Environmental Degradation on Historical Monuments
Air pollution plays a major role in influencing weathering of monuments and deterioration of prehistoric museum objects and cave paintings. Therefore, pollution is not just confined to environmental degradation but historical monuments as well. The effects degradation has on such monuments vary in extent from one region to another and based on the contributing factors.
Historical monuments are impacted negatively by pollution throughout the globe and this includes the Acropolis in Greece to America’s Lincoln memorial. The threat this poses is loss of these irreplaceable structures. Most of the monuments have an aesthetic and cultural value that cannot be compared to any price. One of the areas that have been studied for a long time is the role played by atmospheric degradation in the destruction of historical buildings.
This is because it increases the decay of stone and also causes historic materials to lose their value. Preservation of historical monuments plays an important role in the integration of countries because of the social, cultural and economical implications they have.
Latin American countries for instance have an importance legacy from colonial, modern and pre-Hispanic modern periods as is the case with Mexico which has 15 sites which are included in the list of UNESCO cultural heritage. Most of these are situated in urban areas such as Morelia, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico City, Morelia, San Francisco de Campeche and Guanajuato etc.
The historical monuments that are worst affected included those in areas exposed to environmental agents which can induce deterioration. For the longest time, natural perimeters such as extended periods of rainfall, high humidity and marine aerosols effects were the major factors that contributed towards the degradation of buildings.
Acid rain is one of the factors that contribute to the destruction of monuments and it occurs when fossil fuel emissions that contain sulfur dioxide are combined with air to form acid precipitation. When the acid falls on these historical monuments whether or marble or limestone, chemical reactions take place causing a corrosive effect on the structures and this not only dissolves the material but causes permanent damage.
There are other factors that also contribute to the damage caused to historical monuments. For instance, increased humidity provides an ideal environment for corrosive chemical reaction if there is no rain. In the same manner, any changes in the radiation of the sun can also temporarily cause an increase in temperatures on the monuments surface causing damage.
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Effects of Environmental Degradation on Human Life
Environmental degradation is described as deterioration of environment through depletion of natural resources like soil, water and air. It also refers to eco system destruction as well as distinction of wildlife. Environmental degradation has serious effects on human life some of which often go unnoticed for years.
There are several factors which contribute to environmental degradation which in turn affects human life such as a noisy environment, temperature, atmosphere and air. Breathing air that is polluted for instance poses numerous health complications that affect the quality of life and leave individuals at a high risk of suffering from other kinds of illness.
The huge burden of disease that is been seen today is largely as a result of environmental degradation. At least ninety to twenty five percent of diseases reported in most developing nations are as a result of environmental degradation and it is estimated that child mortality in such regions is close to 43% due to poor conditions.
Precisely for this reason, degradation exerts immense pressure on human health when people get exposed to water, soil and air pollution as well as chemicals which are released into the environment and noise. Respiratory, cancer, communicable and cardiovascular diseases are some of the illnesses that are often caused by environmental degradation. Other diseases include neuro-psychiatric disorders and poisoning.
The most obvious environmental pollution risk to the health of millions of people across the globe is air pollution. It contributes to different types of illnesses like asthma and more often than cause, it causes premature deaths. Of great concern is the fact that children are placed at a great risk than adults leading to high infant mortality rate. Concerns about the effects of environmental degradation on human life has also led t o numerous measures been taken to mitigate emission of pollutant gases and other factors that contribute to environmental degradation.
The greenhouse effect is one that is still been investigated and studied. It is often as a result of fossil fuels which are burnt then they release greenhouse gases into the environment. The gases don’t have the capability to dissipate and as such, they remain trapped in the atmosphere and absorb heat from the sun and this in-adversely affects those people who store wood in their homes as they risk the possibility of starting a fire once it reaches flash point.
Also, environmental degradation leads to soil erosion and this poses a serious threat to food production. As such, people are unable to access the resources needed in order to ensure they live comfortable lives and enjoy health food.
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Effects of Environmental Degradation on Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal is known as one of the best monuments in India but reports from the Indian government reveal it is under great threat as a result of pollution. India’s National Environment Engineering Research Institute compiled the report and shows the measures taken after reports that the tomb, which dates back to the 17th century was irreparably been damaged due to pollution were failing.
The Taj Mahal is not only part of the 7 Wonders of the World but it is only seen as a major symbol of love across the globe. Its beauty is breathtaking though pollution of slowly taking its breath away. There are several steps which have been taken to protect it though most of them have failed to maintain the beauty of the monument.
Every year, Taj Mahal’s beauty is vanishing as a result of environmental degradation. The major threats it faces include excessive tourism, pollution, rising Yamuna threat and toxins that come from factories. The pollution which comes from industries and vehicles is steadily turning Taj Mahal yellow and this is regardless of the efforts made by the government to control pollution.
The largest effect is that of airborne particles which get deposited on the monuments white marble thus giving it a yellow touch. Annually, the Taj attracts two to four million people with over 2,000,000 people coming from abroad. Majority of the tourists prefer to visit the attraction during the cool months of February, October and November. Most of them thro trash in the surrounding area and this also serves to destroy the beauty and appeal of the Mahal.
The Mathura oil refinery which is located twenty five miles from the Mahal releases high levels of toxins which further place the attraction at great danger. The refinery is known to produce pollution emissions like nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide and the gases react with one another further adding fuel to fire by damaging the monument even further.
The white marble dome monument was built in 1632 to 1654 by the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan for Mumtaz Mahal, his favorite wife. It houses a mosque, their graves and other graves for Mogul Royalty of lower classes. There are several measures which have been taken to cut back the effects pollution has on the monument.
For instance, buses and cars are not allowed anywhere close to the monument but rather, they are parked 1 ½ miles from it. Visitors are only allowed to get close to the Taj by using horse driven carriages or buses that are battery run.
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A Three-Dimensional Public Management Approach in Kansas City
Public management is required by public institutions for success to be achieved. Nevertheless, when a wrong approach is taken, there can be serious system functions’ failures. Adapting theories of public management can assist in running public institutions efficiently. It is important to embrace these theories since it is known that there are many challenges that face public management and to overcome them a workable approach is required. In the education system, perennial failures have been experienced in Kansas City District Public Schools (KCDPS). This has led to persistent dismal performance as well as the transfer of many students to private and suburb institutions. The system that is used to manage these schools has failed in facilitating the revival of the existing schools so that they can attract more students. This system’s dysfunction happened during the 80s when many schools became half-filled with students’ performance declining gradually.
Measures taken to help this situation included spending more money in making the schools more appealing. Nevertheless, the overall enrollment was at 35,000 at that time in comparison to that of the 60s which was 70,000. Currently, the enrollment of Kansas City District Schools is about 17,000. Obviously, KCDPS public management does not suit the place. It is therefore important to adapt a different, new approach for this schools’ system to be more appealing and to improve performance.
Currently, the score of about 70% of the students in KCPS in English Language and Math is below average. Arts proficiency has also been deteriorating even with the operational and management systems of the schools being improved. The system’s failure can also be clearly seen from the fact that most high school graduates from KCPS are not ready to start college education. Science and social studies’ scores have improved in KCPS over the past years. Nevertheless, proficiency scores are still below 30%. This trend is indeed worrying to parties that are concerned in the region. When the achievement of a KCPS student is compared to that of other districts in the state, KCPS student ranks lower. Predictions indicate that the trend is likely to continue and these students will continue lagging behind those in the other districts.
Laurence Lynn and Caroline Hill outline the vital approach that should be adapted by KCDPS board in their Public Management: A Three-Dimensional Approach. They argue that this approach will enable learning in the region to regain its exciting experience. They propose a three dimensional approach which entails adapting cultural, craft and structural perspectives in analyzing and finding an ideal solution in the management of public schools. In this paper, the problems of the system of public education in Kansas City District Schools are explored extensively. The paper will employ these three approaches with more efforts being made to come up with a strategy for overcoming the challenges.
Laurence and Caroline Hill (2) argue that in public management, communication and command chain make the structural aspect of the public system. Efficient channel of communication and a clear command chain assist in the identification of problems as well as allocation of responsibilities to different people so that a solution can be realized. They note that when such structures break, confusion occurs when there is a problem. There are miscalculations that leadership in Kansas City District Schools System has made and these are causing several problems. The leadership does not focus on real issues and this has led to system failure in the district. It is apparent that problems in the system of education in this district have been there for decades. This ought to have enabled the leaders to identify steps that they should take.
The other structural failure aspect was seen from the prejudice of the stakeholders in the district. Politicians and educators were unable to agree on proper strategies to implement in order to revive the system for education in this district. More accountability was required from all stakeholders in the system for some ideas that were proposed to be implemented. Instead, these stakeholders chose to use excess funding in the system yet the approach was not successful.
Worth noting is that as of that time, most white students were no longer in the schools because they left for private and suburban schools that are located outside the district. They did this because this education system was unable to guarantee them future success. As such, joining the neighboring competitive and well-established schools was the most ideal option for them. Due to the failure of this system of education in the 80s, Russell Clark, the Federal District Judge was given the responsibility of bringing it back to its efficiency in order to enhance academic success by Judge Arthur Benson. Apparently, this was not a good approach to this problem. He noted that KCDPS had failed due to unconstitutional segregation whose dilapidated facilities were its characteristic. Ordering for increased funding was the most ideal option in order to build modern educational facilities and to refurbish old ones to enhance the provision of unique courses. This would help in attracting white students who had fled to other schools.
Although Judge Russell thought about such measures, the education system in the district lacked efficient structural aspect that is necessary for the identification of failures that happened within the system. The problems were past the dilapidated infrastructure of the schools as well as teachers who were paid poorly. The Kansas City District Education Board did not work efficiently because it did not discover ways that could be used so as to identify the channels that schools would have used in contributing to the achievement and moral of students. More than $2 billion was channeled into the KCDPS and it did not bear fruits because there was no increase in students’ enrollment as expected. Actually, there has been a continuation of increased cases of indiscipline among minority students within the schools. This further put the white students away from these schools. Several teachers note that administrative support lacks when dealing with cases of indiscipline in the schools. Clearly, the management system in the district schools does not have appropriate measures for guiding teachers on the best way to handle cases of indiscipline in schools.
Consequently, structural failure in the chain of leadership can be seen as the main reason why performance has been declining among the students in these schools. The education board failed because it did not identify the appropriate methods of dealing with the students in motivational ways in order to enhance their success. Instead, the high funding that has been channeled toward increasing the salaries of the teachers has not born fruits. Perhaps, structural failure has made devising methods that would enhance performance difficult. Apparently, there is a problem on the way teachers handle students. The contribution of all stakeholders towards success is required in public management.
The way people relate among themselves and with those outside the institution is defined by their culture. As such, effectiveness in public management as well as administration can largely be influenced by culture (Lynn and Hill 67). A clear fact is that the society of Kansas City is culturally diverse. It has the whites as well as the minority races. There are whites and minority Latinos and Blacks in these schools and they all learn in similar environments. Education stakeholders within this district have not considered culture as an aspect that can be causing system failure. Instead, they have previously been concerned about increasing funding in order to enhance infrastructure so as to attract more white students after they fled to schools in the other districts in search of quality education.
The Kansas City District Education Board should have been concerned about white students fleeing in the 80s. The desire of the parents of these students was to have a system for education that provides their children a competitive advantage over other districts. Nevertheless, financial constraints may have been the reason why minorities did not transfer their children to the other schools. It is worth mentioning that more than $2 billion funding channeled in the education system in the Kansas District did not bear fruits due to lack of comprehension of cultural factors that affected educational performance. There is a large minority students’ population in this district than that of white students. This might be contributing to the perennial decline in educational performance in the district.
Social disintegration is currently increasing in minority families within the US. This is also a factor that could be contributing to the problem of the education system in Kansas City. Majority of families in the district have a single parent. They also do not have appropriate social orientation which could guide students about the way they should conduct themselves. As such, most students are victims of indiscipline cases since they do not have role models back at home. Focused students are known to avoid activities that are likely to affect their dreams negatively. Instead, they work hard so that they can achieve their dreams in life. There are clear cultural variations between races and they should be considered while devising the right teaching methods to ensure that all students benefit. Failure to be sensitive to culture has made several students to transfer from this district to the schools in the other districts where performance is better. There has been a three-point variation in score of the black and white students for some time now. This shows that for the gap to be bridged there is something that stakeholders should do. It is also vital to point out that minority students drop-out has been increasing even with strategies for attracting more students being implemented.
Additionally, it appears like educators within the schools in Kansas City have been resigned to accept that there are students who are broken to a level where they cannot be assisted. Cultural shift is required for educators in the schools in order to enable them to handle indiscipline cases. The main problem is that in their attempt to assist these students, educators use punishment only. Leaders in public management are required to handle problems with an aim of helping the victims. Thus, punishment is not an ideal approach for enhancing academic standards in the district. The methods that were used earlier in an attempt to enhance education included building better facilities for schools and renovating old schools, funding the system, changing the system and increasing the salaries of teachers. These have not been effective in improving students’ performance and attracting more students.
