that conveys the main argument therein.
More advice on drafting
When writing an argumentative essay rough draft, do not aim for perfection. This is just a piece that helps you to have a clear picture of main and compelling ideas from your outline. It is also a prewriting process that tests your examples and ideas and you can always make adjustments.
If you get stuck with a rough draft, sit back and reflect on the handout of your assignment or outline. Check for relevant and irrelevant statements and delete those that do not add any value to your essay.
Quickly revisit the introduction and ensure that your thesis statement is strong enough and corresponds to what the body of the essay argues about. In many cases, arguments will evolve in the drafting process hence the need to adjust it to reflect your ideas in the main essay.
Create your title – consider titles that are interesting
Revise the rough draft and determine whether the introduction is clear and explains the main argument of the essay and answer the following questions
- Do the body paragraphs flow in a logical manner to help readers understand your overall argument?
- Do the paragraphs start with topic sentences and have enough evidence supporting the main idea?
- Are your sentences clear and grammatically correct
- Have you trimmed unnecessary statements?
- Are your quotes long and needs to be shorted?
- Have you cited your sources accurately and correctly?
Most importantly, use passionate language; provide facts, evidence and accurate statistics to support your argument. You need good and enough reasons to enhance your claim. It is also good to address the opposing side when writing an argumentative essay and refute their claims as well.
It is also good to ensure logical transitions in your statements as you support your argument. Note that an argument is always two sided and as you pick your thesis and develop your argument, the ideas should flow well. Therefore, concisely present your ideas to the reader and make a fair judgment for or against your claims.
For the conclusion, you need a very good summary. Do it with energy by wrapping up and revisiting the thesis statement.
What to avoid when writing an argumentative essay
- Choose interesting topics, stay away from irrelevant subjects and avoid writing on subjects that are not double sided
- Avoid any unattributed statements
- Avoid passive voice statements
- Use past tense when writing about past statements or events
- Avoid the use of slang and casual language in your writing
- Do not end a body paragraph with a sentence introducing the main idea of the next paragraph
- Write with a parallel structure i.e. the same word patterns especially when making a list of abstract things or things
Examples of argumentative essays
Example 1: Cigarette Smoking
Cigarette smoking and packet branding are some of the issues by a lot of controversy. Many people question moral understanding and legality of the government in regards to allowing smoking of cigarette, considering that the cigarette packets are clearly branded with indications that they can cause harm to human health. Most of the cigarette packs bear the signs; Smoking is injurious to health.’ The greatest concern is why the state has failed to ban cigarette smoking…………………………………………………………….
Read this essay here and see how the author argues his stance.
Should government invest more money in building shelter house?
Shelter is a basic need for the survival of humans and no one can contentedly live without a good house. Many of the non-governmental and state institutes go through a wide range of operations to protect their citizens from the effects of being homeless (Australia, 2012, p.93). Nonetheless lack of good housing is still a major issue for many states across the globe as well as forces itself into various social systems of the community. Essentially, there are different types of shelters and they include permanent and semi-permanent shelter………………………………………..
Go through this essay and get more ideas on how to write an argumentative essay.
Financial Education and Management Curriculum
Financial management involves the effective use of the available limited resources in different plans. Normally, this is realized through incorporation of development projects that seem viable. This management goes ahead to ensure accountability through effective management of resources that are available via regular audits and record keeping activities. Therefore, it is an important field in the entire economic sector that involves making financial decisions.
Get more ideas on how to write and organize an argumentative essay by reading this piece.
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2008 Financial Crisis
The 2008 financial crisis is considered by many economists across the globe as the worst recession after the Great Depression of 1929-1930. It was a serious economic state despite efforts by the Treasury department and the Federal Reserve to prevent it and the US banking system from collapsing.
Due to the crisis, housing prices fell by 31.8percent more than that of the Great Depression. Two years after the 2008 financial crisis, the recession ended but the rate of unemployment was still high. Many people had given up looking for jobs and they were no longer counted amongst the jobless. The number was alarming.
What caused the 2008 financial crisis?
