Do Ends Justify The Means?
International human rights, for personal integrity refers to the right not to be tortured or exposed to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (CID). These are different ways of inflicting pain to people to get specific information. Experts however argue if these methods have substantiated differences. Nowak and MacArthur (2006) observe that there exists a line between torture and degrading treatment. Thus, it is possible to differentiate these terms, which denote the degree of suffering.
According to the United Nations Conventions Against Torture, denying one food and drink do not amount to torture unless it is accompanied by prolonged mental harm (Bakalar, 2007). Nevertheless, the difference between torture and CID depends on the nature, aim and intensity of the treatment applied. Not all inhuman acts constitute to torture. For example, loud noise from the neighborhood cannot be compared to a terrorist who chops off a victim’s tongue. It is clear that the degree of pain in the two cases is different. Nowak and MacArthur hold that degrading treatment is humiliating victims without severe pain whereas torture is inflicting physical and mental pain (2006).
Oftentimes, investigators may use excessive force and cruel tactics to get information from dangerous terrorists. Notably, the law allows use of force and sometimes weapon in specific cases. For example, police can use weapons to apprehend criminals who defy surrendering (Nowak & MacArthur, 2006). Here, a terror suspect who is a threat to state security yet refuses to divulge important information to detectives undergoes forceful interrogation. However, this should be withdrawn once the victim accepts to cooperate or experiences deteriorating health (Bakalar, 2006). This is because torturing a sick person may lead to permanent ill health or death. In all these cases, investigators are to exhaust all possible options before reverting to excessive force.
While defiant criminals deserve forceful interrogation, they need not to be extradited to countries known to use torture when interrogating suspects. In some cases, criminals get exaggerated penalties to compel them to confess. This amounts to abuse of human rights and integrity. For instance, some Middle East countries mutilate victim’s body as an interrogation technique. Guantanamo bay in Cuba is an example of a prison known to torture victims even when they are willing to volunteer information (Carey, 2012). Countries that lack capacity to conduct conclusive interrogation on lethal criminals can outsource them. Thus, terror suspects ought to be interrogated in countries they targeted and not in a different state (Carey, 2012).
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) prohibits torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading handling of criminal (Langley, 2010). Clarke argues that no country can make exceptions after the ratification of a treaty (2012). While some countries use rendition to hand over criminals to another states, irregular renditions are not permitted. Rendition is acceptable where a country is incapacitated in interrogating specific criminals and gives them up to knowledgeable countries. Irregular rendition is where a criminal is secretly handed over to another country, known to have to weak laws for human rights (Langley, 2010). Clarke describes irregular rendition as an extralegal way of charging criminals as they undergo excessive physical and psychological pain (2012). It thus undermines the bill of rights and societal morals.
It is not possible to distinguish torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment (Nowark & MacArthur, 2006). The understanding of these terms depends on the degree of pain and suffering, severity of the treatment and nature of the situation. For example, it would be inhuman to take a suspect who commits a pretty crime to Guantanamo Bay. However, the society is comfortable when deadly terrorist are sent to the same prison. Likewise, while less ill-treatment does not amount to torture, they could be cruel. Thus, authorities should only use excessive force and rendition during interrogation as the last resort. In summary, the use of physical or mental force on a criminal to humiliate amounts to degrading treatment while torture is applying severe pain with a reason (Carey, 2012).
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Bakalar, N. (2007). The line between torture and cruelity. The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Carey, H. F. (2012). Reaping what you sow: A comparative examination of torture reform in the United States, France, Argentina, and Israel. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Clarke, A. W. (2012). Rendition to torture. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.
Langley, E. E. (2010). The loss of American values in the case of erroneous irregular rendition. Georgetown Law Journal, 98(5), 1441. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/761183586?accountid=1611
Nowak, M. and MacArthur, E. (2006). The distinction between torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. 16(3), 147-151
It is clear that crime in the 21st century has become more complicated as compared to past years. With the emergence of new forms of property crimes that relate to cyber activities, authorities have no option but to improve their approach in handling crime. Hacking and cracking are the two main means through which people commit cyber crimes. Hacking is access to computer systems illegally and retrieving information. On the other hand, cracking is unauthorized access to copyrighted materials by altering their encryption. Cyber crime takes various forms like theft. Here, you access a person’s private details and commit financial fraud or identity theft.
Additionally, people commit cyber crimes through copyright infringement or distribution of intellectual information. With copyright infringement, you distributes of a company illegally for profits, leading to losses to the parent company. Access to intellectual information and distribution encompasses hacking websites and servers and retrieving confidential information and distributing it without consent of the owners. Notably, cyber crimes have become more serious than traditional forms of theft. This is because of how criminals maneuver and hide their identities behind firewalls and false proxy IP addresses. Thus, it is hard to track and charge cyber criminals. Moreover, most justice systems in the world have weak laws to curb cyber crime. Lastly, the massive use of the internet in the world today makes it easy to share and intercept information without detection. The implication is that cyber crime will continue evolving into a complex affair as technology advances, making it hard for law enforcement agencies to find a single solution.
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Controlling Prisoners’ Technology
With today’s technology, inmates have communication gadgets like mobile phones in cells, which they use to commit crimes. It is a common trend in the world’s developing nations like Brazil and Columbia. For example, a terrorist group in Afghanistan executed attacks by planning in a prison in Pul-e-Charkhi. Using Smartphones, they coordinated attacks in towns, twenty miles away.
Inmates are likely to take their activities a notch higher as the world experiences massive advancement in ICT. They will have more Smartphones and integrate the outside world in committing these criminal activities. There is a likely collaboration between the prisoners and drug traffickers. Nonetheless, responsible authorities have put in place measures to address this problem. A common approach is jamming mobile network within prisons and their surroundings to disable communication. However, some tech-savvy inmates still bypass such measures.
A possible alternative could be reverting to the use of mobile drones with Wi-Fi signals to run their illegal activities. In such a case, authorities could consider allowing prisoners to have mobile phones but monitor their activities. They could fit them with tracking gadgets to gather information on illegal activities. Alternatively, prison could turn off virtual identities of criminals upon their incarceration. Such individuals would then be under watch and probation once they are released. This would reduce the risk of inmates to cause havoc in the society.
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Bollati, V., & Baccarelli, A. (2010). Environmental epigenetic. Heredity, 105(1), 105-112.
Bollati and Baccarelli in their article environmental epigenetic describe epigenetic as the study of changes, which take place as a result of heritable variations that occur not necessarily with DNA involvement. In the article, the two authors depict how genomic under exogenous offer a mechanism for the continuity of gene activity. They agree that two epigenetic can be inherited together with chromosomes, including DNA methylation and and histone modification. They underline several environmental factors like metals, poly hydrocarbons and phytoestrogens among others, which could cause heritable epigenetic factors. Additionally, epigenetic disease results from the interaction between environmental factors and individual genetic make up. In any gene-environment interaction, the effect of variation follows the channel dominant, co-dominant and recessive. For mammals, DNA methylation is important for embryogenesis when methylation order changes to align with embryos to allow further differentiation.
Smith, G., & Ritchie, M. G. (2013). How might epigenetic contribute to ecological speciation? Current Zoology, 59(5).