It is apparent that a cultural perspective has not been considered in approaching poor performance. This indicates why the past strategies have failed to improve the situation. Instead, white students who the stakeholders expected to return to the schools never came back. This increased problems because minority students always consider this as racism. Cultural shift ought to include a mechanism for encouraging students to remain focused in their life regardless of their background culturally. There is prejudice among educators which led to inadequate measures that would assist minority students in setting goals that would enhance their achievement. As such, these schools require reformation so that they can be institutions that enable students to learn how to improve themselves every day.
Discipline is a virtue that is learnt and acquired progressively or gradually. As such, education stakeholders ought to ensure that cultural awareness as a vital aspect improves educational performance among the students. Learners vary in several aspects with some being able to handle situations better than others. Children who live with better parents who serve as their role models are able to learn morals easily at school. These are among the factors that have led to KCPS students’ failure over time. Cultural approach seems like the major aspect that can change the expectations and attitude of the students towards life forever.
Public managers have a responsibility of making decisions that can solve problems in their jurisdictions. For this to be realized, clear comprehension of what takes place within public arenas is required. Comprehension assists in setting goals and formulating plans for achieving them in a timely manner (Lynn and Hill 3). If public managers do not understand what they should do at the time of difficulties, they fail to provide appropriate leadership. Managers ought to work and lead against odds while making appropriate decisions in solving problems when they occur. In the past years, Kansas City District Schools’ leadership has tried to devise measures for helping the situation. Nevertheless, this has not helped in improving the situation. This is due to several factors with lack of comprehension being one of them. This is why the leadership has taken wrong approaches which have made achieving positive results difficult.
For certain goals to be achieved, the whole team should be coordinated properly so that it can have a direction regarding what to adapt and implement. The past leadership has recorded big failures in the administration of education system in Kansas City District. In 1985, Judge Clark became the management leader. He depended on State and Federal funding incentives in boosting education. He argued that channeling more money into the education system was an ideal solution that would help in attracting students back to the schools. This did not change the education system so that the white people can consider it relevant and modern. The existing infrastructures of the schools were renovated. To attract more students, the district built new schools. Eventually, this district had the finest facilities and its education system was funded the most as compared to those of other districts in the U.S. Salaries of the teachers were also increased by 40%. Majority of the teachers were ill-trained and paying them as per their performance became the most ideal option.
The excess spending in the public education was opposed by many critics. Nevertheless, the argument of proponents was that trying this was worth in order to find out the results. As such, the notion that emerges is that this was being done as an experiment whose aim was to establish whether increasing funding can enhance school performance. Clark also asked administrators in all schools in Kansas District to list things that their institutions needed. It is vital to note that the cost of these things was high and people had to be over taxed in order to fund these plans (Wilson 20). Despite all this, expected results were never realized. There was no improvement in the students’ score and drop out increased among the minority students than before.
Apparently, the approaches that education managers within the district have taken have not helped in improving the situation. Before the appointment of Judge Clark in 1985, a system that would pay teachers on the basis of results and qualifications was proposed by some stakeholders. Giving school administrators targets was another aspect. According to this aspect, the administrators would be penalized if they did not hit the targets. The aim of these proposals was to enhance accountability among education managers in the district so as to enhance students’ performance.
However, the proposals were rejected by Judge Clark and increased funding was chosen. This indicates that the craft approach as a factor is important in bringinmg outcomes within the public sector. Increased funding combined with incentives are wrong strategies that would not solve problems. In public management, accountability has to be an integral aspect. Judge Clark feared rubbing the others in a wrong way and therefore he did not do the necessary. He did not lay off incompetent teachers in order to hire qualified teachers for better results to be produced.
Strategy towards Addressing Problem
For the current situation of the education system in Kansas District to be changed, radical changes are required in order to ensure accountability among education stakeholders. This implies that the system for public management has to be restructured for an environment in which school communities have more authority in tackling problems to be established (Lynn and Hill 392). In addition, the education system should have the ability to serve various needs of the students without using ineffective rules. More importantly, schools’ operation should differ from those of non-profit organizations.
There should be smaller entities called the Community Schools Office (CSO) in the administration. These will be responsible for coordinating activities like transportation, school facilities’ maintenance and admission. The District Administration is responsible for such tasks currently. In addition to these, setting individual schools’ targets is the most vital task. Non-profit entities with the capability to achieve the targets that the school administration sets should run the schools (Wilson 23). Nevertheless, this is not to imply privatization of public schools in Kansas District. It simply means that they will be run by appointed operators so as to raise education standards. Several private operators such as Lincoln Prep and Academia Lafayette have succeeded in several schools in Kansas City. Success implies elevation of status in order to increase students’ enrollment. Otherwise, the schools that record continued failure have to close down or be used for other purposes. Students in Kansas District ought to be allowed to choose their preferred school.
In a nutshell, it is clear that establishing a system for public management for addressing real issues ought to be left to lower level hierarchy in leadership (Lynn and Hill 393). This way, accountability will be made integral to public management of the education system in Kansas City District. This matter has never been addressed by the previous strategies and this has caused the failure of the entire system. Nevertheless, the craft, cultural and structural approaches by Lynn and Hill can help in solving problems of the education system in Kansas City District. There are different ways that will be used by the system to motivate students by addressing their needs while enabling them to work on their future.
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Lynn, Laurence & Hill, Caroline. Public Management: A Three-Dimensional Approach, New
York: CQ Press, 2009. Print.
Wilson, James. Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It, New York:
Basic Books, 1989. Print.
Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
The responsibilities and workloads of nursing are intensified by the worldwide healthcare systems’ transformations. Today, nurses are responsible for handling emergent challenges and complexities of the healthcare situations. Despite these problems, nurses have to continually preserve and exercise caring practices so as to sustain and enhance quality performance. Watson’s theory has principles about human caring and these provide vital insights regarding the way desirable performance can be upheld by nurses.
In practical application, the important elements of Watson’s theory facilitate professional performance enhancement and values’ application. Watson (2009) in a review shows that caring as a concept is important while practicing nursing. The theoretical guidelines of Watson allow nurses to provide care and compassion to the patients while eliminating suffering and pain, attaining dignified and sustained healing as well as fostering individual actualization among the nurses. Simply put, these principles help in defining nursing profession as well as giving it a unique or distinctive meaning.
The Caring Moment Conception
Watson (2009) in a review gives the definition of caring moment. He defines it as the specific occasion both in time and space that allows nurses as well as other individuals to come together or to interact in a way that enables them to achieve a state of desirable human caring. The belief of this conception is that although the parties come from varying fields with varied and unique characteristics, they can interact successfully in human-to-human manner. In such a case, the individuals ideally exhibit different feelings, bodily sensations, thoughts, expectations, spiritual beliefs, environmental considerations and individual meanings. The characteristics that precede the situation are complex. The previous history of a person in life, present moment and imagined future influence these characteristics. For a nursing experience that is more satisfying to be achieved on the basis of caring, inherent differences should be reconciled. Nurses are tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that all differences that can undermine provision of quality healthcare are properly and effectively handled or addressed.
Caring moment provides a chance for practitioners to practice their competencies and skills with maximum efficiency. It also ensures that nursing practice benefits the patients optimally. As such, Watson (2006) gives an explanation for a caring moment to be ideal both parties have to contribute incredibly towards its creation and sustenance. The choices and actions made by individuals during this moment influence the shape and outcome of the whole process. Both parties are enabled to protect this initiative as well as to take measures that are practical in relation to realizing optimal benefits by intrinsic ownership of actions and ideas. On the basis of the critical openness principle, this goes across individual boundaries while encouraging human capabilities’ expansion (Nelson, 2011).
The Human Caring Model
Watson (2009) note that the model for human caring has carative factors, relations for transpersonal caring and caring occasion. Carative factors play an important role of enabling the nurses to respect and honor human dimensions while performing their duties. They provide vital guidelines which professionals use in exploring the patients’ inner lives and subjective experiences and also to attain the desirable results. Principally, the need to offer special attention as well as love guides them while practicing nursing. These comprises of ten elements which are hope and faith, a system for humanistic and altruistic value, transpersonal education, sensitivity to self and others, creative resolution of a problem, feelings expression, needs assistance of human, protective, supportive and corrective environment, trustworthy and helpful relationship as well as the divine forces for existential-phenomenology (Carusa, Cisar & Pipe, 2008).
Watson (2006) observes that the relation for transpersonal caring as a component is also important in nursing. This expresses nurses’ commitment to protecting and enhancing human wellbeing as well as deeper self dignity. Nurses via this relationship communicate caring consciousness in relation to respecting or honoring the embodied spirit. Nurses are prohibited by this principle from reducing themselves or patients to mere moral objects.
Additionally, this connection motivates nurses so that they can be conscious while offering care that heals their patients. Exercising nursing, perception and intentional connection makes this attainable. It is apparent at this juncture that this relationship allows nursing professionals to do more than clinical evaluation so that they can explore subjective as well as deeper meanings that any healthcare situation gives. Despite both parties being distinctive, they accept mutuality in order to get meaning as well as wholeness and also to eliminate suffering. According to Sitzman and Watson (2013), transpersonal relationship facilitates the enhancement, preservation and protection of the dignity, wholeness, inner harmony and humanity of a person.
Improving the Caring Occasion
Both the nursing practitioner and the patient consider a caring moment as a very important moment. As such, nurses should take appropriate measures in order to improve it. They can achieve this goal in different ways. Improving practitioner and patient education can help in improving this moment. This can specifically be attained through engagement in different teaching and learning experiences that are aimed at promoting harmony within the boundary limits. Apart from knowledge enhancement for the nurse and patient, both parties are empowered by this practice and it hastens the personal healing process.
Nelson (2011) observes that several activities can lead to the attainment of this objective by nurses. These include listening to the experiences of the patients actively to help them understand their illnesses better. Additionally, learning from patients first would be important in order to understand their viewpoints before sharing experiences as well as providing important alternatives and tools that can be used to assist them. As such, speaking calmly and respecting the patients’ views as well as paying attention to this moment gives the desirable results (Nelson, 2011).
The Caring Occasion in Nursing
According to Adeline (2000), caring takes place each time a nurse interacts with patients. Nurses are able to enter into the world of the patient literarily and to understand it due to these relationships. Although healing or curing can occur, caring makes it easier for nurses to perform their duties. It provides a chance for appreciating the dignity and worth of their patients. In different terms, it enables nurses to acknowledge patients’ humanistic attributes and to be committed to assisting them achieve healing. It can be argued that the belief that patients have that nurses will always care for them provides the healing hope. Watson (2009) in his study shows that hope and commitment are vital elements of caring. Patients think positively due to hope and they also believe in a living possibility. They are optimistic throughout the painful moment with the hope of recovering even when facing the risk of death. Through respect for the optimism of patients and caring, nurses support patients until they get healed. To nurses, patients are complete and whole humans. Within their soul, body and mind, patients are at peace.
Application of Watson’s Carative Factors
The carative factors of Watson were useful in different ways during caring moment. To keep the patient hopeful, the nurse paid attention and listened to the stories and narrations of the patient. This was achieved by honoring or respecting the patient’s belief system which enabled the patient to have faith and hope. This created several self-reflection opportunities and an opportunity that the practitioner used to encourage his patient to continue living. The nurse called the patient by his name during this moment. This enabled him to perceive the patient as human rather than an object.
Responding to individual feelings and needs of a patient made it possible for the nurse to establish a caring, trustworthy and helpful environment (Watson, 2009). In this regard, specific activities such as practicing self-reflection, encouraging self and others forgiveness, showing interest in the condition of the patient and establishing meaningful rituals for encouraging practicing gratitude, surrender and compassion. This led to sensitivity cultivation in both the patient and practitioner.
Developing a trusting and helping relationship on the basis of human caring principles is very important (Watson, 2006). This was attained by the nurse through the establishment of a trustworthy environment for the patient, family members and the team that was providing healthcare. Unconditional love for others was particularly practiced by the nurse. The nurse was open and sensitive while addressing different concerns. The nurse also avoided judging others while promoting direct, respectful and constructive communication. He also sought clarification when necessary. These activities helped in the cultivation of objectivity and confidence more so in making decisions.
Finally, the nurse was able to accept and promote expressions of positive and negative feelings by establishing caring environments which supported spiritual growth. The nurse achieved this by letting the patient narrate individual stories as well as reflect on their feelings and experiences. By praying constantly with patients, the practitioner was able to appreciate spirituality role as well as its influence on the process of healing. The nurse also encouraged patients through advice so that they can consider their illness from its positive aspects rather than the negative aspects. Essentially, the nurse assisted patients in devising viable approaches for handling negative feelings whose effects were far reaching on their healing process and health.