According to economists and researchers, signs of a financial crisis were evident from mid-2007. The first cause was linked to a fall in housing prices in 2006. Many realtors by 2006 were however relieved because, they thought housing prices and housing market would normally resume or rise to a sustainable level.
The realtors however failed to realize that many homeowners had a questionable credit rating. Many homeowners had loans for more than 100 percent of their home’s value. A large number of financial institutions and mortgage lenders had also resold mortgages in packages. This was part of mortgage backed securities.
Initially, Federal Reserve always thought a subprime crisis would affect other sectors but would always be isolated to housing market. However, financial institutions across different parts of the globe and hedge funds owned most homes in form of mutual funds, pension funds and corporate assets.
It is also good to note that original mortgages had been resold in pieces and the remaining actual derivatives were impossible to price. The value of the mortgages plummeted and investors across the globe started to panic.
Many pension funds institutions bought risky assets thinking that they would be protected from downsides risks. As a matter of fact, many owned insurance in the form of credit default swaps but it could not help to prevent the 2008 financial crisis.
After a short span of time, financial institutions began to panic. They realized that they were the only ones to absorb losses as a result of poor credit by many homeowners. No one wanted to be caught up in the crisis. Banks started to exercise caution and avoided lending money to each other. They tried to avoid situations where they could get stuck with worthless mortgages as their collateral. Inter-banking costs or interbank borrowing costs rose in the end aggregating the situation.
What was the cost of the 2008 financial crisis?
The Treasury department spent up to $150 billion to subsidize the economy and to finally take up Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Federal Reserve on the other hand had to use $85 billion and eventually $150 billon to bail out the AIG. Federal Reserve had to pump liquidity into the banking but it was not enough.
In March 2008, many investors went for Beas Stearns because it was rumored to have the worthless assets. Bear later approached Morgan Chase to bail it out from the situation. In September 19, 2008, the crisis led to run on Ultra Safe Money Market Funds. Within a short span of time, businesses moved to safer Treasury bonds.
Safer Treasury bonds sustained many businesses. Later on, $350 was used to buy automotive company stocks because the prices were depressed. By 2010, banks had picked up and paid back $194 billion.
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Systemic risk is the vulnerability to unpredicted events including major catastrophes and earthquakes among others. These events affect the distribution of resources and the amount of resources in the market.
Systemic risk can also be defined as risk inherent to the entire market segment. It usually affects the overall market and not only the industry and stocks. Undiversifiable risk, market risk or volatility risk is caused by events that cannot be avoided completely. What’s more, it cannot be mitigated through diversification but only through the use of the right asset allocation strategy.
Putting assets in bonds and assets in stocks can easily mitigate a systemic risk. This is based on the fact that interest rates often shift and makes bonds less valuable to make stocks more valuable and vice versa. As a result, it limits the overall change in the portfolio value from systematic changes.
Interest rate changes, recessions, wars and inflation can also cause systemic risk. These factors affect the entire market. Systemic risk is one of the risks that underlie all other market and investment risks across the globe.
The Great Recession is one of the best examples of systemic risk. It is a risk that affected many businesses across the globe. Any person who had invested in the market in 2008 suffered a great loss. The value of many investments changed because of the Great Recession. It was a market wide economic event that affected investments regardless of the type of securities that one had held.
The Great Recession also affected different asset classes in different ways. Even so, investors with broader allocations were affected less than those with stocks only. To understand how much systemic risk a portfolio, fund or security has, it is always essential to take a closer look at its beta. This helps you to measure how volatile an investment is in the market compared to others.
A beta that is more than 1 means that a fund is more volatile in the overall market and less than one means that a fund has a less systemic risk. If a beta is equal to one, this means that a fund has the same systemic risk as the market itself.
The federal government often uses systemic risk as a clear justification for it to intervene in the economy. The main basis for intervention by Fed is to ensure the ripple effect from a company level in any event through targeted regulations is reduced. For instance, Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 was put in place with an enormous set of new laws aimed at preventing another event of the Great Recession from occurring. The laws regulate financial institutions and firms by limiting systemic risk.