The two writers argue that speciation takes place because of adaptation of different population to environmental conditions and the concurrent evolution of isolation, which contributes to higher compatibility. In particular, ecological speciation needs a range of selection from abiotic and biotic environmental conditions. Speciation involves several processes like phenotypic plasticity, which refers to the change of an organism because of environmental conditions. From the two writers, this may encompass hierarchical levels and phenotypic classes, including history, learning, morphological, and behavioral. Importantly, phenotypic plasticity allows speciation. Secondly, epigenetic mechanism and evolution denote the capability from a steady phenotype that is heritable, which stems from variations in the chromosomes within the DNA sequence. However, epigenetic marks are not always heritable since they could emanate from environmental induction. These marks lead to normal development despite the fact that changes could occur through phenotypic plasticity. They are also important in adaptive evolution.
Baranowski, E., Ruiz-Jarabo, C. M., & Domingo, E. (2001). Evolution of cell recognition by viruses. Science, 292(5519), 1102-1105.
The authors of the article, “the evolution of cell recognition by viruses” argue that specific receptors are responsible for the entry of viruses and bacteria in animals. These receptors are proteins, liquid families or carbohydrates and some of the families are used in signal pathways and cell unity. However, some of these families lack any function. In this case, it is hard to determine the function of any receptor molecule though two receptors enhance mediation of cells. The editors agree that though structures behind immune responses are not obvious, they are subsets of molecules that occur on the cell surface and activate virus uptake. Viruses only get in when there is uncoating and genome replication. In most cases replacement of amino acids in the capsid or surface protein influence how receptors are recognized, cell tropism and pathogenesis. From genome and complete cellular, it is clear that viruses change through the cellular world. With some minimal variations in the cell genome, receptor sage for virus entry may shift.
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Baranowski, E., Ruiz-Jarabo, C. M., & Domingo, E. (2001). Evolution of cell recognition by viruses. Science, 292(5519), 1102-1105.
Bollati, V., & Baccarelli, A. (2010). Environmental epigenetic. Heredity, 105(1), 105-112.
Smith, G., & Ritchie, M. G. (2013). How might epigenetic contribute to ecological speciation? Current Zoology, 59(5).
Sociological imagination refers to a term that C. Wright Mills introduced in 1959. Mills notes that this term means the ability, quality and capacity of a person’s mind that enables them to establish the relationship between their life and dynamics and forces that affect it (Mills, 2000). Sociological imagination’s main objective is to perceive the larger picture of where a person lives. Therefore, it assists a person to comprehend the society where he/she lives by establishing a link between societal life and personal life.
Additionally, sociological imagination makes it possible for a person to comprehend what other people face and what oneself faces (Mills, 2000). Looking at ones biography and relating it to the broader context of the history of the society as well as the tradition of where a person lives makes this possible. When a person acknowledges that there is a relationship between biographies and history, it becomes possible to comprehend the link that exists between societal problems and personal troubles. Mills noted that on several instances, individuals do not find solutions to problems because they do not view their biographies in relation to various issues that the entire society is facing (Scott & Nilsen, 2014).
A major reason why one should take this perspective while viewing the lives of others is to comprehend an intricate connection that exists between the patterns of the life of an individual in relation to the history of the world. According to Mills, most people fail to know the value that this connection has in regards to the type of individuals that they become and the history that they make while participating in it (Levine, 2004).
Therefore, sociological imagination is vital in assisting a person in coping up with personal problems in a way that regulates structural transformation which usually lies behind them. Mills notes that understanding and adapting to this manner of thinking depicts the highest social consciousness’ level (Hughes & Coser, 1994). When applied correctly, individuals with thoughts brushed by narrow orbits’ chain often realize a sudden awakening within a field that is filled with familiar ideas.
Such individuals usually feel courageous and content because they believe that it is possible for them to offer themselves adequate abstracts, all-inclusive orientations and organized assessments. The previous decisions which may have initially appeared logical may now appear as the outcomes of the inexplicably dense mind. The individuals develop the capacity of astonishment while acquiring new modes of thinking because they experience a revaluation of the values of their surroundings. Individual sensitivity and reflection makes this possible because one realizes the relationship that personal life has with the society (Harvey, 2009).
As a university student, one meets many people. Some were brought up under foster care programs with other siblings and they age to leave the system as they approach graduation. While trying to raise siblings and maintain a family bond, these students foresee several personal problems. This can affect them directly in terms of college or university performance. Such students endure excessive stress with some of them dropping out of school. Some of them have mastered courage and this makes sharing personal problems possible. This can appear personal to some students. However, it is a public problem because several miners are also brought up under foster care and they are forced to leave the system after they attain 18 years of age so that they can live alone.
The cost of the current housing system is relatively high especially for fresh graduates. Finding a place where one can live can be a problem due to the fact that they earn a relatively lower income. Thus the link that exists between public issues and personal trouble offers a better understanding of the life of a person.
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Harvey, D. (2009). Social Justice and the City. Athens: University of Georgia Press, pp.23
Hughes, E. C., & Coser, L. A. (1994). On Work, Race, and the Sociological Imagination.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 178
Levine, R. F. (2004). Enriching the Sociological Imagination: How Radical Sociology
Changed the Discipline. Leiden [u.a.: Brill, pp. 170, 265.
Mills, W, C. (2000). The Sociological Imagination. New York University Press, pp. 7. 12, 14.
Scott, J., & Nilsen, A. (2014). C. Wright Mills and the Sociological Imagination:
Contemporary Perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 62
Masculinities and Femininities
The roles that the society endows a woman or a man and the roles that women and men are considered to undertake distinguish them. The presence of the testosterone hormone among other physical attributes is what gives manhood a definition. Other defining characters include the traditional status of a man being the head of his family, aggressive nature, catering for the needs of the family including shelter, clothing and food among other needs that are necessary for a family’s existence. Being a woman on the other hand entails possessing feminine characters as well as playing feminine roles. Women naturally have feminine reproductive organs. Women are traditionally considered to be caring, tender-hearted and submissive.
Among the words that are used in describing men include caring, gorgeous, and handsome. Women are described using adjectives that include sexy, charming, beautiful and seductive among others. An ideal woman or man has these good qualities without a fault. As such, finding an ideal human being is impossible because in some ways, everybody has a fault.
The applicable expectations for women in today’s society include their collective responsibility. This is because both women and men have been made equal by justice and equality. As such, the expectation of the contemporary society is that a woman should be considerate, sensitive and hardworking. On the other hand, the contemporary society expects men to be hardworking, caring, loving and gentle. There is a variation in these expectations when compared with those of the older generations since the traditional society had distinct duties and roles for women and men. However, these duties and roles are not distinct in the modern society. The law takes both genders equally.
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- There was an extensive damage caused by Hurricane Sandy in the Caribbean Islands. The hurricane landed in these islands before reaching New York. Here is a description of the damage caused by the hurricane:
- 69 people died within the Islands (Williams 2012).
- 200 people died in New York (Super-storm New York 2:20).
- The hurricane damaged the communication system. It knocked out telephone network completely (Super-storm New York 14:30). A large portion of the infrastructure of the cable companies was lost.
- The hurricane knocked down power lines and over 8 million residents of New York lost power (Super-storm New York 2:35).
- The storm dumped sea water inland causing an explosion of power substations and further destroying electrical grid (Super-storm New York 11:50).
- Fire was sparked by the power lines that were brought down in Queens. This destroyed 111 homes at the Breezy Point (Super-storm New York 19:35).