The patient’s illness may not be cured by the caring occasion directly. However, it contributes to the inner healing as well as the reconciliation of the mind, soul and body of a patient. It also encourages the improvement of nursing practice and this makes it more satisfying. The model for human caring encompasses three important elements. These are caring occasion, carative factors and transpersonal caring. Caring interactions enable nurses to exercise values as well as to go past the main objective which is to assess the disease of the patient. They enter the worlds of the patients. The carative factors’ underlying principles enable the nurses to engage in rewarding and sustainable healthcare practices. The preceding review has indicated that carative factors’ specific application in nursing practice improves efficiency while enabling the practitioners to address different challenges with maximum effectiveness.
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Adeline, R. (2000). Watson’s philosophy, science, and theory of human caring as a conceptual framework for guiding community health nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 23 (2), 34-49.
In his research, Adeline (2000) provides an in depth exploration of Watson’s theory of human caring. He begins by explaining all the constituents clearly. He believes that relative principles are imperative in community based nursing as they enable practitioners to execute their duties with ease. Besides the conceptual framework, the author details the theorist’s philosophy and explains how it relates to the field of nursing.
Caruso, E., Cisar, N. & Pipe, T. (2008). Creating a healing environment: An innovative educational approach for adopting Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 32 (2), 126.
Curaso, Cisar and Pipe (2008) assert that patient’s recovery depends directly on the conditions that the practitioners provide. According to them, the principles of Watson’s theory present important fundamentals of nursing. They insist that nursing education should be based on these principles because they are consistent with the relative objectives.
Nelson, J. (2011). Measuring caring: The next frontier in understanding workforce performance and patient outcomes. Nursing Economics, 29 (4), 215-219.
Based on empirical research, Nelson (2011) found that caring is an important benchmark for measuring work force performance in the field of nursing. The author indicates that the values and principles that caring advocates for are in line with the nursing practice. This reading was considered for this study because of the credible contributions that it makes to this field of specification. The statistical evidence played a leading role in decision making with respect to the importance of the caring conception.
Sitzman K. & Watson, J. (2013). Caring science, mindful practice: Implementing Watson’s human caring theory. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
In their research, Sitzman and Watson (2013) detail the application of Watson’s model in clinical practice. They present practical ways through which nursing professionals can apply the concepts during the execution of their duties. This reading is informative with regard to how nurses can utilize theoretical knowledge.
Watson, J. (2006). Caring as an ethical guide to administrative and clinical practices. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 30 (1), 48-55.
In this consultative review, Watson (2006) maintains that caring is an important aspect of nursing. Besides explaining the key concepts, he explores the principles, values and behaviors that constitute caring. In addition, he explains how these can be applied in professional ethics. It is for this reason that the study was considered vital for this research.
Watson, J. (2009).Caring science and human caring theory: transforming personal and professional practices of nursing and health care. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 31 (4), 466-482.
Watson (2009) indicates that caring is a humanistic science in the field of nursing. In this particular study, he demonstrates how nurses can utilize the human caring theory to enhance their output and attain high level efficiency. He believes that the caring concept is essential for realization of important nursing goals. Most importantly, he recommends that relative principles can transform the entire healthcare sector positively
Messaging While Driving
Messing or texting behaviors behind the wheel have become increasingly common amongst drivers in modern society. This has consequently contributed a great deal to texting related to accidents. Additionally, the number of subscribers using different mobile phones has increased in the past years, for instance in the US, there were almost 302.9 million wireless subscribers by December 2010, which is an increase from 100 million subscriptions within four years.
Therefore, it doesn’t come as a surprise that the gadgets are quite ambiguous in the country hence, corresponding messaging behaviors. Such habits are also known to be leading causes of distractions amongst drivers thus leading to car crash deaths. When distracted, the lives of people in the cars are endangered, lives are also destroyed and injuries are caused to the driver, passenger and other road users.
Distraction is a broad aspect including diversion of the attention of the driver from the significant role of driving to other things temporarily thus affecting his or her decision making, awareness as well as performance. Such issues have also raised a lot of concern on road user’s safety both in government, general public and other stakeholders.
For this reason, many states are implementing new laws designed to curb such risky habits amongst drivers and enhancing safety on the road.
Texting while driving is increasingly becoming an issue of concern amongst different stakeholders including the general public and the government. This is primarily based on the fact that such behaviors are known to cause distractions amongst drivers especially when it comes to their decision making and their attention on the road. The distractions indeed are highly associated with high number of road accidents meaning the issue is also threatening the safety of our roads.
Given such conditions, injuries and death rates as a result of road carnages have been increasing by the day. Therefore, this research will help to analyze issues linked to increased road accidents as a result of texting behind the wheel.
This research aims at investigating messaging issue while driving to offer solid and essential details to the people in regards to the dangers involved. Creating awareness will be the most ideal way of finding a solution to the menace since with proper awareness; the people will be able to make informed decisions when driving.
This research will additionally help to offer a clear response to the research question on texting while driving related risks. The paper will additionally demonstrate how messaging while driving increases accident risks by stating facts based on existing information showing how such behaviors on the road have been fatal and quite destructive. The information will offer substantial details that will benefit road users and transport industry stakeholders for them to generate new measures and strategies for curbing the menace.
Central Research Question
This paper will be based on research question
Does texting behind the wheel endanger the lives of road users via road accidents?
This question will act as a guide to the researcher on the major features that this research will focus. The research question in other words helps to define the scope of the research by analyzing reasons behind such behaviors. Different approaches will be utilized in generating an answer to the question including a comprehensive literature review demonstrating the present state of research issue.
Additionally, the researcher will employ a qualitative approach in generating useful data to be used in answering the question and offering proper understanding on to what level or extent such behaviors are considered detrimental to safety of road users. This research question will further guide the study in determining the relationship between texting behind the wheel and road accidents.
This study will be based on the following hypotheses
- All kinds of distractions amongst drivers pose a lot of risk to all road users including pedestrians, passengers, the driver and bystanders. The hypotheses are also based on the fact that the behavior distracts the attention of the driver both in the brain and hand such that the person will not be able to act swiftly in the event of emergency or dangerous situations.
- The use of gadgets that do not permit texting behind the wheel amongst drivers can help reduce road carnage risks. Such gadgets can take a design that doesn’t permit the use of mobile phones for instance texting or calling when the car is in motion.
- Effective and ideal channels should be employed in communicating messaging while driving related risks. For example, the media can use campaigns aimed at warning drivers among other related parties on the dangers of such habits using video clips and banners among such tools.
Clarification of Terminologies
This means the diversification of a driver’s attention from driving since he or she is concentrating temporarily on another thing for example an event, object, a person or other tasks that are not related to driving. This consequently reduces the decision making ability of the driver, performance and awareness on the road thus increasing chances of road accidents.
Assumptions that may Bias the Research
This research will be based on the notion that many drivers are more likely to text than any other kind of distraction behind the wheel. The notion will be useful in emphasizing the most common type of distraction on the road and in this case, messaging. Additionally there are other distractors that drivers are prone including hand free calls but in this case, it is presumed that drivers often text while driving.
The notion is additionally based on the fact that the paper will focus on determining the extent to which messaging interrupts the attention of a driver and its subsequent effects. The assumption will additionally be instrumental since the impact of messaging behind the wheel cannot be solely based on the growing number of road accidents.
Additionally, many are accidents are caused by other things including lack of proper experience, drinking, carelessness and lack of driving skills. The assumption is therefore very crucial when ensuring the researcher needs ideal research findings.
The increasing concerns on interruptions on drivers have occurred as a result of increasing road accidents caused by such things. There are various factors that have been closely associated with driver’s interruptions while on the road even though not quite prevalent compared to messaging. Such distractions have been noted to cause many accidents since they lead to lack of concentration or focus by the drivers.
Messaging while behind the wheel is additionally known to be unsafe habit since it is a considerable source of interruption for many drivers (Robertson et al, 2013). It is therefore essential in this case to determine the reason as to why drivers are interrupted by such texting habits. Generally, humans are serial processors of information. This means that such people cannot multitask. This assumption as a result rules out the idea of multitasking since people quickly change their attention from one part to the other across other roles on the belief that they can multitask.
However in real sense, this is not the case and any efforts to multitask often leads to minimal attention to other tasks. Robertson et al (2013) therefore noted that processing of information is quite significant in driving since it is an act that involves ‘divided attention’, a task that also includes a lot of interruptions with the manual, cognitive and visual components.
The attention moreover that the driver must accord to driving is often based on driving experience, the complexity of driving as well as driving experience.
Robertson et al (2013) stated that:
…inexperienced drivers must consciously focus more on remaining within their
Lane, whereas for experienced drivers this is very reflexive. An inexperienced driver, particularly one who is driving a technologically complex car, has to focus far more on controls and systems than someone who is familiar with the vehicle. (p.2)
Texting while driving, therefore, is a great distraction that can lead to fatal consequences.
For instance in 2010, interruption of drivers was found to be the leading cause of up to 18percent of fatal cases killing approximately 3092 people and causing up to 416000 injuries. When using mobile phones to text behind the wheel is additionally quite dangerous since they cause cognitive, visual and manual interruptions. Messaging causes diverted attention on the side of the driver from the driving itself as well as hands from the wheel.
Such interruptions are particularly common amongst young drivers or people (Farris, 2011). In real sense, many teenagers also die on the road because of texting related behaviors since they are drunk while driving. Research also reveals that up to 40 percent of American teens say that they have travelled in vehicles where the driver uses a mobile device in an inappropriate manner thus exposing them to a lot of danger.
An average teenager texting in the US sends and receives more than 3000 texts on monthly basis. Adult drivers also face distractions and dangers from such habits when on the wheel. Even so, the interruption may not be quite dominant as it is the case amongst young drivers (Farris, 2011). Teenagers in addition have a habit of engaging in activities on their devices that expose them to a lot of risks compared to adult drivers.
Trends noted amongst teenagers as a result show clearly that they are exposed to a lot of danger compared to adults. With growing numbers of teenagers using mobile phones, this also raises alarm on their safety on the road as well as that of other road users.
It is therefore essential to note that texting behind the wheel causes 23percent more times worse compared to uninterrupted form of driving. Similarly, about 11 percent of drivers are teenagers between the ages of 18 and 20 years and the get involved in road accidents but lucky to survive in the event of sending or receiving messages during the accident.
The driver’s diverted attention from the road when using mobile phones often takes about 5 seconds. For example, if the driver is travelling at 55 miles per hour, they would cover the same distance without interruption for 5 seconds, perhaps, the distance of a football field (Codey, 2013). This consequently means that the interruption time is often compromised.
Past research studies further reveal that messaging while driving subjects a driver to more cases of swerving the car in the wrong direction, into other lanes and other cases, the driver can move close to other cars compared to drivers who are driving under the influence of marijuana or alcohol. The driver, passengers, motorists and other road users therefore are exposed to a lot of danger by a driver who is distracted (Codey, 2013).
Therefore, distracted kind of driving has been an issue of great concern despite having licensed drivers who understand and admit that it is extremely risky to use mobile gadgets behind the wheel since they pose a lot of danger to the safety of a person. The risk is additionally becoming worse as time goes by following the ever growing technological advancements that allow people to utilize their smart phones and other devices to text, make social media updates and to chat.
What’s more, a large number of licensed and authorized drivers have admitted engaging in risky acts such as texting. According to Codey (2013), despite the global disapproval of mailing or messaging when behind the wheel, many drivers are still known to have read, sent or typed a message or an email while driving.
This study will utilize qualitative method in carrying out the research as its most ideal case study methodology. The approach will be efficient in offering more understanding to the issue in question within the area of study (texting while driving), thus, playing a crucial role in enhancing the already existing literature or study.
The case study is additionally a qualitative research approach that helps researchers to evaluate modern real life situations while offering an ideal platform for ideas application. In this case, application of the case study methodology will focus more on evaluating the situation of messaging while behind the wheel in a given region. The study in our case will also focus on assessing and evaluation the research issue, which in our case; the study is being carried out in New York, US. The geographical region selection will also be useful in determining the situation at hand thus getting the most ideal picture of the research issue.
Even so, the study will utilize secondary and primary data in seeking the ideal answer to the research question. The primary data will also be collected via interviews with chosen sample from New York drivers while secondary details will also be collected from books, articles and journals among other secondary sources. Such secondary sources will also be achieved online while others from the libraries.
Secondary sources have been partly used in generating literature review in the study proposal. The gathered information also demonstrates dangers of road users as a result of messaging behaviors that have become quite rampant. Primary data will also be gathered via in-depth interviews. The information plays a crucial role in enhancing secondary information. Therefore, the interviews will be the most significant data collection tools for primary information.
The data collection tool will also be efficient in getting the real scenario on the ground since it will help the interviewer to focus deep into the subject of interest while exploring more into real research issue. The researcher will additionally use 100 participants as sample including drivers selected randomly between the ages of 15 to 50 years.