According to researchers and economists, the size of Lehman Brother’s size and its integration in the US market or economy has made it a great source of systemic risk, when the firm collapsed; the US witnessed a lot of problems in the country’s economy as well as the financial system. Additionally, capital markets froze up, consumers could not access any loans and businesses could only get loans only if they were creditworthy. Those that posed minimal risks to the lender could also access loans.
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Mark to Model
Mark to model is one of the most popular accounting practices that have been used across the globe. It is a practice that involves sharing of assets based on a mathematical model as opposed to market price.
In many cases, the accounting model is used on assets whenever there is no active market. However, it is good to note that Level 3 assets are often valued depending on a financial model used in an economy. Therefore, mark to model is the opposite of mark to market model where asset values are recorded based on the last price recorded on public exchange.
Mark to model takes into consideration the payout for specific assets. It also takes into consideration the risks involved when trading in the assets as well as their expiration date. In addition, it has a wide array of inputs that are very subjective and have been often criticized for providing a value that is more of illusion than real value.
In mark to model, an insurer may provide a policy that covers oil refineries. Therefore, oil refiners will have to pay an insurer over a specified of time. The periodic payments will however be paid back by an insurer in the event of a major disaster. The contracts in mark to model may not be traded publicly as in the case of market to market.
Contracts in mark to model are also highly specialized. This means that it can be very hard to find the real value of assets. A model that will help traders to find the expected payout, probability of finding a market, premiums and the probability of a disaster will have to be created.
In the case of an insurance company, an insurer can report an asset or a liability in a balance sheet. An insurer will also have to record its real value based on mark to model rather than the asset’s real market value.
Why mark to model matters
Mark to model has been considered a risky method of finding the value of assets and liabilities by economists. It is even more risky if it is used to price assets that are traded in a liquid and the market is declining. This is based on the fact that the model is always subjective at an individual level.
Mark to model does not put into account the number of buyers and sellers in the market who are willing to value an asset. Individuals therefore, may not agree on the accuracy if the price of assets priced using mark to model method.
The system also matters bearing in mind that it was used during the credit crisis in late 2000s. Mortgages and securities lost a lot of their values within a very short time. Federal Accounting Standards Board suspended mark to market accounting in favor of the model only to provide way to financial institutions to put up a value for their mortgages.
With mark to model, financial institutions were also able to place a value on MBSs in an old and tumultuous market. The model is similarly used in private bond market whenever it goes liquid.
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Where to Find a Reflection Paper Example
When asked to write a reflection paper for the first time, the first question that you might ask is most likely about where to find a reflection paper example. A reflection paper can be defined as a paper that gives you a chance to illustrate your comprehension of a given material and its effects on your ideas as well as possible future practice. While writing a reflection paper, you are allowed an opportunity to reinforce what you have learned through lecturers, personal experience and coursework. A reflection paper may focus on your personal experiences and feelings. However, it requires you to use concrete examples and multiple sources. Reflection papers are invaluable to students who engage in capstones or experiential classes which include internships because they enable them to synthesize theoretical knowledge via applied experience.
Importance of knowing where to find a reflection paper example
If you do not have a clue about how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper example will give you vital ideas on where to start the process of writing this paper. Even when you have ideas on how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper sample will give you fresh ideas. This makes approaching your reflection paper writing assignment easier. Generally, there are two major reasons why you need a sample reflection paper.
- To fine-tune ideas
While writing a reflection paper, you do not want to confine your writing to only what you know. A good reflection paper sample will enable you to fine-tune your current ideas so that you can present them in the most appropriate way and even get hints on new ways of presenting your ideas.
- Know how to format your reflection paper
Your instructor will give you different instructions on how to write your reflection paper. However, the instructor might or might not specify the style to adapt in your paper. The instructor can ask you to write the paper in APA, MLA, Harvard or Chicago style. A good sample written in a specified style will give you vital ideas on how to format your reflection paper.
When you know where you can find a good reflection paper sample, you do not have to worry or panic when asked to write this paper because you can always reach for a sample to act as your writing guide any time. You can also read the sample in advance especially if you are certain that your instructor will ask you to write one at some point.
Why use a reflection paper example?