- The hurricane destroyed a subway system in New York, more so the substation at South Ferry. The storm left it unusable (Tollefson 2013).
- The storm destroyed coastline houses with some being lifted from the ground and later dumped inland. The storm left some houses structurally unsound forcing owners to demolish them.
- The waters of the storm washed away the tracks of overland railway which necessitated their complete replacement.
- The hurricane damaged road network, more so the bridges which were affected the most. The flood waters dumped debris along the roads
2. Hurricane Sandy growing into a super-storm
Several factors created conditions that facilitated the formation of a “perfect storm” which increased Hurricane Sandy (Masters 2012). This hurricane was formed from a huge wave from the African tropics. The wave interacted with the pressure of the low regions found in Central Caribbean. In general, hurricanes that form as a result of huge tropical disturbances grow to larger sizes and this was the case with Hurricane Sandy. This hurricane formed within Caribbean which is a relatively humid region. It is possible for a hurricane to increase in size when it forms within an area where the atmospheric pressure is high.
This storm’s center point passed through Cuba. Despite the fact that this center point lacked energy of a warm ocean since it passed over a land, it had outlying air that was circulating over a warm ocean which kept drawing ocean’s energy. On re-emerging from the ocean, hurricane Sandy had outer portions with extra energy. These may have enabled it to expand further. From Cuba, it moved to the Bahamas. Here, it had an interaction with a trough of low pressure. The upper-level winds of this trough created a shear of a high wind for this hurricane which destroyed it making it weaker. Nevertheless, because of the storm-force winds from the tropics, this storm was able to cover a larger area which compensated for the lost energy.
As it moved towards North Pole, the storm acquired additional spin because of the rotation of the earth. This Hurricane leveraged extra spin which grew its size further. Ideally, hurricane Sandy ought to have entered the Atlantic Ocean to peter out. Nevertheless, the high pressure area over Greenland made the hurricane not to turn into this ocean. It was compelled to double back and move to the continental U.S.
When it approached the New Jersey land fall, it had a contact with a system of low pressure of the extra-tropical region. Cold air was pumped into the hurricane by this extra-tropical storm. This turned it into a system of extra-tropical low pressure. In most cases, the coverage of extra-tropical storms is wider than that of hurricanes. This can be attributed to the fact that their force is drawn from the frontal boundary which may have a length of many miles. As such, hurricane Sandy created a landfall with its strongest winds being spread over a wide area making people in Indiana and Nova Scotia to feel its effects.
Hurricane Sandy grew to form the ‘super-storm’ because several factors were combined in its formation. This hurricane was an event that occurs once per 500 years. Nevertheless, with the changes in the conditions of the global weather that are causing global warming, events similar to hurricane Sandy can become a common phenomenon.
3. Storm surge
Storm surge refers to an increase in water past the predicted astronomical tide (Introduction to storm surge n.d.). The winds of the storm cause this surge while driving water towards the shoreline.
The surge of super-storm Sandy was very large because of two major reasons. One, it was during the full-moon when it arrived in New York (Super-storm New York 37:25). At this time, the earth and moon gravitational attraction is very strong. The bulging of sea water tends to move to the moon. This causes a rise in tides by up to two feet.
Second, this hurricane was already an extra-tropical storm which had winds that were stronger than those of a hurricane. A storm surge was created by these winds. Their combination with high tide caused a large surge of the Sandy storm.
3. Low Manhattan’s damage
Hurricane Sandy caused severe damage in Lower Manhattan because of where it is located. The land on which Lower Manhattan is built was realized after a sea reclamation process. For many centuries, city boundaries were expanded by the residents through damping of different materials into this sea. This created a land where buildings were erected (Super-storm New York 28.00). With increasing land pressure, wetlands of the city became prime real estate that were encroached by the people. Water was taken back after striking of the hurricane Sandy to the initial high line of water. This inundated the settlements of the low lying areas. There were no wetlands that serve as the storms’ buffer. This made the storm hit the human settlements instantly which led to an extensive damage.
There was also a considerable damage in the coastal cities. This is because there were coastal developments near the line of the high tide.
5. Prevention measures
Several measures may be taken as way of reducing the possibilities of the damage of such a storm in future. They include:
- Constructing large walls along the shore or coastline to provide protection against the surge.
- Restoration of the wetlands that serve as buffers of the storm.
- Relocating people to the higher grounds.
- Enforcing and changing the codes of new building to facilitate the construction of storm-resistant structures
Among these measures, some can be implemented with ease. For instance, new buildings that do not conform to new codes should not be approved. People should be encouraged to relocate to high grounds. Barriers might not be effective and building them is expensive. Restoring wetlands might not work either because some are irreparably damaged.
6. New Normal
A ‘New normal’ is emerging. Over the past century, the global temperature has increased sustainably on average. This has an impact on weather patterns globally in different ways. There is a steady rise in the sea level which is reaching high levels that have not been witnessed before. According to the prediction of climate models, such events might start occurring once in every 500 years and eventually once per every 200 years. As such, in the emerging new normal extraordinary weather conditions might become a common place.
- Masters, J. (2012). Hurricane Sandy’s huge size: freak of nature or climate change? Wunderground.com. Retrieved from http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/hurricane-sandys-huge-size-frea k-of-nature-or-climate-change
Introduction to storm surge (n.d). National Weather Service. Retrieved from http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/hurricane/resources/surge_intro.pdf
National Geographic Superstorm New York What Really Happened. Youtube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bP1EdsiEO8o
Williams, M. (30 October 2012). Superstorm Sandy damage assessment: a round-up. The Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/world/2012/oct/30/superstorm-sandy-damage-round-up
Tollefson, J. (13 February 2013). Natural Hazards: New York City versus the Sea. Scientific American. Retrieved from www.scientificamerican.com/article/natural-hazards-new-york-city-vs-the-sea/
What Does Your Group Feel Are The Top Three Cultural Factors That Constrain Change In Governmental Organizations In The Inland Empire? Why
Privatization and outsourcing of public functions and utilities is the topmost cultural factor that hinders change. Many governments in the recent past have shifted towards offering of public services via the private sector. They do this by outsourcing services and selling out of public corporations.
With private companies having their major focus on profit maximization, they still lack proper incentives to serve the public more efficiently. This generates conflict because community service is not their main priority and the public does not receive adequate service, thus creating a society that is frustrated (McNabb, 2009, p. 53).
There is also a decline in commitment of public workers to quality in service delivery and performance. This is mainly caused by low wages compared to private sector where the pay is high. Government workers as such, lack motivation to serve the community efficiently as they are often on an exit plan or looking for ways of making extra cash (McNabb, 2009, p. 53).
Procedures and functions in modern day are also changing because of technological advancements and globalization. Change in state organizations also get constrained by rigid performance standard that does not offer room for flexibility. In decision making processes for instance, trivial matters are often subject to scrutiny causing delays. Such events cripple performance of government corporations and they end up lagging behind in regards to efficiency (McNabb, 2009, p. 53).
Top Two Beliefs That The Public Would Argue As Being Weak In Performance Of Public Service Employees? Why?
The fact that public servants should employ public virtues hard work, wisdom, honesty and wisdom does not define public service staff. Employees lack accountability for their actions and they are not destined to employ any virtues in their operations. When a member of the public for instance needs processing of a specific document, public employees can cause delays and the documents take longer than required.