The process of data collection will also take up to a month and to enhance data collection comprehensively in make general the results across the entire population. Interviews will also employ an open ended approach for flexibility purposes. The design will also enable the researcher to develop more sub questions as a way of getting more elaborate details from research respondents. The interview question will further focus on use of mobile phones while driving.
|1Month||Developing & presenting the research proposal for approval|
|2Month||Visiting the field of study and gathering data|
|1Month||Analyzing the data|
|1Week||Presenting the report|
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Codey, R. (2013). The Fata Dangers of Texting while Driving. Retrieved from http://www.njspotlight.com/stories/13/12/26/the-fatal-dangers-of-texting-while-driving/
Farris, A. (2011). LOL? Texting while Driving is no Laughing Matter: Proposing a Coordinated Response to Curb this Dangerous Activity. Journal of Law & Policy, 36(233):233-259.
Robertson, R., Mayhew, D., Brown, S., & Valaar, W. (2013). Driver Distraction and Hands-Free Texting while Driving. Traffic Injury Research Foundation, 1(1):1-10.
An entrepreneur is an individual who creatively comes up with ideas that he or she further transforms for the economic benefits while assuming all related risks. Brannback and Carsrud define an entrepreneur as an individual who is associated with generation of new activities while ensuring the act is done (4). Entrepreneurship is therefore the process of discovering various ways of combing resources to realize a market value.
It additionally involves undertaking a business activity that creates non-monetary and monetary benefits to the industrialist. An entrepreneur according to Abrams is a person who carries out leadership and managerial duties in an organization (3). Industrialization is also focused on innovation and creativity triggering distribution, production and sale of different products and services.
The activity is additionally quite significant as it plays a focal role in the growth of economy in the US. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the US, more than two million jobs were created by the newly created firms in 2010. In this regard, entrepreneurship leads to more employment opportunities in the US and is essential because it comes up with new technologies and ideas.
The U.S is additionally among the top countries that are technologically advanced across the globe. New technology allows for enhanced economic growth and offering effective solutions to social and environmental issues (Brannback and Carsrud (6). It is also essential in wealth creation at personal and national level. For instance, Bill Gates designates ninety percent of his personal earning to the foundation addressing global health issues.
Therefore, he contributed a great deal to the reduction of social issues by offering access to wealth to the less privileged in the society. Entrepreneurship is therefore paramount in the economy of the US.
There are different features that make an industrialist success in a business venture. To begin with, the individual should be very passionate with what he or she is engaging in since passion requires that a person should completely love what he or she is doing (Abrams 4). The mindset of an entrepreneur involves passionately looking for opportunities. The other entrepreneurial mindset feature is risk taking.
Getting into a new business is always a risk and involves perils. For instance an entrepreneur is not assured that the business will ultimately generate profits and that he or she may end up losing personal equity. An entrepreneur focuses a lot of his energy one plan execution despite any possible challenge that one may come across.
The entrepreneurial traditional mindset however differs a great deal from the modern mindset since traditional industrialists have a mind that is more fixed while modern counterparts are more flexible growth mindset.
The intelligence level in a fixed mindset is often static while that of a growth mindset is always growing. Industrialists traditionally could avoid challenges in an effort to appear smart as opposed to modern ones who embrace challenges as they come with the desire to learn from then. An entrepreneur with a growth mindset also embraces criticism while traditional mindset industrialist always assumes negative feedback and even avoids learning from critics.
In the end, the modern entrepreneur reaches a high achievement level to become an inspiration to others.
An entrepreneur also generates new business ideas via a thorough market research and reinvents an older idea. Market research is a continuous process that involves going around to the potential market area and identifying businesses in existence. During the visit, an industrialist will focus on the issue in a given market area. Therefore, he or she generates an ideal problem inventory analysis, a method that is quite effective in generating new ideas as well as solutions by focusing on issues.
Additionally, market research involves the use of target group that offer information in a format that is structured. These methods help an entrepreneur to get ideal knowledge of the market area that he or she is interested in. other sources of business information includes free association, modification of an existing idea and brainstorming. An entrepreneur is can also choose to reinvent an old idea and add value to it thus, making it a very successful business venture.
A person through free association as well as brainstorming can help create new ideas and venture into it. Additionally, in keeping up with modern trends and monitoring the business market, one can develop brilliant and exceptional entrepreneurship ideas.
Business ideas are mainly found within us and when an industrialist encounters a challenge, he or she will try to find an ideal solution. For example, when a person feels dissatisfied or frustrated by a given service or product, he or she will consider better ways to modify the product thus, becoming a successful industrialist.
According to Brannback and Casrud, for an industrialist to get new ideas, it is essential to have a clear understanding of the business environment (23). The business environment includes consumers, suppliers, competitors as well as the state. It is therefore easy to determine whether the client is satisfied with a given product or not. If not satisfied, the industrialist can consider new ways of enhancing the client to ensure the client is satisfied.
A business idea is usually different from a business opportunity since an opportunity is an idea that is just getting started. Ideas are in abundance while opportunities are often scarce especially when it comes to creating a profitable business (Brannback and Carsrud 26). Lucrative business opportunities are often driven by clients as the entrepreneur identifies clients with the ability to purchase products thus generating a significant amount of cash flow. An opportunity is also closely related to the likes of an entrepreneur and has a passion of engaging in the business.
On the other hand, a business idea can be generated from different sources including reading an article or even sourcing it from a person hence, not aligned with the interests of an entrepreneur. A business opportunity also calls for ideal timing unlike in the case of an idea since it can be generated at any given time and immediately put into practice.
An industrialist can also develop an idea and stay for a long period of time trying to observe market trends until he or she is satisfied or gets an ideal opportunity to engage in a business. Depending on just ideas leads to failure on the part of an entrepreneur since there is need to acknowledge an economic advantage on competitors.
A business opportunity also involves having clear market awareness and possible challenges that one is likely to face (Brannback and Carsrud 28). Even so, a business opportunity can be arrived at by observing trends in the market where an industrialist also gets an idea. Entrepreneurship begins with generation of an idea, identification of a lucrative business opportunity and taking the right steps to transform the idea into a business.
A business plan is divided into different sections that have various objectives
An executive summary is a review of the business plan and is usually the last thing to be drafted. The details in the summary focus on the industrialist’s experience as well as background details of a given venture. Its main purpose is to summary major points of the business plan to help save the time the reader spends on the plan (Finch 18). It also aims at tapping the attention of the reader and to entire them into reading the entire document.
This part contains a clear definition of products and services including their worth, features and visual aids (Finch 18). Protection of a product as well as its patent rights is also contained in venture description in the plan. It also includes the location of the business, its size, target market and brief history. Lastly, it consists of a competitive advantage of the business venture as well as its main purpose of offering a clear insight to the reader on the feasibility of the venture.
This part of the business plan clearly outlines the knowledge of an entrepreneur on the industry and monetary forecasts (Finch 20). It also defines the outlook of the market and present growth rate trends, main client groups and specific industry features. It also consists of estimated share of the market, pricing and gross margin targets.
A marketing plan definition outlines different methods that will be utilizes in sales marketing. Its main purpose is to achieve measureable and reasonable promotion methods.
This part shows authority hierarchy in the business world from the top management to the lowest level. It focuses on various managerial roles in the business premise.
This part includes facilities and tools in the business and the stock needed in the business.
Financial plan consists of complete guide on the capital required in the business as well as the expected employee salaries.
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Abrams, Rhoda. Entrepreneurship: a real world Approach. 2012. Print.
Carsrud, Alan L, and Malin E. Brännback. Entrepreneurship. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Greenwood Press, 2007. Print.
Finch, Brian. How to Write a Business Plan. London: Kogan Page, 2013. Internet resource.
This journal outlines a wide range of my learning experiences during my MBA program, stating particular achievements and skills acquired in every course that I undertook together with my personal growth and development. I have mainly focused on areas, which I feel had a significant impact throughout this program. This is directly linked to the connect-ability and conveying various aspects, which I plan to execute as I do environmental work. Importantly, these approaches further delve in my background and experiences, borrowing from what I would have done differently. However, the weighted analogue does not mean that the other courses were of no value to my course, as limited time and space were major determinants while working on this learning journal.
As an MBA student, I have perfected the art of planning, managing, organizing and successful coordination especially in a complex environment, which characterizes private and publics. Importantly, all these activities must take place within existing legal and societal frameworks. In essence, ethics has been a pillar throughout this program. Notably, my native culture is different from this country’s beliefs. Nonetheless, appreciating the diversity of culture is the best way of learning about ethics. This is because what some people consider ethical could be unethical in some parts of the world.
Strategy formulation and implementation course had a great impact on my understanding of business. During the program, I realized my ability to see things from a bigger angle and I was always motivated to participate in teamwork to achieve set targets and goals. Although I have mentioned this in-depth in my curriculum vitae and during the interview, visualizing myself in a team that the organization wanted was not easy. It was quite momentous and memorable when the tutor outlined the steps followed in strategy formulation.
As a customer service officer at Berlitz Language Institute, I appreciated the role of communication and excellent interpersonal skills in good business management. Having completed this MBA program, I am certain that I would approach the same task differently and achieve better results if given the same job. Even though I would still apply communication and interpersonal skills largely, this MBA program has changed their mental application. With these skills, I see a shift of my focus with a high possibility of taking up the line business marketing. Having tackled Marketing Management in this program, I now appreciate the significance of marketing in order to excel in the market. I also have an understanding of various marketing attributes, which was through training that addressed principles of market segmentation, target market, relationship marketing, competitor analysis, market research, marketing strategies and promotion planning.
After internalizing the situation at Berlitz, the business hit the ceiling during my second year at the company. During that time, the business heavily depended on the existing market of continuing students who opted to enroll for an additional course at the university. With this approach of having, a market niche helped in meeting the needs of students holistically. While this was an excellent target market approach, the university failed to address the growing need of evening classes for the working class people, who are seeking enrolment for different courses. With the expanding market of the working class and the demand for evening and weekend programs, I would be a key player in developing a marketing strategy that is different from the traditional approach.
Through this program, I have mastered how to establish a strategy and visualized a strategic plan for Al Salam Medical Clinic in Saudi Arabia, where I worked as a receptionist. Even though I was involved directly into the management of the clinic, I grasped business operations at the facility as I interacted with the ins and outs of the hospital. At the time, I was unable to establish a picture of the business but looking back; I see the loose ends and visualize the business position in terms of a bigger picture.
After conducting a SWOT analysis of the business based on my memory, I realized that the firm suffered because of the absence of a strategic plan to move the business forward. This would have been through capitalizing on a limiting public health system in Saudi Arabia to come up with a medical scheme in form of a product that captures the expatriates who cannot access medical services in public hospitals. The failure emanates from the usage of Arabic in branding business, failure to target this market segment and the biased attention to locals.
This program also covered project management, which was a key course in instilling me with teamwork skills. From my curriculum vitae, it is evident that working in teams is no longer a challenge to me, with a diverse cultural background, which allows me to deliver results within a given time. I have constantly used this attribute as my selling point whenever I go job interviews. However, I may have missed a mark by assuming that multicultural refers to striving in groups that have people of varying age, level of education, race and creed. Where groups have members with almost equal level of education, the same age group, and race and where color does not matter, being a team player also requires personal efforts.
Importantly, project management classes mainly focused on coming up with teams and working on practical projects within a specified duration. I was exposed to a range of aspects of projects including task formulation, project management, establishing surroundings, stakeholders and resources. We also covered tasks of a project manager together with organizational settings of projects. To achieve this, we had lectures on management styles that we should expect in different organizations. We undertook a range of projects under the leadership of team members and identified management styles in action. Through a personal evaluation, I was able to agree with the findings of a survey we carried out among classmates that saw me fall in the category of transformative leaders. This led to the readjustment of my career dreams from working towards realizing insights in situations to developing systems, which drive change within any environment. As such, I have come to realize that I give preference to administrative and entrepreneurial roles through early structural planning. The benefit of this has been the ability to overcome pressure during heated group discussions and visualize strategies before actual implementation.
Learning something new has always been my principle. I have demonstrated this through my work experience by always going an extra mile to hit the target. I now have a foundation for my career after undertaking courses in management science, financial accounting, business statistics, and accounting during this MBA program. I must however say that I experienced enormous challenges in early stages of the program since I lacked management background as I assumed that only accountants needed accounting knowledge. With an arts degree and diploma in Public Relations, I needed accounting skills to boost by capability. With time, I appreciated that management accounting, business statistics, and financial accounting were different from the ‘hard sciences’ mentality which I had conceived before. Because of my willingness to learn something new, I gained competency in a field, which I had never conceived before in my mind. This MBA program has also furthered my analytical and problem-solving skills, as I feel comfortable and well equipped in financial reporting, analysis and interpretation.