Although writing a reflection paper may sound easy, it is not. While writing a reflection paper, you should stop, think and reflect about yourself. This paper gives you an opportunity to collect your thoughts before you write them and view things in an entirely new perspective. What you include in a reflection paper should come from your thoughts. The final reflection paper that you present should be based on your feelings and thoughts whose basis is your past life experiences, desires and beliefs.
When you know where to find a reflection paper example, you can reach for it while writing your paper for hints on the ideas, thoughts and information to include in your paper. Reading a good sample of a reflection paper will also enable you to generate ideas and organize them properly in your paper to ensure proper presentation. This is very important because the ability to write a good reflection paper depends on your ability to express your ideas, thoughts, experiences and desires in a way that opens your mind to an entirely new level.
Tips on where to find a reflection paper example
A good reflection paper sample should be based on the reflection of a particular event, a place or a person that has impacted on the life of the writer profoundly. Writing a reflection paper is more of writing a typical story and it usually leads to the establishment of important creative writing skills. However, when asked to write this paper for the first time you will find yourself struggling because you will not know which elements to put where. In that case, you should turn to the right places to look for a reflection paper example.
- Ask your teacher or professor to give you a reflection paper sample
If you do not know how to approach a reflection paper writing assignment or where to get a sample of a reflection paper, it is a good idea to ask your teacher or professor to give you a sample. You can visit the professor or teacher after the class or when you are sure that he/she is in the office to find out whether they can give you a reflection paper sample that you can review before you start writing your paper. There is a high chance that your teacher or professor has reflection paper samples written by former students. Once the professor or teacher gives you a sample, study it carefully to get insights on what the professor or teacher expects you to include in the paper. Pay close attention to the comments that the professor or teacher has included in the reflection paper sample.
- Ask a friend to give you a sample
You most probably know a friend whose papers are always excellent. You can seek assistance from such a friend. You might as well know a friend who is no longer at school but they scored high grades in academic papers. Ask them because they might have a sample that they keep at home. Such a friend can even tutor you on how to write a reflection paper as they give you the sample.
- Buy a reflection paper example online
There are companies that offer academic writing services online. If you are wondering about where to find a reflection paper example because your friends, teachers or professors do not have one, enlist the services of such companies. A reflection paper sample from a professional writing company is one of the best sample papers to use because it is written and edited by professionals. Therefore, order a reflection paper sample in advance so that you can use it as a guide for writing your reflection paper.
- Check the websites of professional writing companies
Several professional writing companies have websites where they post free academic paper samples. You can visit the blogs of such companies to find out whether they have a free sample reflection paper that you can use as your guide. You can find such a reflection paper example here.
- Check the websites of different colleges and universities
Some colleges and universities have websites where they post the best papers and essays written by their students. These are aimed at serving as samples to guide students when writing papers and essays in different disciplines. Visit the website of your college or university to find out if there is a reflection paper that you can use as your writing sample. If you cannot find a sample at the website of your college or university, check the websites of other learning institutions. Such a sample reflection paper can be found here.
How to use a reflection paper example
Now that you know where to find a reflection paper sample, it is important that you know how to use a sample reflection paper. Remember that you should use a reflection paper example just as the name suggests; as an example. You should not plagiarize the sample paper or part of it because that amounts to a serious offence for which you can be punished. As such, make sure that you only review the reflection paper example to get ideas for writing and formatting your paper then keep it away before you start writing your reflection paper. If you use ideas from the sample paper, make sure that your reflection paper has citations and footnotes that are properly referenced at the end of the paper.
It is also important that you use credible sources while writing your reflection paper. There are many books, academic journals and online sources where you can get information to guide you in writing your reflection paper. Make sure that you use and reference credible sources only. For your reflective paper to be credible, it should indicate that you consulted different sources including the internet, magazines and encyclopedias among others. After writing your paper, edit it properly, review the reflection paper sample and then reread your reflection paper to determine whether you have written it as the sample that you were using.
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You should use a unique reflection paper example from a credible source to come up with a great reflection paper. If you are having difficulties in identifying a place where to find a reflection paper example, get in touch with us right away. You can also visit our website’s home page for additional information about our academic writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines on how to write a reflection paper as well as sample papers on our blog.