Such delays may also be caused by laxity to deliver the right documents on time or even making enquiries regarding to the proceedings (McNabb, 2009, p. 56). Additionally, public administrators do not carry out their duties economically and officially, for the greater good of the public in mind. This is based on the fact that they do not observe deadlines and lack responsibility.
Workers in private organizations have targets to meet and they are answerable for their actions. This is something that lacks in public corporations. The worker as a result, performs duties at leisure and at own pleasure, leading to wastage of time and other resources (McNabb, 2009, p. 56).
What would your group recommend to the governor as the three best strategies to prepare for change most effectively and why?
Education and Communication
Learning and communication would be the most ideal strategy for the governor to employ because it creates exposure and awareness to employees and citizens of a country regarding proposed changes. It would also sensitize them on intricacies of needed change, a factor that would enable them to prepare efficiently to embrace expected transformations and to utilize them for their growth and development.
Additionally, communication allows parties to pass information to each other. They can communicate their ideas to the government while the government at the same time, informs them of decisions made by top leadership (McNabb, 2009, p. 63).
Participation and Involvement
Participation and citizens as well as employee involvement in change process is imperative because it makes them feel part of the change. It enables them to gain ownership of activities and ideas that the leadership and government undertake. This is carried out by inviting public ideas and opinions, creating room for discussions before implementations.
The step also creates confidence in top management and allows for ease of implementation of proposed changes (McNabb, 2009, p. 63).
Employee empowerment involves giving employees more power to work on projects past their current job descriptions. By doing so, the governor shows the employees that he has confidence in them and is impressed by their work, thus willing to entrust them with even bigger and challenging responsibilities because he trusts in them.
This not only builds confidence in employees but also creates high loyalty level making it easier to introduce and employ any changes (McNabb¸2009, p. 63).
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McNabb, D.E. (2009). The New Face of Government: How Public Managers are Forging a New Approach to Governance. (pp.47-68). New York, NY. Auerbach Publications, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
The role of Glial cells is interesting based on shocking revelation. For many years now, neuroscientists did not think highly of the cells. Their concentration was mainly on neurons that were seen as the major communicating cells in the nervous system and in the brain. Recent studies however prove beyond doubt that the glia is crucial in the body just like neurons.
There are neuroscientists that assert that without the calls, neurons may fail to carry out their roles efficiently. Images and listening instrument reveal a direct relationship between neurons and glia in relation to communication. This also reveals that without the cells, the neurons may not work properly.
It would be interesting to learn what motivated Pathologist, Thomas Harvey to take Einstein’s brain home. The results of such an action are very significant especially in contemporary Psychology. Neuroscientists cannot therefore overlook the role of the cells in the human body. The most amazing revelation is that the cells may not be actually responsible for communication as perceived for a long time because the role of neurons comes from the efforts of Thomas Harvey.
There is also solid evidence that glia is essential to learning, creation of memories and repair of nerve damage. Even though relevant research studies to confirm this is are still in progress, there is still a good reason for scientists to reach such a conclusion because of enhanced imaging and tools have been utilized in the research.
The most significant revelation is that many neuroscientists may not agree with the fact that glia and that neurons work in cooperation with the spinal cord and the brain. The neurons act as communication agents through long axons, and the dendrite to additional neurons but the astrocyte glia transports nutrients and other synapses. This shows that glia just like neurons is significant in the body.
Other types of glial cells are also essential in medical world because specialists associate them with treatment of some diseases. Schwan glia for example can be used in treatment of nerve disease. Other glia cells transport nutrients from capillaries to nerve endings. Such a role signifies that if glial cells are not functioning well, nerves can develop complications.
Occasional communication between glial cells is also essential in ensuring proper functioning of body organs. Schwan glia can be used to treat nerves including MS because they surround tangential nervous system. Another scientific finding is based on the axons ability to manage Gilas existence. Glial cells are therefore able to detect the actions of neurons through ATP, discharged by axons only.
Glia cells can then pass over the message to other cells and get ability to manage synapses. The present studies reveal the cells determine the number of synapses that can be created by solitary neuron and location of the neuron. Astrocyte glia is central in this part and growing neurons with a small amount of the cells leading to low synapse numbers.
These studies no doubt reveal that there is need to adopt Einstein’s advice of thinking outside the norm. Assuming that neurons are central components of the body needed for intelligence creation in the brain and for communication purposes, has limited discoveries from neuroscientists based on the role of the cells. The role played by the human brain cells cannot also be over expressed because they are equally essential for proper functioning of the body.
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Effects of Population Density and Noise
The number of people residing in one unit of area can be termed as population concentration. This is in relation to human beings and it is put in terms of square kilometer or squared unit of quantifying area. Additionally, it is often used for cities, countries, counties and for the world. The world’s mostly concentrated areas include cities, metropolitan states and microstates.
Similarly, population density and noise puts pressure on individuals and in different forms. The time when individual’s space and field is disrupted by persons, short or persistent noise, the resulting effect ranges from simple form of annoyance to severe illness that leads to anxiety (Straub, 2007). Therefore, with continuous population concentration, there will be encroachment of three aspects and proper measures have to be put in place to ensure prevention of psychological effects that result from population growth.
It also helps to check anxiety, violence and frustration. This paper focuses on three concepts, personal space, privacy, and territoriality. It also analyses their impact on the people and solutions that can be employed.
Privacy is known as a ‘‘choosy management of access to an individual or a person’s group’’ Altman (1977). It also revolves around having information power concerning oneself and applying the same principle to control self-interactions with other people. New technologies in modern world bring about different issues concerning the power of information of others. This is necessitated by description of balance as well as clear clarification between public and individual information.
The level of privacy needs as well as values greatly differs from one individual to the other and from one situation to the other and in various cultures.
Personal space is defined as the physical distance between individuals with a purpose of ensuring interpersonal relationships. Personal space combined with territoriality is seen as a way in which privacy is advocated for. Sommer (1969) defines personal space as a location with unseen borders surrounding the body of a person where intruders can easily invade.
This space, just like privacy is subject to change and it varies based on personal attributes, culture to culture and situation to situation. Brain development are scientific research suggests that creation and negotiation of personal space takes place in human brain. Further research studies also reveal that even though personal space has dynamic boundaries, it is of great significance and value to humanity.
Human territoriality is known as the approach of authority or control. It also means an attempt to influence, affect or control people by asserting to enforce authority over a given geographical area. The definition also encompasses attempts by groups or individuals in any geographic scale from a room to global arena. It is also not based on survival as in the case of animals but humans maintain space via specific behaviors suggesting that action is employed in regards to ownership or it should be simply occupied.
Research studies also suggest that it is imperative to emphasize on environmental variables as a major territoriality determination aspect. As vital resources become scarce, individuals also work hard to safeguard their possessions and area residence.
Relationships with increasing population
Research studies point out that population density has major effects on population of animals and humans. It is a major issue in determining psychological effects commonly related to crowds because individuals feel bound and is restricted when they do not have major access to supplies (Straub, 2007).
Crowding occurring from high population growth has also been tied to increased violent activities, increased criminal activities, social withdrawal and inapt social interactions. To reduce crowd effects, it is imperative to ensure privacy, respect territoriality and personal space as a significant human social want. Decreased resources in relevance to space, personal space and privacy call for greater appreciation to check psychological effects.