With macroeconomics and microeconomics units in the program, I gained skills in predicting market forces at all times. Microeconomics course covered theories of market forces, like demand and supply, cost analysis, price mechanisms, and resource allocation. On the other hand, macroeconomics focused on unemployment, inflation, economic growth and monetary policies. Because of the knowledge from this section of the program, I was able to understand market principles, allowing me to take note of the external and internal factors, which affect businesses. Evidently, microeconomic section majored in theoretical application, with minimal practical approaches. I only got the concepts by visualizing the issues based on my real life experiences.
This course was a milestone in expanding existing knowledge and adding new skills in finance, managing people, accounting, marketing, economics, and international business. I must confess that strategic decision-making stood out throughout the program. With this knowledge, I aspire to improve the lives of women and children in Saudi Arabia, as the world sees these people through the lenses of a restrictive culture. While this study and discussion touches on many areas of business management, it fails to address institutional frameworks, which could be used in the improvement of healthcare and education. As I go back to my country, I look forward to working closely with the vulnerable groups to spur change in Saudi Arabia. Now that I have realized the problem, it is upon me to develop a strategy to tackle it by applying all that I have learned in my MBA Program.
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Legal Requirements for Obtaining a Search Warrant in the US
A search warrant refers to a request bearing the name of an individual, authorized by a justice or other legal power and giving search powers to an officer for a specified asset and presents the findings before the judge (Nova Scotia v. MacIntyre, 1982). Even though most officers know permissions and procedures for search warrants, several legal pitfalls could discredit a search warrant, lead to rejection of cases or trigger obligation suggestion, binding the officers involved (Holcomb, 2003). Thus, officers require prior legal knowledge surrounding search warrants with the aim of concealing the evidence. Throughout the processes, supporting Constitutional privileges is necessary for officers to discharge their duties ethically, morally and within legal confines devoid of pitfalls.
At all times, individuals have the right to be protected against unnecessary searches and seizures within their persons, houses, papers and impacts (Holcomb, 2003). It is worth noting that The Fourth Amendment prohibits irrational searches and seizures. A search is rational if a judge issues the warrant or under circumstances that necessitate search even without a warrant like a search for weapons after seizure. In case one lacks a “real desire of security” in whatever that is being searched, then The Fourth Amendment’s necessities are invalid.
Using technology to watch over an individual can infringe the Fourth Amendment rights of the searched individual. For instance, tapping a person’s phone calls is a common electronic observation, which the law has improved. Courts have however maintained that this could amount to search based on the Fourth Amendment since the law provides security rights in cases where the individual desires real protection. Courts have held that no one would want a government executor to tap phone calls during discussions. Therefore, an individual has the right of security if they legitimately show that the area under search is personal and or confidential. In this case, the law allows flexibility to tap discussions du ring penitentiary visits since it logically complies with jail security. With regard to the applicable to seizures and searches, the Fourth Amendment Warrant Clause applies to tapping. To get an e-observation warrant, one has to demonstrate the cards motive, depict the kind of discussion to tap, and specify the time.
Likewise, critical circumstances as with standard searches and seizures could invalidate acquisition of a warrant for law implementation. In case where an individual’s life is undermined, the national security is compromised or a plot to commit criminal acts, then the need for first getting warrant could be ignored.
Notably, Congress enacted a ranged of laws in 1986 regarding electronic observation and tapping under the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA). According to court interpretation of the Act, judges have the power to grant search warrants to law enforcement officers. Even though there are many established tests, the courts have maintained this position.
Additionally, the ECPA gives direction for people who come under illegal electronic investigations by the police. If a person goes against the ECPA through their practices, the victim may sue the individual for compensatory harms, reformatory harms, and fair alleviation where fair easing could correct the offense. Here, the offended may only sue the person who conducted the tapping minus unbiased gatherings, which accept the recording as a duplicate.
With the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 2006, telecommunication companies are involved when the law adopts wiretap. This allows access to frameworks and offices that allows tracking communication of one subscriber without infringing on the security rights of an alternate subscriber.
Case law further allows gathering of intelligence from foreign nationals through wiretapping as long as the goal of the practice does not go beyond the existing summon. As a result, the Congress adopted the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) in 1978. The Act gives the evidence before getting an observation warrant together with methods that could be used during investigations and with remote knowledge. The Acts privileges further cover American subjects, which relate to investigation.
Importantly, FISA’s procurements allow investigations under two conditions. Firstly, FISA allows the President to order warrantless wiretapping where there potential severe harm to the US or when private activities on the legislature does not threaten any American. In the second scenario, a warrant may be issued outside sagacity, which falls below the threshold of the primary condition. For FISA to obtain this warrant there must be evidence that the person to be tapped exerts external force and that an outside force could utilize the spot for tapping. FISA too has a court framework under the Department of Justice. “FISA courts” mainly work towards getting warrants, requests steering agreeability, and tests to consistence requests.
However, the Patriot Act made changes on electronic communication laws, including the ECPA and FISA expanding the law to combat terrorism in the US. Importantly, the Patriot Act quashed room for the president to issue warrantless search orders against non-US nationals even though it entrenched US residents leading First Amendment-related exercises. The alterations also saw saved voicemails put under conventional search and seizure laws and from more severe observation laws.
The Patriot Act also allowed wandering wiretaps though they remained disputable. A wandering wiretapping occurs when a court issues a search warrant to officers without identifying the interchanges bearer and other gathering that could be included in the faucet. This is essential to the FBI and brainpower gathering neighborhoods because terrorists could temper with PCs, cell phones and emails so fast after correspondence and realizing that the legislature had tapped the system. This concerned common emancipations exercises as they opined that it undermined the Particularity Clause of the Fourth Amendment.
In understanding the history the US, it is important to note that one of the aims of the American Revolution was to ensure that the rule of law takes predominance in the society. In fact, the principle of law is always equated to an old phrase; the US is a country of laws. Under the principle of law, standards, which make up the US legitimate framework and without arbitrary whims and impulses of the legislature advocate for government activities.
Another line of qualification exists between force and power. Law enforcement officers have the obligation to lead investigations, make arrests, and use lethal force within the legal framework. Any action outside the law constitutes to criminal activity. A good example when Laurence Powell of LAPD was indicted for applying unnecessary force on Rodney King, who had been ceased for speeding. Powell repeatedly hit King even though he had complied and lay on the ground.
The amendment was important to create a protected cushion between Americans and the ruthless laws. The law has three parts. First, it allows protection of US nationals while in their persons, houses and impacts. The second part secures the first but baring unwarranted searches and seizures. The third section prohibits blind warrants and that warrants must identify the area of search and the person to seize.
Where there is a concealment hearing, Fourth Amendment inquiry will always arise throughout a criminal case. A plaintiff who asks for scrutiny of how police got confirmation against them and weigh if the investigation is protected provokes this kind of hearing. If the officers obtained the proof against the Fourth Amendment, then it is avoided during trial and is not presented to the jury (Moenssens, 2005). The Exclusionary Rule discourages officers from misconduct and protects litigants.
In cases where there thorough watchdog, the court is likely to prohibit any form of confirmation. First, it must establish if the Fourth Amendment applies to the case at hand. Before specific search or seizure offers ascent to Fourth Amendment assurance two conditions must be met. First, an administration executor should have led the search or seizure or as per government bearing. In addition, the activities everyone involved including state and law requirement officers and individuals will be liable to the limitation of the amendment. Bothering, wiretapping, and other exercises by private natives would miss Fourth Amendment insurance
Sometimes police perform and execute their obligation without warrants and most searches take place without warrants (Moenssens, 2005). This however does not give police permission to conduct unnecessary searches when a sensible desire of protection exists and there is no plausible reason.
A person has a right to deny police access to their premises if they appear asserting their intentions to conduct a search. However, sometimes people grant them entry to avoid being accused of meddling in investigations or avoid being hurt. Moreover, you have a right to say no to any search and you can put to task the officers to give a recognizable proof as to why they are in your area. The officers may as well read to you the warrant if they do not have a hard copy.
A police officer can obtain a search warrant by demonstrating to a judge or justice that a possible reason exists based on immediate data or prattle data. It is worth noting that the assets and person could be apprehended with search warrants. According to the law, it is easier to get a search warrant than finding evidence for an afterward sentencing. This is because the confirmation in the absence of a search warrant might be insufficient to convict.
In America, police do not require a warrant to search a car as long as there a likely causes to suggest that you intend to commit a crime. Considering the existing law, police may search travelers section, trunk, and car holders, potentially fit to hold the suspected object (Regini, 1999). In addition, officers do not require a warrant to conduct a search of a suspect’s external cover of the weapon if there is sensible suspicion for the interruption. In some cases, police would not require warrant i.e. where the person in charge of the item or items gives assent for search.
In cases involving leased property, the proprietor has a right to deny access to the premise in the absence of a warrant from officers. Here, the same procedures for acquiring warrants involving property owners apply. In a few purviews, officers may search an inn room even minus warrant and consent of the visitor but permission from the lodge administrator. Police officers may further search a specific spot described in the warrant and seize goods portrayed. Police do not search property if the warrant says the lawn. While officers are restricted to the depicted area and items by the warrant, in their search process, they may stumble on a confirmation of wrongdoings and be forced to seize unlisted items.
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Holcomb, J. W. (March 2003). Obtaining Written Consent to Search. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 72.
Moenssens, A. A. (2005). Forensic-Evidence.com: Police Procedures /The Validity of Consent Searches. Retrieved August 14, 2006, Web site: http://www.forensic-evidence.com/site/Police/nonverbalconsent.html
Nova Scotia v. MacIntyre,  1 S.C.R. 175 at p.1791982 CanLII 14
Regini, L. A. (July 1999).The Motor Vehicle Exception: When and Where to Search. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 68, 27-33.
Deductive argument refers to a type of reasoning in which the conclusion necessarily follows from premises. If for example, the premises in deductive argument is true in the sense it strongly supports the conclusion, then it can be said the conclusion must necessarily be true. Deductive arguments have 3 parts which include; major premise, minor premise and a conclusion. Major premise is a deductive argument that has both major and middle terms. The middle term is found in the premises of the argument and not the conclusion. The major term is found in both major premise and the conclusion. It is very important to note major term forms predicate of the assumption. Minor premise follows major premise in deductive argument as the second premise. It has both minor and middle terms. Minor terms for the subject of inference.
Example of deductive argument
P1: All reptiles are coldblooded animals
P2: A snake is a reptile
C: Therefore a snake is a cold blooded animal
In the statement above, the major premise is that All reptiles are cold blooded animals. In the argument, the term Reptiles is the middle term while terms coldblooded animals form the major term. Therefore, the minor remise is a snake is a reptile. Within it, the minor term is snake. In the conclusion, a snake is a cold blooded animal; the term snake is subject term while a cold blooded animal is predicate term. The conclusion necessarily follows from premises.
Deductive argument qualifies as sound if the premises is true and the argument must be valid. An argument is valid if its supposition follows from the premise.
Pyhrronian Comprehensive Doctrine of Scepticism
The doctrine contents arguments in differing ways have basis on idea of dispute. This is due to the fact philosopher’s arguments revolve around what humans cannot and can know. The arguments never seem to come to an end because upon conclusion of one argument, another comes up and the debate goes on. With this in mind, phyrronism argues no claim can be made to any kind of knowledge since such claims can be overturned and no such thing like indefeasible knowledge exists (Sinnott-Armstrong 71). As such, there is completely nothing that humans can claim they have certainty over. Therefore, ordinary epistemology is useless and a waste of time. The only solution that exists to the problem according to pyhrrorism is to live free of examination of claims to knowledge. This kind of life entails accepting things as they seem and living.
According to pyhrronism, the main difficulty philosophers experience in the attempt at developing knowledge seems to arise from the fact knowledge is dependent on the technique whose intention is the justification of our beliefs. The circularity of the argument, for example, contends certain arguments presented arrive at conclusions by making the assumption the truth of that which they are set out to prove. For example, if the argument made by an individual supports A on basis of B, then it turns out so as to accept the truth B, the individual needs to accept the truth A, then such argument becomes circular and does not arrive to any concrete truth because of the claim that a given argument can be true if only it is supported by another truth which relies on the truth of another argument (Sinnott-Armstrong 73).
Descartes Dream Argument
Descartes, in the first meditation presents his dream argument where he claims when he sleeps, there are times when he thinks he is awake since he feels the presence of real things while in truth, he is asleep and dreaming. Further, Descartes contends in some instances, while in a dream, he sits by a fire in his room and he is able to feel the warmth generated by the fire. The truth is that he is asleep on his bed. According to Descartes, the feeling is synonymous to what he feels while he is awake. The fact he feels the fire does not provide basis of differentiating whether he is dreaming or awake.
His dreaming argument attempts to show one cannot trust their senses as they convey a feeling of fire while none exists. It is as well difficult to accept the fact the fire exists when he feel it while awake as one cannot be certain whether they are dreaming or awake.