Oxidative phosphorylation refers to a metabolic pathway where cells’ mitochondria use their enzymes, structure and energy that is released by nutrients’ oxidation in reforming ATP. Oxidation phosphorylation is simplified as OXPHOS. Despite different life forms in the planet earth using different types of nutrients, ATP is the sole molecule that offers energy to the metabolism process. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in almost every aerobic organism.
As a pathway, oxidative phosphorylation is perhaps, so pervasive since it allows for a highly efficient way via which energy is released as compared to the alternative processes of fermentation such as the anaerobic glycolysis. Electrons transfer takes place during the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
Electrons transfer occurs when electrons are moved from the electron donors to the electron acceptors such as redox reactions and oxygen. Redox reactions that take place during oxidative phosphorylation release energy. This energy is used in the formation of ATP. Redox reactions in the eukaryotes are performed by several protein complexes in the intermembrane wall mitochondria of the cell. In the prokaryotes, the proteins are situated in the inter-membrane space of the cells. The linked protein sets are known as the electron transport chains. In the eukaryotes, there are five major protein complexes that are involved. On the other hand, prokaryotes have various enzymes that use different electron donors as well as acceptors.
Energy that is released when the electrons flow via this process of electron transport chain is basically used in the transport of protons across inner membrane of mitochondria in a process known as the electron transport. This process also produces potential energy in pH gradient form. It also generates electrical potential across the membrane. This creates a store for energy that is tapped by letting proteins flow back across mitochondrial membrane downing this gradient via large enzyme known as ATP synthase. This process is called chemiosmosis.
The energy is used by the enzyme in generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate in the phosphorylation reaction. Proton flow drives this reaction which in turn forces rotation forces of the part of enzyme. ATP synthase acts as the rotary mechanical motor of the process.
Despite being an important metabolism part, oxidative phosphorylation produces reactive species of oxygen including hydrogen peroxide and superoxide which then leads to the propagation of the free radicals which damage cells and facilitating diseases and senescence or aging. Many poisons and drugs that inhibit activities of the enzymes that carry out oxidative phosphorylation target them.
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Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide simply called NAD refers to a coenzyme that is found in every living cell. This compound is the dinucleotide and since it has two nucleotides that are joined via phosphate groups. One of the nucleotides has a nicotinamide and the other an adenine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually found in two forms. These are the reduced form and in the oxidized forms abbreviated as NADH and NAD respectively.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually involved in the redox reactions in metabolism. It carries electrons across different reactions. Therefore, the coenzyme is found in two different forms in the living cells. These are the oxidizing agent NAD+ which accepts electrons from the other molecules becoming reduced. The reaction forms the NADH with is then possible to reduce as the reducing agent that donates electrons.
The electron transfer reactions are the major role of the NAD. Nevertheless, NAD is also used in cellular processes with enzyme substrate being the most notable that removes or add chemical groups from the proteins in the posttranslational modifications. Due to the crucial role of the functions of NAD, the enzymes that are involved in its metabolism are the targets of drug discovery.
In living organisms, synthesis of NAD can result from the simple building blocks the de novo. This is from amino acids aspartic acid and tryptophan. In the alternative fashion, complex components of coenzymes are usually taken up from the food in form of a vitamin known as niacin.
There are similar compounds that are released by the reactions that break NAD’s structure down. The preformed components pass via salvage pathway recycling them into an active form. There is also NAD that is converted to Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, simplified as NADP. Chemistry of the coenzyme is like that of the NAD. However, its roles in the metabolism process are different.
Despite NAD+ being written with the sign of superscript plus due to its formal charge in a certain nitrogen atom, for most part at the physiological pH is a singly-charged anion. The charge is that of minus 1. On the other hand, NADH is doubly-charged anion. For Haemophilus influenza growth, NAD is considered as the V factor. Just like other dinucleotides, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has the two nucleotides that are joined by phosphate groups as their bridge. They also have ribose rings with one having adenine that is attached to first atom of carbon while the other is with the nicotinamide.