People often have less control and more competition when personal space and confidentiality is lacking. This leads to increased tendency of negative reactions towards insignificant anger (Straub, 2007).
Perception can be considered as a revealing population density element based on its sufficient space as well as congestion related vices. When ample space is perceived by the people, they tend to build more confidence and command relating to nature and have reduced stress and anxiety.
Influence of Nature on Urban Areas’ Settlers
Zoos and parks with preserved natural settings offer a platform for support as well as a framework for people’s interaction with nature. These interactions offer an opportunity for humans to nurture and create a microclimate that is quite common in urban areas. Natural settings created in residential urban areas enhance the idea that people need to co-exist with nature.
Parks and Zoos in metropolitan areas also play crucial roles in relevance to physical activities. Research has confirmed that inhabitants of urban areas have lower health complications. The studies have also found out that individuals within green spaces areas have low mortality rates. This is because the spaces are known to reduce noise associated stress especially in urban settings.
Additionally, greener neighborhoods tend to allow for less violent and antagonistic conducts, superior intellectual performance and good interpersonal relations as well as enhanced social interaction between community members (Gidlofgunnarsson & Ohrstrom, 2007).
Impacts of Noise
Noise is known as any kind of superfluous sounds. It ranges from annoying and quiet to injurious and deafening noise. Chronic noisy places have been studied psychologically and found out to create negative impact on human populations (Straub, 2007). Damaging noise effects have also been proven scientifically to contribute to increased cortisol levels and hypertension and in the end, upsurge in levels of stress.
Contact with chronic noise levels may cause cardiovascular issues and reduced learning abilities. Loud noise is known to interfere with immediate recall ability and reduce a person’s capability to deliver simple activities. People have different noise appraisal levels and the more disturbing a person finds the noise to be, the bigger the effect on them. Even though the noise is accountable directly for effects on sleep, stress and anxiety disorders, a personal approach towards noise has unswerving effect on the health of the person (Straub, 2007).
Noise Cutback Approaches
Installation of extra fabric to cover wall decors, windows and use of fabric stuffed furnishing aids helps in absorption of noise from homes because noise travels faster on glass than on insulated walls.
This means the process in which sensitivity of sound is subdued by presence of foreign sound. Introducing simulated or second natural sound in a home can lock out foreign sound signals in homes as well as areas affected by external sources of intrusive sound.
Privacy, territoriality and personal space include private insights and preferences of humans in regards to utilization of space for normal performance. In urban settings, limited space leads to anti-social behaviors between members of the community. Noise therefore has a significant negative impact on populations thus; noise reduction approaches should be adopted to reduce chronic noise related issues.
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How Non-Profits and For-Profit Companies Work
Whenever a corporation pursues to expound its undertakings abroad, there are numerous facets that have to be put into consideration. These facets vary in regard to whether the corporation is a for-profit or a non-profit organization.
For Profit Company
Geographical differentiation includes a number of features. Initially, the venture need to be able to ascertain whether clients in the intended market have the buying power to buy the corporation’s commodities or services, as well as whether the organization can set a competitive rate for its commodities and services. Second facet is the regional labor expenses as well as linked labor regulations. Having know-how of the local labor expenses will aid the venture assess whether the growth will be workable due to high wages can mean high operating expenses as well as lessened gains. In the same way, comprehending labor rules and laws in the intended market is essential in certain nations for instance EU member nations, employing fresh workers is expensive and tough labor regulations make it unachievable to dismiss workers. Presence of raw commodity providers is the third factor.
Fruitful production in the intended market relies on the accessibility of raw materials. If suppliers are far from the amenity, the corporation’s expenses of shipping is probable to be high, leading to increased cost of production as well as high price for the end commodity. The same way, a corporation has to look at distribution facets. These incorporate the shipping network via which the commodities will reach last customers. Perishable goods for instance milk or flowers demand an improved supply link to shun losses. Additionally, an organization has to look at the power of its corporate culture as well as uphold known status in all its undertakings. If the company culture is feeble, it is probable to be weakened in the numerous parts the corporation develops to causing loss of market share and brand.
Product, market or technology differentiation
Provided the diversity in interests and preferences, a corporation ought to look at tailoring its commodity to meet residential needs or preferences. For instance, McDonald’s has thrived in its global markets by tailoring the menus to meet the demands of residents.
The most crucial facets for a non-profit corporation connected to working in other parts or nation incorporate divisionalization differentiation and hierarchical differentiation.
To excel in running a company, executives need to grow and upkeep useful subcultures. They are present amongst workers, bosses as well as leaders. Nevertheless, provided that each company has its subculture, operating in another part with sturdy divisional subcultures may lead to battle with the initial company as such subcultures have great standards that are challenging to change. On top of this, via globalization, an organization may find it hard to retort to human resource exercises in all areas it runs. Leaders ought to take into consideration these divisional disparities when making policies to expand.
As a corporation grows its undertakings in areas in a nation or globally, it develops and more stages arise in its structure. As it has been noted, subcultures are there at every stage of a company. Therefore, when the company’s structure grows, there is a possibility that more subcultures will arise. In the course of growing subcultures, they tend to accord to each other or turn out to be independent in their undertakings. Sturdy subcultures may be separated from the feeble ones. Due to the fact that certain executives in the company fail to concentrate to the numerous kinds of subcultures, it causes considerable battles in the company. To avert incidents of such clashes, leaders ought to spur friendly interactions amongst the parent company and the newly established company in another area or in overseas nation.
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Case Study Analysis
This analysis draws basis from a patient’s local hospital. The hospital drew impetus from the case study of a 26-year-old woman who experienced a gradual shortness of breath in a period of three days. Her experience was free of other symptoms like cough, fever, or wheezing. She decided to go to her local hospital when it became increasingly difficult to breath.
Of interest were the wait times that the woman endured before she could obtain a proper evaluation and diagnosis of her condition, which could be a comorbidity. From her case, wait times were determined as follows; after staying in the waiting area before registration for an undisclosed duration, the patient was registered and made to wait for 20 minutes before the triage nurse took the patients history and vital signs. The patient then returned to the waiting area for some time before detailed history, physical exam, blood tests, X-ray, lung scan, and electrocardiogram. Another three-hour wait followed before her evaluation was out. The physician diagnosed the patient with asthma and informed her that it was nothing serious.
Impetus for Performance Improvement
A meeting between the hospital’s administrators, the director of the hospital’s performance improvement, and the physician director revealed worrying trends in the hospital, notably diminishing patient satisfaction, increased elopements, and patients collapsing in the teeming waiting room.
This brought a need to reorganize the department in order to increase efficiency and address the fundamental problem of excess wait time; the physician director believed that the wait time was inevitable given that most of the patients were severely ill, and the existing resources were inadequate. The performance of the hospital in terms of wait time had to improve, though there was need to measure its performance and benchmark with other hospitals
The performance improvement director requested a departmental reorganization. The hospital developed an ine-month plan to measure, analyze, and improve quality of care. The plan focused established wait times, patient satisfaction, patient return visits with same problem within 72 hours as the measures to use.