Descartes Meditations aim at construction of a rigorous and systematic system of knowledge. This is through employment of scientific approach that enables him to construct a body of knowledge free of doubt. The argument of dreams helps discard all sense based and purported knowledge so as to reconstruct it upon a foundation that s more secure. To attain this new knowledge body, Descartes begins to assess all he knows to be true. He starts by doubting everything so as to clear the slate and develop indubitable and certain beliefs. When this is attained, he then constructs a strong foundation for edifice knowledge.
Descartes on God’s existence
Descartes makes the argument that God is a tremendous perfect being, he must exist because of being in perfection. According to Descartes, God is an all-powerful and independent being who is powerful and a perfect being that can be fathomed. He states since being contains more reality rather than nothingness, and goes is a perfect being, God must exist. According to Descartes, for God not to exist, he would not be a supreme perfect being.
Criterion is clearness and distinctness plays an important role in attachment to existence of God. According to Descartes, the knowledge of existence of God is not just present and available to the mind, but it is clear and sharply detached from other discernments, distinct. It is just that God can be perceived as the supreme perfect being that exists.
The Cartesian Circle refutes the argument made by Descartes regarding existence of God on the claims Descartes’ perspective is circular. This is due to the fact Descartes infers presence of God from distinct and clear insights that construe dependability of distinct and clear insights from existence of God (Rose 77). When Descartes makes the argument that one can be certain of God’s existence only when they perceive the notion in a distinct and clear manner, the argument has circular reasoning. This is especially true when both arguments are believed to be true. Appearance of circularity therefore arises from deficiency in precision of his statements rather than error of reasoning (Rose 80).
At Essays Experts, we offer the best academic research writing services that you can always rely on for fulfilling grades. By simply placing an order with us, you are guaranteed original and top notch academic papers for any assignment.
Rose, E., L. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. International Phenomenological
Society, Vol. 26, No.1, pp. 77- 80, 1965.
Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter. Pyrrhonian Skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.
71-73, 2004. Print
Apple Company External and Internal Environments
Apple Computer Company started operations in the personal computing field in 1978, but because of administration alterations, lost chances and variation of views, the company lost its competitive edge to corporations like Dell and Microsoft. Apple, however attempted to make a differentiation of its brands to restrict customers from switching to rival brands. Presently, the company is faced with the challenge to sustaining its central marketing competencies, originality, brand administration and affiliation building as it operates a wider brand variety and expounds to more markets (Naraine, 2004). This paper is an analysis of the factors that influence the internal and external environments of Apple.
General Environment Analysis
Ever since 2000 there was subversion of the financial system, the electronic computer business has been scrambling. The legal and economic segments are the major environmental sectors influencing the company.
The 2003 U.S population census statistics were concluded at 281, 421, 05 citizens and in 2007 estimated at 294,444,407 people. This was an increment of 13 million citizens in a span of less than 4 years. Increment in residents compounded with technological improvements will continue to drive improved transactions in the arising technology markets. Americans begin using computer in early years. Figures analysis easily remonstrates a great number of American residents are of age to use computers in various styles or ways. Still, some of these aged generations are using computer applications for research. Local population is comprised of 85% of people who are aged over 24 years with minimal senior high school qualifications and 28% who have had first degree or masters (Hitt, Ireland, &Hoskisson, 2013). It was conceived that 12% of the population was living in poverty. The assessment of world population for 2005 was 6,450,000,000 inhabitants and for 2010 it was 6,810,000,000 (Rezvani, Gilaninia & Mousavian, 2011). Statistics indicate that in future, there will be a further increase. This population increase forces Apple Incorporation and the entire computer world to ensure they boost production in order to meet expanding demand. The industry of computers is rising swiftly in the Asian continent and according to statistics, a great section of the population increase will be within that region.
Legal and Political Segment
Apple is faced with legal segment challenges at a national and overseas level. Nationally, the State and Federal administration continues to stiffen on matters of environment which hamper the manufacture and dumping of units. Environmental matters are issues that affect all computer companies straightforward. The Environmental Protection Agency, in 1995, October modified the Report of the Computer Industry Policy. The report provides declarations that must be followed by companies that deal with the manufacture of computer parts. Apple, intentionally encourages the buyback as well as appropriate dumping of computer components in the attempt to support stewardship production from the viewpoint of the environment. Different countries also enforce restrictions on computer parts and their applications once set. China is a good example that provides clarification of some of these matters. China, begun allowing computers into the country during the mid-90s but it has restrictions on applications (Rezvani et al., 2011). Apple also faces the struggle of overpowering market domination of personal computers though it does have a great chance in the world of music. Apple and other corporations dealing with computers in the US have come to the realization that doubling and pirating are quite prevalent in the United States as well as other states. This action which is unlawful directly affects successful operation of corporations in electronic industry.
All markets, and the business world, are assessed through use of Porter’s five force hypothesis. Porter’s applies 5 forces; obstacles to entry, provider power, extent of competition, purchaser power and risk of substitutes as elements that help in examining the status of a company alongside contenders. The risk of substitutes as well as extent of competition are some of the most significant factors that affect the operations of Apple currently.
Threats of Substitute Components
Apple Corporation faces the high risk of substitute components that are obtainable promptly. Rivals like Dell and IBM persuade buyers that they have brands that are of quality that is better compared to those of Apple. Apple, has however made the attempt to differentiate its brands in order to restrict customers from making a switch to rival brands. Apple’s brands, additionally command a market price that is high when compared to other competing brands. Even though the prices of Apple are higher, the company provides justification for the prices. Apple’s operating system specialization command, however skyrockets costs when delivered to inventive population designer when compared to purchasers of individual computer except where they seek graphic capacities that are superior (Boutellier, Gassmann, & Von Zedtwitz, 2008).
Competition with other Companies
Apple is in competition with companies that enjoy the benefit of a bigger market portion. The company therefore is forced to compete with companies like IBM, Hewlett-Packard and Dell. Still, minor firms such as Gateway also present a huge risk. In the manufacturing industry of computers, rivalry is vicious and expenditures switching is low. Apple as well is dependent on advancement of its individual operating system. The possibility of success is minimal as contestants chase niche markets rather than make attempts to contend with larger firms. Apple placed itself years’ before the competition as such, it has made room in the industry of computers like Dell, Gateway and IBM (Naraine, 2004).
Strategies to Address Future Competition Forces
Apple is supposed to persist with the promotion of inventive expert and educational markets. Apple is a firm with the best systems in position for such markets as such, it should concentrate on unrelenting funding for every regulatory approach. The backing outlay in the perspective of a market niche is supposed to get reexamined economically so that Research and Development expenditures do not drag into a situation that is unfeasible in making a return (Boutellier et al., 2008). Apple also has the option of incorporating its operating systems so it can work within Wintel operating program but this is not supposed to be limited to Wintel setbacks. Apple has also proved to be a controlling system that is superior and less susceptible to hitches that Microsoft faced and its operating system software (Naraine, 2004).
Key External Threats
The technological revolution speed and competition are threats that are most serious that Apple Computer Company faces. Its strategy shifts into communication gadgets and mobile entertainment that is portable placing the firm in situations that are competitive from varying sides. New contestants, prospective brands as well as opponents that are lowly prices threaten to lower the worth of Apple brands and its policy success.
Apple’s Diverse Operating System
Apple can use its operating system variations by spinning it into a chance formulating perfections to Macintosh program in order to achieve greater design and optional benefits over its rival software. Different computer viruses as well as cyberpunk irregularities present quite impressive prospect for the company to embellish and benefit some small sections of such an upset market.
Apple’s Engagement into the Music Business
The investment of the company in the world of music with its iTunes is a presentation of good prospect to enhance the knowledge of the brand. Introduction of iPods Music Shop also fronts fetches in excess of 2 million downloads in 15 days. All downloads were run on Macintosh mainframes. The establishment of the company of its international music shop would be an ideal prospect.
Microsoft Upgrade Expenditures against Advantage
Microsoft customers find it is less practicable to upgrade software programs except in instances when they can actually perceive a gain for the spent. The latest improvements by Microsoft are beleaguered with bugs which present a major magnificent prospect that Apple can use its benefit only if it avoids making the same mistake with its upgrades.
Apple’s Greatest Strengths and Significant Weaknesses
In the mid-1980s when the company was new in the market, its brand distinguished it from other company brands and up to date, it has capitalized on this fact for its products. The system is still a strong point for Apple since its operating system is not in any way susceptible to computer bugs and espionage invading other systems. The limited portion market that is held by Apple is enlarged whenever Microsoft is faced with setbacks.
Brand Identity and Reputation
Product brands aids in keeping the customers updated of company merchandise. Whenever a firm institutes fashionable brand name or reputation, it obtains several advantages. There are a number of advantages related with brand reputation and these include, capacity to trim down on production from acknowledgment viewpoint. Apple computers have obtained business identity from Steve Job’s and this has borne fruits.
Dealing with Software and Hardware
The top management of Apple is acting on blend of software and hardware development and it does not make any proposals to dismiss its workers since employees contribute to the company’s success. Apple will continue to operate in an excellent manner while management practices of the business of manufacturing software and computers that even some of the tough opponents deem finest. The company does not make software and computer components for its machines as such it has capability of regulating its design with the purpose of conforming it to operational applications as well as artistic wanted by the customers.
Financial and Political Ambiguity
The functional operations of the company are influenced by political and fiscal ambiguity that glooms the US. Educational institutions at times defer procurement due to budget deficits and restraints. Business enterprises also are not expanding and employment cutbacks experienced render less disposable income therefore reducing sales. Failure in recovery might persist thus impacting the firm as well as providers unconstructively. The entire market has been greatly undermined by the political and fiscal vagueness as well as other restrictions.
Research and Development Expenditures higher than of Business Rivals
Apple has operated exceptionally hard in order to attain this and as such, incurred more costs for development and research than contestants. The heightened expenditure unconstructively impacts income margin and with contestants reduction to product prices, it becomes complex to contend on the same playing field.
General and Administrative Expenses are more than their Rivals’
Growth into international outlets has led to an increase in the company’s expenditures. Marketing expenses for promotion of its exceptional operating system and its innovative equipment also impacts the bottom line, though the costs are essential. Contestants also have the capability of benefiting from comfort of application of operating systems that manage substantial quantity of market share therefore, they fail to use as such for purposes of advertising operating system.
Apple has the ability to enhance diversification by introduction of new products into the market. By ushering new products, it will be able to edge its market share since majority of people have the desire for attractive and the latest products in the market. Apple is also renowned as a trendsetter in fields of personal computers, operating systems, individual music machines, software applications, cell phones as well as advertising and retail. Apple is committed to concentrate its central strengths with senior leaders in management of iPods, Macs, software applications, international marketing and computer engineering. In the approach of differentiation, Apple attempts to be exceptional in the industry about aspects that the purchasers esteem (Moriane, 2004). It picks on one or more features that majority of purchasers in the industry consider significant and positions itself exclusively to fulfill such wants. Apple has also formulated its core strength of understanding purchasers and formulating products in order to improve digital ways of life. Through persisting to devote in raising customer insights, the company transforms the lessons into products presenting exclusive attributes and requiring a high price.
Company’s Resources, Capabilities and Competencies
The competencies of the company are focused in markets of learning and innovative expert fields. Apple has already established supremacy in both fields and continues to concentrate on them. It has already started enlarging its retail channels in order to get its products to the people and is achieving great steps in the world of music. These improvement also keep the clients focused and deliver sizeable revenue. Apple’s engineering, innovative capacities as well as scientific Advancement abilities are highly significant aspects that are competitive assets of the company. The outstanding creativity is the most noteworthy source of the company’s competitiveness in the long term. The most significant abilities and resources of the corporation are the top leaders in the company, Steve Jobs and the incorporated software and hardware system the company has efficiently promoted and established to acquire value. Whilst the designers of the company, engineers and IT experts comprise the major resources, the capacity of the company in exploiting their talents to build products is its main capability (Zhouying & Ying, 2011).
Assessment of Apple’s Value Chain
The main actions of Apple in its value chain differ slightly from the conventional model where materials get worked into finished products for retail to a buyer, earning value in every step of the process. The major activities of the company in its value chain are reliant greatly on reinforcement activities of human resources and management. Apple also constantly attempts to employ the most experienced and capable individuals to guarantee it shines at development and research of its programs and technology (Naraine, 2004). As a matter of fact, Apple repeatedly offers examinations and skill challenges to help recruiters sort through enormous curricula vitae they receive. Next to employees, a large section of expenditure structure goes to systems and infrastructure. Apple’s in-house software and computers make it possible for it to carry out service, operations, sales and supply. Every action adds to the value chain by increasing the company’s income.
Through transferring activities geographically, Apple is able to take advantage of diversity from the viewpoint of human resources, lowering wages in other countries apart from the US. Application of the competencies of Apple in different product markets lowers the reliance of Apple on profits from one market. Related diversification makes it possible for the company to share its activities, technologies and resources across different product lines and transfer of skills and intangible core competencies also offers successful avenue for acquisition of significant market share. On top of this, affiliations with other powerful brand names helps boost the promotion experience of Apple and it boosts customer confidence (Zhouying & Ying, 2011).