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Multidrug Resistance Protein 3
Multidrug resistance protein 3 is a protein belonging to the ABC subfamily C [ABCC]3) and it plays a significant role in the protection of hepatocytes as well as other tissues through extreation of different toxic organic conjugates of anion including the bile salts. Expression of multidrug resistance protein 3 or ABCC3 increases in a liver of individuals who are cholestatic but this molecular mechanism of the up-regulation stays elusive.
Basically, multidrug resistance protein 3 is a member of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette, the ABC transporter super-family. It expresses itself in different tissues including kidney, liver, adrenal gland, bladder and intestine of rodents and humans. Multidrug resistance protein 3 is localized in the basolateral membrane of the cells and it excretes sulfated, taurine-conjugated bile salts, glycine and bilirubin glucuronides, leukorienes, 17 x- glucuronosyl, and several drugs.
Hepatic multidrug resistance protein 3 expression under normal physiological circumstances is low. However, this expression is up-regulated significantly as adaptive and protective response when an individual is suffering from cholestasis. The up-regulation is also observed in the liver of a patient during the advance stages of primary biliary cirrhosis. It is also the case for parient with the extrahepatic cholestasis that is caused by pancreatic malignancy. However, it is not the case with patients in their early stages of progressive familial intra-hepatic cholestasis or PBC.
According to these revelations, it has been concluded that the distribution of multidrug resistance protein 3 and the basolateral position that it occupies in polarized cells suggests that the protein play an important role in metabolism when it comes to intestinal uptake of the organic anions as well as removal of the organic acids from liver cells and bile under cholestasic conditions.
The study revealed that multidrug resistance protein 3 up-regulation is high in the liver of the rats that were made cholestatic through litigation of the bile duct. It is also the case in the cholestatic liver of humans. Multidrug resistance protein 3 is also present in adrenal cortex in high levels. This has increased the possibility of multidrug resistance protein 3 being responsible for the secretion of certain hydrophilic steroid home derivatives including the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.
Despite being a member of the MRP subfamily that is involved in the development of multi-drug resistance, specific function of multidrug resistance protein 3 is yet to be determined. Nevertheless, it has been proven to play a significant role in the intestinal organic anions excretion and biliary transport.
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Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 1
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1refers to a protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene in humans. The protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene is part of the genes that belong to a super-family of the ATP-binding cassette or ABC transporters. ABC proteins are responsible for the transportation of different molecules across the intra and extra-cellular membranes.
There are seven divisions or distinct subfamilies of the ABC genes. These are the ABC1, MRP, MDR/TAP, OABP, ALD, GCN20 and White. Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is a full transporter belonging to the MRP subfamily that is involved in the multi-drug resistance activities. The function of this protein is to act as multi-specific organic anion transporter with the oxidized glutathione, activated aflatoxin B, and cysteinly leukotrienes as the substrates.
The protein is also responsible for transporting sulfate conjugates and glucuronides of the steroid hormones as well as bile salts. Different splice variants result from alternative splicing of the exon deletion but original reading of the open frame in all the forms is maintained.
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is among the major obstacles when it comes to treatment of cancer. This is because it not only hinders treatment, but also proper prognosis of cancer patients. It transport different therapeutic agents and a wide range of physiological substances and it can also play a significant role in development of resistance to drug in different forms of cancer including prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and childhood neuroblastoma.
Many patients of neuroblastoma in the current world disseminated this disease during diagnosis. Despite undergoing intensive treatment, prognosis of such patients remains dismal. Evidence that shows that multidrug resistance associated protein 1targets the genes that are involved in multidrug resistance in the neuroblastoma is increasing rapidly. Considering the significance of multidrug resistance associated protein 1overexpression in the neuroblastoma, its inhibition can be an important approach clinically in improving the patient outcome in the disease.
Developing a resistance to different cytotoxic drugs is the main cause of failure for treatment in different types of infections and malignant diseases. Thu, despite making significant advancement in the treatment of cancer, multidrug resistance associated protein 1is still a major problem in the medical or clinical field.
It causes poor outcome for patients and limitation of therapeutic options in different cancers. As such, having a better understanding of mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance associated protein 1is very important. It can help in improving the existing regime of chemotherapy in treatment of cancer and neuroblastoma.
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