To do this, the hospital undertook some restructuring to bring in new staff, reorganize staff functions, and institute new procedures and policies that would govern service delivery. The management also added incentives to boost service delivery. The hospital’s changes were;
- Introduction of a ‘greeter’ to welcome patients, guide them through the registration process, and identify serious cases. The greeter could help serious cases to skip the registration process
- The triage nurse moved to the waiting area
- An electronic sign indicating average wait times in the waiting room
To analyze the plan, one must look at quality from the customer’s point of view. ‘Quality’ represents an individual’s subjective evaluation of an output and the personal interactions that take place as the individual obtains the output. It is rooted in that individual’s expectations, which depend upon the individual’s past experiences and needs. Quality evaluations therefore arise from, and are part of, an individual’s value system. One can measure and change,as a value system, quality expectations over time through education.
Several concepts can measure quality. Quality has two main components—content and delivery. Content quality is concerned with the medical outcome that results. It also refers to whether the output does what the customer believes it should do-whether the output functionally meets the customer’s expectations.
Delivery quality refers to all aspects of the organization’s interaction with the customer in delivering the output. It is determined day by day, moment by moment, in thousands of individual, temporary relationships. It reflects an individual customer’s interaction with the health care system—a patient will consider whether the hospital was clean and whether the nurses were caring and offered rapid services.The patients will also have expectations on how their interaction with employees should be,
To analyze the effectiveness of the quality improvement measures, one may use tools like questionnaires and customer focus groups. Patients and their relatives fill questionnaires to convey their satisfaction and their feelings towards different aspects of the treatment. The questionnaires may also require costumers (patients) to comment on the wait times. (Nash,2006)
The measures used in determining quality improvement can transport time for AMI patients, the smoothness of admission or discharge, courtesy of hospital employees, availability of good emergency care, number of emergency department patients who return with the same symptoms, and the time for getting an EKG for patients with chest pain.
According to a research conducted on four leading hospitals by Sharon Silow-Carroll, Tanya Alteras, and Jack A. Meyer Health Management Associates in April 2007, hospitals that successfully implemented quality improvement measures followed a strikingly similar process of change as detailed in the diagram below;
The first step is evident in the hospital’s institution of the quality improvement program after recording alarming declines in patient satisfaction, increased patient ‘elopements’ and alarming cases of patients falling in waiting rooms. The hospital’s performance improvement director proposed a restructuring of the emergency department to reduce wait times and respond to cases that were delay sensitive by allowing them to skip the registration procedure and obtain quick treatment. The hospital introduced a ‘greeter’ and moved the triage nurse to the waiting room after identifying it as a possible avenue for longer wait times.
The hospital’s quality improvement strategies may succeed since the laid out plan follows laid out concepts and uses realistic measures to measure its improvement.
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Carroll, Sharon Silow.Alteras, Tanya, and Meyer, Jack A. Health Management Associates
(2007) Hospital Quality Improvement: Strategies and Lessons from U.S. Hospitals.The Common Wealth Fund.
Nash, David B. (2006)The Quality Solution: The Stakeholder’s Guide to Improving Health Care. Jones & Bartlett Learning,.
Natural Gas Fluidized Combustion
Fluidized bed combustion was first commercially applied in the early 80’s and has seen rapid growth to become a well established heat generation technology today (Johnsson, 2007). This technology originated from attempts to come up with combustion processes that checked emission of pollutants without the necessity of having external emission controls like scrubbers (U.S Department of Energy, 2013). Coal and natural gas are the two main fossil fuels that are employed in Fluidized-bed combustion systems for heat and electricity generation. The design, operating features and environmental performance of coal and natural gas fluidized bed combustors differs substantially. While coal operated fluidized bed combustors are the most widely applied technologies, there are increasing efforts focusing on the development of natural gas operated fluidized bed combustors due to their environmental friendliness and cost effectiveness when compared to coal based systems. This paper focuses on contrasting the design, operating features and environmental performance of natural gas fluidized bed combustor conventional pulverized coal unit.
Conventional pulverized coal fluidized-bed combustor is designed to use coal as the main fuel for generation of heat and electricity, whereas natural gas combustors employ various forms of gas producing biomass such as wood, crop remnants, wood pulp and chips, and municipal solid waste (Crawford, 2012). Regarding the Fluidized combustion technique, the bubbling fluidized bed (in which air is injected at a slightly higher velocity than the fluidization velocity) method is preferred in coal combustion units, natural gas on the other hand is processed using the circulating fluidized bed technique (here a very high air velocity in relation to the fluidization velocity leads to elucidation of particles from the bed and circulated back to the reactor via a cyclone). A more contrasting feature in the design of coal and natural gas fluidized bed combustors is in the turbine system; whereas coal operated systems are designed to use water-based turbines to produce steam, Fluidized-bed combustors that use natural gas relies on gas turbines for production of steam that is used in the generation of electricity.
The natural gas fluidized bed combustors are mostly designed to use relatively low amounts of heat in the disintegration of biomass particles as compared coal-based combustors that require large amounts of heat to operate. Limestone is the main catalyst that is employed in the operation of fluidized bed combustors using coal for speeding up the process, on the other hand, catalytic reactions in natural gas based systems are made possible by use of a range of alkali metals. Natural gas systems essentially do not require large Sulphur Oxides (SOx) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) chambers due to the low levels of production of these toxic gases. Coal operated systems on the other hand require substantial efforts in their design and operation features to curb release of these toxic gases.
Absorption of Sulphur IV Oxide in a conventional pulverized coal combustion chamber is made possible by the presence of Limestone on its bed, on the contrary fluidized bed natural gas combustion units are surfaced with calcium and sand that are responsible for SO2 absorption. In terms of the amount of het required, pulverized coal combustion require large amounts of heat to disintegrate coal due to its nature. On the contrary, natural gas combustion systems are laced with relatively low heating features since only relatively low degrees in terms of temperature are necessary for natural gas combustion.
In comparison to coal-based combustors, natural gas-based combustors are more efficient and environmental friendly, this is majorly due to a number of reasons;
- Production and release of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) gas to the environment can be put under check at a relatively low cost. Further more, NOx emission can be further reduced using add-on control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction (Pembina Institute, 2001).
- The emission of particulate matter in biomass operated systems is relatively low, this implies that there is only a small amount of waste to be dumped and thus requires a small dumping space (Pembina Institute, 2001). Coal produces a large amount of solid waste in form of ash in contrast to natural gas whose level of ash-waste is usually low. Coal combustion is therefore costly due to the costs involved in the storage and proper disposal of the solid waste.
- Biomass systems are more capital efficient due to the elimination of the steam cycle in their combustion process.
- Natural gas driven fluidized bed combustors are more environmental friendly in term of green house gas (CO2) emission into the atmosphere. Research has proven that presence of large amounts of Carbon IV oxide in the atmosphere lead to the depletion of the ozone layer and an increase in global temperatures as a consequence. Natural gas contains a smaller amount of Carbon IV Oxide gas as compared to coal. Pulverized coal fluidized bed combustion therefore requires stringent measures to curb emission of the green house gases in order to reduce the green house effect.
- Coal occurs naturally in a solid form, unless the combustion is done at the site of occurrence, transportation of coal to the processing plant is necessary. Due to its nature, coal is very heavy and requires road transport from site to factory. On the other hand, the gaseous nature of nature of natural gas allows it to be transported via underground and overhead systems making this a fast, cost effective and convenient form of transportation compared to road transportation of coal. Additionally, large storage space is required to store the raw materials in the case of coal compared to natural gas which is in most cases a valve-turn away and does not require storage space.