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Boutellier, R., Gassmann, O., & Von Zedtwitz, M. (2008). Managing global innovation: uncovering the secrets of future competitiveness. California: Springer.
Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., &Hoskisson, R. E. (2013). Strategic management: Concepts and cases: Competiveness and globalization (10th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Naraine, R. (2004). Apple: Real Networks hacked iPod. Retrieved from http://www.internetnews.com/bus-news/article.php/3387871
Rezvani, M., Gilaninia, S., &Mousavian, S. J. (2011). Strategic planning: a tool for managing organizations in competitive environments. Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 5(9) 1537-1546.
Zhouying, J., & Ying, B. (2011). Sustainable development and long-term strategic management. World Future Review, 3(2) 49-69.
Integrating Culture and Diversity in Decision Making
Google is a multinational company that is based in America and it spends a lot of time on Internet-related items and administrations. Some of these integrate cloud computing software, internet and search publicizing innovations. The large percentage of its benefits are determined from Adwords (Vise, 2005).
Google was established by Sergey Brin and Larry Page while they were undertaking their Doctorate degree at the University of Stanford. These two joined Google as an organization that was secretly held on 4th September 1998. The first stock sale was accompanies on August 19, 2004. Its explanation mission from the beginning was “to arrange the planet’s data and make it all around approachable and advantageous” while the informal trademark was “Don’t be abhorrent” (Lenssen, 2007). The company, in 2007 moved to central station in Mountain View, California which is referred to as Googleplex.
The workers gained extensive profits bundle incorporating educational cost repayment, help benefits reception, on-location specialist, kid consideration focus, monetary arrangement classes, heaps of opportunities to accumulate with its collaborators at corporate exceptional occasions. The theory Google put forward placed great significance on not-for-profit work, as such Google matches up to $ 3,000 of its representative commitments to charity associations.
Google Inc. has also gained great consideration and approval because of its organizational culture which is unique and intended to support both imagination and devotion. Google as well has made a lot of critical items through accentuation on improvement, incorporation of Google web crawler, Google Maps and Google Chrome Web Program. Currently, the organization is bigger than it was the point where the society initially improved, compelled a few progressions to its first ever show.
Google has also stated itself as a standout amongst predominant constrains on the Internet. Still, it says its mission is “to sort out the planet’s data and make it generally open and helpful”. With such a grand objective, it is an exceptional wager that individuals who are behind the company feel that their work is just starting.
There are concerns that Google’s IPO might speed up changes in the organization society. Explanation shifted from shareholder weight for representation of profit diminishment to the manner different organization executives might acquire moment paper tycoons. As the answer to the concerns, benefactors Larry and Sergey guaranteed in a report to some potential gurus that IPO would not change the culture of the organization. The New York Times, as well as other different sources begun inferring the company lost its hostile corporate, abhorrent logic in 2005, articles (Rivlin, 2005).
In the effort to administer the interesting society that is part of the organization, Google nominated a Chief Culture Officer who served as the director of Human Resources. The motive of the officer is to make improvements and support culture as well as deal with approaches in order to maintain accurate center values that the organization was already established upon: a level association with nature’s turf. Additionally, Google has confronted ageism and sexism charges from previous workers. The corporate reasoning of the company incorporates standards, for instance “you can profit without doing insidiousness”, “you might not be kidding devoid of a suit” and “work ought to be testing and the test ought to be fun”.
The corporate structure of Google, is especially not unordinary other than presence of a couple of positions of authority, for instance, Chief Culture Officer and Chief Internet Evangelist. Management of the organization is done by the top managerial staff that passes directions down through official administration bunch. The gathering also manages some sections, for instance, Products, Finance, Engineering, Legal and Sales. Each of these offices is separated into more diminutive units.
The organization of Google needs an administration that is more innovative. Innovative leadership includes the combination of distinctive styles of administration in associations in order to impact the representatives’ inventive thoughts, results, items and administrations. The key part in advancement initiative act is enhancement guide (Gliddon, 2006). Dr. David Gliddon (2006) advanced the model of competency of enhancement pioneers and made improvement thought of Penn State University.
As a methodology to advancement, development initiative can be used to back the accomplishment of the vision or mission of the organization. On a planet that always shows signs of change with techniques and innovations, it is vital for associations to think in an imaginative manner in order to guarantee they proceed with triumph and remain intense (Mcentire & Greene-Shortridge, 2011). So as to adjust to the new changes, it is necessary for improvements to be made in associations in order to concentrate on a section of the pioneers forming the achievement and nature of deliberations (Mumford & Lucuanan, 2004).
Without the advancement of authority, associations are likely to battle (Mcentire & Greene-Shortridge, 2011). The new enhancement call speaks to the 20th century movement, customary organizational perspective practices, which dishearten imaginative practices of representatives to the 21st century perspective of esteeming inventive thinking as “conceivably effective impact on organizational execution”.
All Google workers follow the principle known as the tenet 70/20/10, under which they are expected to commit 70% of each work day to whatever task they are given by the administration, 20% of everyday to new thoughts or ventures identified with their center activities and 10% to new plans they need in order to seek after paying little to attention to what they might be. The organization also acknowledges the guideline for being the major impetus behind a large section of Google’s new administrations and items, because transaction specialists, programmers and executives are given enough space for inventiveness. The point when an organization becomes that expansive, it is not possible to effortlessly deal with stream of new ventures and thoughts, it established a timetable for meeting representatives of the organization with the CEOs and organizers.
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Lenssen, P. (July 16, 2007). “Paul Buchheit on Gmail, AdSense and More”. Google Blogoscoped.
McEntire, L. E., & Greene-Shortridge, T. M. (2011). Recruiting and selecting leaders for innovation: How to find the right leader. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13, 266- 278
Mumford, M., & Licuanan, B. (2004). Leading for innovation: Conclusions, issues, and directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 163-171
Rivlin, G. (August 24, 2005). Relax, Bill Gates; It’s Google’s Turn as the Villain. The New York Times.
Vise, A. (October 21, 2005). Online Ads Give Google Huge Gain in Profit. The Washington Post.
Recruitment and Compensation
All industrial processes depend on employees’ hiked participation, proper relationships among the managers, clients, employees and financiers combined with good compensation (Mathews, 2008, p. 133). A business culture that is aligned to the objectives of the organization of achieving improved levels of output recognizes that compensation and recruitment are among the factors that contribute towards increased competition and industrial expansion. In most instances, HR team works relentlessly to provide the best terms for the employees in the organization while keeping the recruitment costs low.
Similarly, manager of the organization and the HR have to incorporate the processes of ensuring that employees get fair compensation for their good work. Simply put, compensation and recruitment are the functions of the organization that are outlined as the cultural practices of the organization and managers as well as the HR department of an organization must implement them for production processes to be successful (Simone, 2009, p. 105).
Investigation of the effort that is put in the processes of recruitment combined with the incurred cost and employees’ compensation in various industrial growth sectors is important. Additionally, one can be interested in comprehending the employees’ compensation rationale as well as the extent of the influence of the process on the performance level in certain institutions (United States, 1990, p. 65). There are several criticism and limiting factors regarding how a HR team determines the personnel that is fit for the office positions, levels and forms of compensation that are necessary in order to motivate the employees. These factors are all vital in generalizing growth in the industrial sector in relation to improvement of performance levels of the employees. As such, recruitment of employees and compensation are some of the factors that remain the major concepts that determine the future organizational prospects.
Sometimes back, practitioners in the human resource or the recruitment specialists were considered as the only managers whose only responsibilities included the executive and recruitment functions. There were times when the managers would use newspapers, employees’ referrals and employment agencies in finding appropriate employees to fill the positions that were unfilled at the workplace. At such times, employees’ resignation was not acceptable by managers and when this happened, exit interviews were conducted. Exit interviews enabled the managers to determine why the employees resigned. Historical organizational weakness would be determined so that managers could establish strategies for ensuring that employees were accorded the best treatment in order to prevent future resignations.
Currently and in the future, employment programs’ projections run on platforms that aim at attracting more qualified workers. The current process of recruitment appears to reject the reactive employees. Workers who want to learn as well as those ready to operate under the organizational provisions are given an opportunity. The idea is that employment agencies for some time have been working towards taking control of employment practices and these have replicated to form systematic discrimination. Managers have been through transformation processes. Today, there is a recruitment process whose nature is non-discriminatory, creative and pro-active. The techniques that the recruitment process employs entail more genuine and realistic advertisement means such as Cyberspace job and job vans that are mobile. This recruitment involves high costs and therefore the recruitment and HR departments ought to focus past the recruitments and instead consider creating an environment that enhances retention.
Examples of retention environments are the aspects of motivating employees which include compensation via good remuneration in order to satisfy employees so that they can have less inclination towards resignation from vital roles or complete resignation (Rostker, Hix, Wilson & Rand Gulf States Policy Institute, 2007, p. 155). The thematic recruitment policies application as well as individual levels of participation relates to strategic plans of an organization to increase return levels. As such, management issues have changed over time to pave way for effective and rationale managerial practices. In some cases, managers attempt to link the employees’ performed work with the cultural requirements of the organization. The use of this measure places an organization at a high peak in the provision of better ethical practices and this enhances good relationships among the employees and the managers.
During recruitment, common practices involve giving every applicant an opportunity. This implies reviewing every application that is received without any application being left out. There are several occasions when prior decisions tend to be made by the managers via the HR department regarding the applications’ number that should be given attention while others are unattended to. Due to this practice, mistrust has emerged in the industrial area when it comes to employment. There are few individuals responsible for the employment process and these prioritize their relatives while denying other, qualified workers an opportunity to take part in the production processes as per their drive (Thatcher, National Research Council, Transit Cooperative Research Program, United State & Transit Development Corporation, 2010, p. 132). Once the applications have been reviewed, hiring employees due to their talent rather than experience becomes necessary. This is mainly because when talented employees are eliminated on the basis of their lack of experience an organization is hindered from acquiring innovative expertise and skills. Involvement in the processes of a company on regular basis is what leads to experience acquisition. This is something that someone can become if granted the opportunity to eventually become a talent and experience combination’s replica.
As mentioned, managers have to ensure that compensation processes use the best practices. Consultant and independent compensation board’s creation becomes necessary because this body can ensure that the processes of setting pay are accurate. Past studies have shown that an independent body for regulating salary enhances the confidence of the employees because the presented pay scheme is not produced from compulsion or favor but on the evaluation processes. According to scholars, top officials within firms with Independent Compensation Boards get higher pay while essentially the maximum received pay is merited and accounted for entirely. According to the current version, common practices when it comes to compensation ought to include the necessary disclosure elements, must offer equivalent bonus for banking to employees and they must also give the health of individuals priority. These are practices that are within the organization control and without them the level of employees’ performance would show a significant reduction.
Misconception and Shortcomings
Misconceptions that relate to compensation and recruitment are that giving good remuneration benefits the employees only without being linked to the overall organizational growth (Arthur, 2001, p. 62). Focusing on the objectives of the organization poorly is a factor that can largely lead to denial of employment right to potential employees and therefore fail the entire operational system of the company.
The entire compensation and recruitment process can be accompanied by several flaws. Allocating cost for the necessary activities, funds misappropriation, urge for discriminating against some employees and biasness, conflicting roles during execution as well as poor activities’ coordination are part of the major challenge (Johnson & Keegan, 2006, p. 126). Apart from recruitment stage requirements, there are similar flaws at compensation stage. These can lead to total organizational failure. The management as a team has a general objective which is to offer a fair recruitment processes platform and ensuring that employed workers represent a fraction of growth processes in general. There are cases where managers can have their personal interest at the time when there are employment opportunities.
In such cases, managers can recruit employees with lower grades while leaving those with better grades in regard to skills that can contribute towards the realization of organizational goals more. Similarly, there are cases where managers compensate employees based on how they are known. In regards to employees’ motivation, the most appropriate strategic plan that should be initiated should consider the part that every individual plays, testing the roles and embracing a model for evaluating performance in order to determine which employee is the best among the existing workers.
Considering the challenges that the employees face at their workplace, managers ought to embrace affirmative action in order to ensure employees’ wellbeing even with the industrial operation’s constraining factors (Campbell, 2013, p. 44). The HR department with much integrity and prominence should inculcate a culture of providing credit where it is deserved without any kind of discredit even when the production of an employee is relatively lower than the required output amounts. The employees’ potential depends on the effort that managers put in form of recognizing their rate of participation as well as providing the right motivational factors (Fuerst & Geiger, 2003, p. 2011).
For effective operations to be realized, development of skills during recruitment and in form of updating employees’ job is necessary. Thus, industrial production is largely dependent on the individual skills that employees exhibit during production and delivery. After considering the process of recruiting employees and factors affecting transparency at the workplace, it is important to recognize the essence of employees’ guidelines in particular business norms and culture (Warne, National Research Council, National Cooperative Highway Research Program & American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2003, p. 35). There are managerial qualities that are important in the plan’s execution. These have to correspond to the objectives of the company.