Since its introduction, fluidized bed combustion technology (a technology for reacting suspended fossil fuel particles with high velocity air) for heat and electricity generation have gained widespread acceptance. Coal, petroleum and natural gas constitute the main fossils utilized in electricity and heat generation.. Initially coal was the most widely used fossil fuel in fluidized bed combustion technologies, natural gas is rapidly gaining appreciation over mainly due to its non-bulky nature, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Coal based fluidized combustors are designed to allow feeding of solid coal of reduced size while natural gas systems are designed to only allow injection of raw materials in form of gas. Both coal and natural gas systems emit SOx and NOx gases as waste produce, the mode of absorption of these gases in the chambers however differs significantly. Although coal is the most commonly used fossil, natural gas producing substances such as biomass have been proved to be more effective, environmental friendly and cost effective.
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Crawford, M. (2012, September). Fluidized-Bed Combustors for Biomass Boilers. Retrieved January 28, 2014, from ASME.org: https://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/articles/boilers/fluidized-bed-combustors-for-biomass-boilers?cm_sp=Boilers-_-Feataured%20Articles-_-Fluidized-Bed%20Combustors%20for%20Biomass%20Boilers
Johnsson, F. (2007). Fluidized Bed Combustion for Clean Energy. the 12 International Conference on Fluidization- New Horizons in fludization Engineering (p. 16). Goteborg: Engineering Conferences International.
Pembina Institute. (2001). Appendix 4: A Comparison of Combustion Technologies for Electricity Generation. Power for the Future , 12.
U.S Department of Energy. (2013). Fluidized Bed Technology – Overview. Retrieved January 28, 2014, from Energy.Gov: http://energy.gov/fe/fluidized-bed-technology-overview
Tuskegee Syphilis Study
The Tuskegee syphilis study took advantage of the level of poverty among African American men. Those involved were ignorant black American sharecroppers from deprived communities. At the beginning of the research, the common issue was malnutrition. A large number of the participants lined in areas that were dirty with poor sanitary facilities and dirty floors. It was stated the mortality levels was high due to insufficient clothing and food. Medical experts were not available for poor blacks due to the high medical fees. During the start of 1930’s, syphilis was widespread in various United States communities. The Rosenwald foundation collaborated with public health services to come up with the initiative in 6 states. However, the program failed due to lack of sufficient funds (Reverby, 2009).
The Tuskegee syphilis study was done between the years 1932 and 1972 by American Public Health Service. The experiments were done with the purpose of monitoring natural succession of uncured syphilis. The research started in 1932, the investigators included a team of the Tuskegee Institute and the Public Health Service. The experiment was done on the countryside of African Americans who knew they were receiving free medical care from the US government. The experiment was carried out on 600 black Americans who were illiterate individual from Macon which was among the regions most deprived in Alabama. 399 of these were already infected while the other 201 were not. They were never informed about the disease they had though the investigators informed them they would be given medication for a “bad blood”.
The experimental statistics were obtained from the post-mortem results of the black Americans, they were as such intentionally left to worsen under negative effects of tertiary syphilis. There are numerous myths about the experiments that cannot be overlooked since in some way, they are true. The first is that the subjects were injected intentionally with the disease. The other is that the black Americans were never given proper medication for the illness (Reverby, 2001).
Using the Black Americans as Laboratory Specimens
Information regarding the experiments was not disclosed to the black men to ensure their cooperation. They were manipulated as a result of poverty and the subjects were easily convinced by the great offers of free meals, burial insurance and health care. The black men failed to take time and find out the actual information regarding the research or the diagnosis made (Hastings Center Report, 1992). They agreed to undergo the experiments without questioning the likely risks and what the terms of study were. During the duration of the experiment, individual wellbeing in the US was linked to economic and social status in addition to race. For the duration of the slavery and division that took place after the conflict era, African Americans were neglected when it came to issues of health research. Eunice Rivers was a black nurse involved in the experiment. She acted as the connection between the US government officials and the subjects in the study.
Throughout the entire 40 year duration, she was part of the study. Her key duties were assisting in the recruitment of black men, to help them in dealing with their issues as well as securing the autopsies of the black men in case they died. Her focus was taking care of the black men other than offering treatment. She believed the men benefited from the experiment as they were offered free treatment. As a nurse, she was taught not to prescribe medication or diagnose. She always followed the instructions that were issued by doctors. The black men had great trust in her as she cared about them sincerely (Rusert, 2009).
The research was aimed at determining the effects the disease had on the bodies of African Americans as opposed to white men. The theory before the experiment was white men experienced more neurological complications from the disease while black men were vulnerable to cardiovascular illness. It was unpredictable how the results from the experiment would change medication procedures of the illness. It took forty years before one of the investigators made the admission that nothing could have cured or prevented a single infectious syphilis case or led to the key objective of controlling the venereal disease in the US. For forty years, the investigators deliberately declined to offer patients proper treatment even after validation of penicillin as the efficient cure for syphilis Reverby, 2009).
By the period the research came to an end, 28 of the African Americans were already dead, 100 passed away as a result of related problems, forty of their companions got infected while 19 children were born infected. These black men were persuaded to endure the fatal disease by a doctor who convinced them it was necessary for the study to be carried out. First, the African American were given Neoarsphenamine and mercury and the disease dosage though in limited amounts as such, they did not show improvements.
The investigators knew the small doses could not interfere with the objectives of the experiment as they did not have side effects. After a while, the syphilis doses were replaced by pink medications known as aspirin. The Public Health Service investigators misinformed the African Americans with a letter stated, ‘Last chance for Special Free Treatment”. This was aimed at ensuring they would show up for spinal tap, which they knew was risky and very hurting. Throughout the duration of the 40 year period, the black men never knew they were only part of an experiment and they were not treated. It was after the news broke out that they realized they were just used (Reverby, 2009).
After the Experiment
On July 25th, 1972, news regarding the experiment broke out in the Washington Star. It was published in an article that was written by Jean Heller. Her source was a disease interviewer from Public Service Health service. The investigators had however insisted the black men were volunteers and were not forced to take part in the experiment. Therefore, the government made the decision to halt the experiment since the public was aware of its initiatives. It was at that point as well that they made the decision to provide the proper diagnosis to the men with syphilis. Penicillin was discovered as the best prescription for the disease by the year 1947. As such, the U.S government offered support to various public health programs so as to wipe the disease out. Several treatment centers got formed and campaigns to address the disease were started. Only seventy four of the 399 black men participants survived to the end of the experiment duration in 1972 (Reverby, 2001).
Fred Gray, a lawyer filed a class suit which recommended that a compensation of $ 10 million should be given to the black men affected. He portrayed the Tuskegee case as one of blacks against the whites however, it was more complicated. The revelation by whistle blowers of the failure in the study later on lead to major changes in the regulations and laws of the US in regard to protection of individuals involved in medical experiments. Recent medical studies demand doctors should seek permission, state diagnosis and provide the individuals with accurate test results (Reverby, 2001).