As such, the HR department has to be evaluative, impartial, uncontrolled and strict as well as goal oriented. There are occasions where the argument to deploy resources of the company during recruitment causes the essence of remaining loyal, truthful and accountable in every execution. This implies that a good HR department should understand the company’s basic needs in relation to the participation of the employees and therefore convert constraining factors in order to ensure progress and wellbeing of a company. Proper allocation of the budget becomes vital in ensuring that managers complete the activities as per the plan. As such, issues about funds sources’ identification, accurate apportionment of cost and timely finances release remain important. Necessary adjustments of the allocated finances should be identified before recruitment in order to allow time for proper maintenance and scheduling of the industrial goals.
According to this discussion, it is apparent that employees’ compensation and recruitment are among the strategies that firms use in creating environments that credit extensive production as well as services delivery. The concentration of labor economic is on the effect that employees have in terms of industrial progress (Ross, Williams & Pavlock, 1998, p. 66). One can argue that the output level of the employees is entirely responsive to hours that they spend contrary to involving themselves in leisure activities extensively at work. Employees’ level of output, time spent on production as well as the general levels of output are among the determining factors of the compensation amount that an employee ought to get at specific production levels.
Simply put, performance levels of the employees are used by the HR department in determining the amount that the employees can get as compensation (Singer & Francisco, 2009, p. 71). With all these factors, the HR department is always sensitive to the employees’ compensation needs and it takes appropriate and prompt actions in ensuring that employees are always committed to different organizational activities. The study has revealed that when compensation programs and recruitment processes are improved, managers can have positive influence on employees so that they can participate in different processes of industrial growth.
As such, recruitment processes ought to always be fair, open and with individual skills as their basis rather than favoritism. To get the best workers, an organization should employ mechanisms that provide an equal platform for every interviewee while responding to the asked questions because this is the only suitable way via which the organization can determine their skills. The given response and how individuals conduct themselves after, during and before the interview should help the organization determine their suitability for the positions (Johnson, Hallgarten & Institute for Public Policy Research, 2002, p. 105). Although the HR department operates within the industrial operations bounds, there are times when initiating personal skills as well as experience becomes compelling in order to obtain, retain, employ and demote employees. If an employee cannot take up the responsibility of the assigned position, demoting them is the best way of preventing a similar emergence among other employees. However, the employees should be accorded proportionate compensation on the basis of the period that he/she has worked for the organization at that position (Dartnell Corporation, Davidson & Swope, 2007, p. 117).
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Arthur, D. (2001). The employee recruitment and retention handbook. New York: AMACOM.
Campbell, A. K. (2013). Improving the recruitment, retention, and utilization of federal scientists and engineers: A report to the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. Washington, DC: National Acad. Press.
Dartnell Corporation., Davidson, W. L., & Swope, G. S. (2007). Foremen’s compensation, recruitment and training. Chicago.
Fuerst, O., & Geiger, U. (2003). From concept to Wall Street. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Johnson, B. A., & Keegan, D. W. (2006). Physician compensation plans: State-of-the-art strategies. Englewood, CO: Medical Group Management Association.
Johnson, M., Hallgarten, J., & Institute for Public Policy Research (London, England). (2002). From victims of change to agents of change: The future of the teaching profession. London: IPPR.
Mathews, K. (2008). Practical guide to hospitalist recruitment & retention. Marblehead, MA: HCPro.
Ross, A., Williams, S. J., & Pavlock, E. J. (1998). Ambulatory care management. Albany: Delmar Publishers.
Significance of Persuasion in Entrepreneurship
Within an entrepreneurial context, persuasion as an art is invaluable. Persuasion urges and implores individuals to change behaviors and attitudes to adopt a different or new attitude. As such, the aim of persuasion is to attack individual’s worldviews regarding different aspects. This goal is achieved through the provision of information for countering the existing beliefs as well as displacing the beliefs with new ones. However, entrepreneurship mainly focuses on innovation. As such, there are new ventures that entrepreneurs create in order to improve the world. Therefore, it is not a wonder that within the world of entrepreneurship persuasion plays a vital role. This can be seen in the contexts of the real-world via different persuasive messages.
Various persuasion theories are applied by these messages so as to realize the main goal which is to change the attitudes of people. Such theories include heuristic-system theory, cognitive dissonance theory and elaboration likelihood theory. Advertisements for instance more so the print ads major on persuasion. The Coca Cola ad on ‘open happiness’ for instance applies cognitive dissonance theory. In this paper, the application of different cognitive dissonance aspects in the ‘open happiness’ ad of the Coca Cola Company is analyzed.
There are several international firms that have been operating for quite some time now regardless of the fact that their products’ benefits are relatively low. Coca Cola and McDonalds are examples of these kinds of companies. McDonalds for instance majors in supplying fast foods that have high calories amounts. The debate about the effects that products with high calories have on human has been going on. Nevertheless, this company remains the largest fast food supplier in America as well as other parts of the world. The Coca Cola Company has also been around for a long time providing soft drinks that have high calories in large scale globally. These drinks do not provide health benefits because consuming them has adverse effects on human health. Nevertheless, its sales have always been increasing every financial year. Persuasive techniques that these companies employ in their ads are their secret. The persuasive Coca Cola ad of 2010 which promises open happiness to its consumers is an example of such ads. The implication of this ad is that every time one feels stressed, they simply need to sip a coke to get cheered up.
‘Open happiness” ad’s suitability is not a coincidence that occurred by an accident. Advertisers spend a lot of time studying the audience, identifying their needs as well as determining the best ways of satisfying their needs. After this, they come up with ads that are in line with various psychological theories. Cognitive dissonance theory, heuristic-systematic theory and likelihood theory are examples of such theories. Cognitive dissonance theory is applied in this advert. The implication of this theory is that individuals can be persuaded by others through the creation of inconsistency in their cognitions and this creates psychological discomfort. Such cognitions include behaviors, beliefs or attitudes. Dissonance in this case is imbalance that is created between the actions and beliefs of a person. Once dissonance has been created the advertisers provide consonance via promising balance between behavior and belief. Human beings need balance and consumers rush to buy products that enable them to acquire balance that they may have lost. This concept is what open happiness ad capitalizes on.
The slogan that is chosen for an advert is very important. The target consumers for the Coco Cola Company are from the entire globe. Therefore, a common aspect is required for this audience to be captured and this should cut across racial boundaries. As such, the company chose the word happiness because this human need is global. Thus, this advert targets cognition whose belief is that everybody needs happiness to lead a quality life. The aim of all people is to be happy in life but to be happy one does not have to drink a coke. Nevertheless, the “open happiness” slogan means that happiness can be achieved by drinking coke.
This causes dissonance in audience’s minds because the belief and action that is necessary for the belief to be achieved do not agree. As such, the feeling of individuals is that failing to drink the products of the Coca Cola Company denies them an opportunity to enjoy happiness in life. Further, this ad coerces audiences to choose coca cola products through the gaiety of this advert. As such, the feeling of the audience is that drinking the products of coca cola is important in order to realize happiness. This mentality is drilled into the consumers’ mind by advertisers and this makes them feel happy on consuming coke. As such, consonance is regained and they get a comfort zone.
The main intention of this advert is to market or sell products to consumers. Nevertheless, there are several obstacles that must be overcome by the company for this to be achieved. For example, the company has to outdo competitors who include Pepsi. It must also overcome the health debates about its products that have high calorie amounts. As such, this company employs countering factors in order to realize high sales all the time. Refreshment, excitement and happiness are the main attributes that the adverts of coca cola have. Coca Cola Company’s products are now associated with happiness by most consumers regardless of the associated health issues. Thus, it is no wonder that the slogan “open happiness” was chosen by Coca Cola for its ad in 2010.
It ought to be noted that to human, happiness is an evasive need and it does not recognize cultural boundaries. According to Maslow, happiness is an important human race’s need. As such, the aim of Coca Cola is to meet the consumers’ needs internationally via this slogan. Consistence of the Coca Cola providing excitement and happiness to the consumers is maintained by the advert. It appeals to consumers’ emotions because it promises to meet their happiness need. This is very tempting because depression-related diseases are currently increasing. As such, consumers will most likely increase coca cola drinks’ consumption so that they can remain happy.
In a nutshell, persuasion is a tool that is effective in marketing. It plays an instrumental role of making individuals feel that they should buy the product to stabilize their life. This concept is used by advertisers in drawing buyers to purchase their products as seen in the Coca Cola advert. The ad appeals to emotions and feelings of the consumers while changing them to match the intention of the seller via different theories’ application. The “open happiness’ ad by coca cola is an example of this because it has several cognitive dissonance theory’s elements. The implication of this theory is that humans are always seeking balance and consistency. When this balance is disturbed dissonance occurs and people are ready to do anything to regain the balance. Coca Cola disrupts happiness interpretation by man while providing solution which is drinking coke. This enhances the consumption of products from Coca Cola Company.
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The Monetary Policy in the United States
Congress made Federal Reserve responsible for the adoption of the State’s monetary policy. Nevertheless, it remains responsible for ensuring that the Federal Reserve follows the authority which requires it to maximize employment, maintain stable interest rates without short time fluctuation and maintain stable prices. Fed refers to the U.S.A’s central bank whose aim is to serve the four main roles in the country (Timberlake, 2003). These include the supervision of other banks and financial institutions, implementation of monetary policy, provision of payment to financial institutions and provision of emergency funds which is the last option.
Under monetary policy implementation, the concentration of Fed is on aggregate demand’s management from the public and private economic sectors. In monetary policy, the definition of the implementation that Fed gives is actions that it takes in order to influence money costs and credit availability in order to enhance price stabilization as well as employment maximization. The private sector’s demands and preferences that include small businesses and households influence public sector’s consumption in U.S.A (Timberlake, 2003).
As such, there is a broader monetary policy definition that is maintained by Fed in order to enhance the maintenance of a stable growth of the economy in the country. This definition comprises of the forecasts of the economy and the directives that relate to or made in relation to the nation’s central banker. The aim of the monetary policy is to include the rate of funds that Fed has via Open Market Operations that are commonly called the OMOs. These attract government securities’ buyers to do transaction with the national government using securities that are availed for sale. Fed in 2008 lowered rates to as low as between 0 percent and 0.25 percent while trying to exercise a conventional policy. However this was not successful. Since that time, other attempts have always been made to keep these rates low in order to keep inflation rates low and minimize unemployment rate. Economists have shown with theoretical approaches that unemployment and inflation can never have 0% rates at a particular time. People have advocated for monetary policy in order to attain this phenomenon (Timberlake, 2003).
Harold Lass well Definition of Politics
This was among the political scientists recognized the most and American communications theorists. During the 20th century, he was among those ranked in the first half made of creative social sciences inventors. His actions showed that he was leading. These actions were followed by several methodologies that later became part of intellectual traditions such as statistics measurement, interviewing methods and performing experiments. Politically, he is remembered for his legacy because he made vital contributions. The definition of politics that he gave was adopted as being the best among those of the other scientists in this field.
According to Harold, politics is who gets, what, how and when (Lasswell, 1976). This can better be called the political formula published whose basis is psychological attributes applicable to the leaders in politics and business. In 1948, the formula was published (Lasswell, 1972). Harold also included propaganda in psychological attributes in order to make a conclusion; the simple politics definition. It is possible to argue that the aspects of how, when and what are the major segments in the implementation of a policy. Nevertheless, the reforms being adopted currently do not mention the process realism in formulating and implementing policies.
Relevance of Harold’s Definition to the Implication and Impact of the Monetary Policy in the United States of America
In this definition, what aspect can be used to bridge the existing gap between the economics theory and policy practice. This can assist in determining the appropriate procedures that would lead to appropriate measures in addressing the inflation and unemployment issues. The measures give attributes that involve economic status’ reality as revealed by the central bank. This aspect would assist in avoiding a situation where people would not go to the measures that involve Fed directly while acting on both public and private sector consumption and this would enhance prices’ stabilization (Lasswell, 1972).
The how aspect of this definition would assist the Fed and the government in establishing different ways of handling economic situations that would come up at varying periods of depression and boom. Their focus will be on what can be done regardless of the faced challenges. When as an aspect of the definition will assist in deciding on different ways of handling economic situations promptly. This is due to the truth that regardless of the way stability is maintained by the central bank, the economy behaves differently at various economic times. As such, several ways have been devised to handle economic situation at certain times (Lasswell, 1976).
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Lasswell, H. D. (1972). Politics: who gets what, when, how. New York: Meridian Books.
Lasswell, H. D. (1976). Psychopathology and politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Timberlake, R. H. (2003). Monetary policy in the United States: An intellectual and institutional history. Chicago Univ. of Chicago Press.