The National Research Act in 1974 was approved by the American legislature. The congress created a commission that established the regulations and rules that governed experiments involving human subjects. The US president apologized to black American men who were part of the Tuskegee experiment and even held a national ceremony in their honor (Katz, 2008). The study as well destroyed the trust African Americans had in public health efforts which were provided by the government of the US. Majority of the blacks lost trust in the medical community and became reluctant to make contributions to the varying health programs, for instance, the organ donation programs. The study also contributed to the reluctance of poor black people to seek preventive regular measures. The Black American people also developed the belief that the government contributed to spread of HIV/AIDS virus due to the experiment (Rusert, 2009).
Hastings Center Report. (1992). Twenty Years After: The Legacy of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Vol. 22 Issue 6, p29. 3/8p.
Katz, R. (2008). Awareness of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the US Presidential Apology and Their lnfluence on Minority Participation in Biomedical Research.American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 98 Issue 6, p1137-1142.
Reverby, S. (2001). More than Fact and Fiction. Cultural Memory and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The Hastings Center Report [Hastings Cent Rep] Vol. 31 (5), pp. 22-8.
Reverby, S. (2009). Examining Tuskegee : the Infamous Syphilis Study and its Legacy. Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press.
Rusert, B. (2009). “A Study in Nature”: The Tuskegee Experiments and the New South Plantation. Journal of Medical Humanities. Vol. 30 Issue 3, p155-171. 17p.
Supportive Employment Policies
Mental illnesses incidences are increasing rapidly at the workplace. Problems related with mental health are major disability contributors globally. They are ranked among top 10 leading disability causes. Countries are affected equally by mental illnesses whether they are poor or rich. The effects are felt across all ethnic groups, genders, ages and races. Additionally, researchers indicate further mental health problems are expected in the near future (Shaw et al., 2003).
The risks and burdens that accompany mental health at work places should not be overlooked. It is established 15 to 30 percent of employees will likely experience mental health complications in the course of work (UN, 2000). This issue has attracted plenty of public policy legislations and political attention. As such, the purpose of this paper is to discuss political issues and state, local policies and federal on employment of persons who are mentally ill.
Political Issues and Policies on Supportive Employment of Mentally Ill Persons
In majority of countries, there exists legislation that a state of disability should not keep one from enjoying a meaningful life. For example, the American Disability Act makes provision that employers are supposed to make noteworthy considerations where employment of persons who are mentally ill is concerned. It is necessary not only to provide support to such individuals but for the employer as well in order to enhance good working environment and relationship (Atkins & Weiss, 2002).
Mental illness is linked to various problems such as unemployment, lack of education and poverty as well as other problems. Depression prevalence is also high among individuals who are unemployed than among those employed. Unemployment as well has significant effects on the health and well-being of the people. On top of this insecure jobs also leads to health complications. For example, temporary workers face more difficulties in working environment than permanent workers (SAMHSA, 2003).
Therefore, government policies are extremely crucial in reducing and promoting unemployment as they have positive effects on the peoples’ mental well-being. A health mental policy for workplaces should be developed as a policy that is separate or part of health and safety policy. This ensures all aspects of mental health are also put into consideration (American Psychiatric Association, 2004). Examples of mental health policies at workplaces include retention arguments and good health. Few employers act on adage that good health equates to good business and even fewer of them recognize mental health importance’. There is however an inclusive approach towards well-being and mental health of employees. These approaches included reduction of absenteeism, acquiring necessary skills, creation of good work relationships, encouragement of productivity, employment of best managers, supporting and ensuring acceptance of all individuals as well as making ones place of work safe as well as efficient.
Many businesses on the other hand address problems of mental health at their places of work through development of policies. A mental health policy, usually aids in defining the vision as well as aim of improving mental condition of the work forces as well as establishing a model of action. After formulation, the policy not only identifies the agreement between the employee and employer but facilitates relationship between the various stakeholders at the workplace. A policy on mental health on employment of personals who are mentally ill can be developed as part of safety and health policy. Putting such a policy in place will involve the analysis of mental illness issues, development of actual policy, establishment of strategies to implement it as well as implementation of the policy. High levels of dedication and commitment are needed on the part of employer towards ensuring policy development (America Psychiatric Association, 2004).
The workplace policy on persons who are mentally ill is normally based on an understanding of the issues that are associated with the illness which is obtained after thorough assessment of the predicament (Shaw et al., 2003). This information might include data records from the department of human resources, occupational health record, health records and financial reports. New information collection is just as important as well. Research and surveys should be carried out on the incidence and occurrence of mental illness at places of work so as to identify occupational health risks and safety matters within the workplace. Interviews are supposed to be conducted with employees, managers, medical officers and families so as to get new information (America Psychiatric Association, 2004).
At national level, the government has the responsibility of promoting mental wellness, ensuring proper mental illness treatment and preventing mental issues as well. The government also targets workplaces in its strategies of prevention and promotion. On top of this, the government is itself, the employer. However, the administrative structures differ greatly in overseeing employment of persons who are mentally ill. The Ministry of Health also aids the government in formulation of mental health policy, suggests frameworks for promotion of employees’ mental health and implements mental health policies. As a matter of fact, mental health policy should define relationship between the health and work of the employees (World Health Organization, 2005).
The ministry of Labor, on the other hand has the mandate of ensuring health and safety at workplaces. This does not just include supervision and regulation of safety and health but protection of incomes for persons who are mentally ill. Improvement of management of mental health issues among the employees leads to changes in legislation of policies which is accompanied by relevant policy implementation.
The government as well has a crucial role to play towards ensuring the policies get implemented and they provide framework that promotes implementation of mental health policy and ensures the employees suffering from mental health complications get proper and adequate treatment. These policies cover issues of discrimination, safe environment, income and other mental health issues noted among employees (America Psychiatric Association, 2004).
The UN has committed to ensure persons with disabilities get the same opportunities as those without and they are allowed to take part in any economic activity which also includes employment. The law on antidiscrimination was introduced in many countries and it has proven to be the most vital and effective legislation so far as improvement and employment of mental health within the workplace is concerned. The United Nations adopted standard rules on equal opportunities for personals with disabilities in 1993 (UN, 2000). The rules further identified a couple of issues that needed quick action and which were lacking for purposes of attaining equal opportunities for all people which includes the disabled. Some of these issues included creation of awareness, health care, support services, rehabilitation services, and protection of income, employment and security among others.
The International Labor Organization in 1998, declared fundamental principles and workplace rights which ensured the commitment of government, workers and employers. On top of this, employer’s organizations upheld standards and principles in 3 main areas of employing people with disability which included elimination, discrimination and promotion at workplace SAMHSA, 2003). Antidiscrimination legislation also prohibits the discrimination of people suffering from mental illness. The effectiveness of these laws depends on model of disability and the inclusive nature of mental health problems, equality aspect for instance, in promotion of access to training and education, appearance of legislation in civil, labor and criminal laws. The laws of antidiscrimination as well include people with mental illness. The US for instance, passed the 1990 Disability Act which prohibits employers from carrying out acts of discrimination against people with mental illness in any aspect as job applicants or employees deserve to enjoy equal treatment (UN, 2000).
The laws of antidiscrimination make it unlawful for employers to discriminate against people with mental illness and requires employers to be responsible in creating environments that are conducive to ensure all people, including those with disabilities, work well in these companies (NIMH, n.d). The national government, on the other hand has numerous strategies that ensure persons with mental illness or disabilities are employed. These include the use of quota schemes requiring certain businesses to employ specific number of people with disabilities; nondiscrimination laws, content that it is unlawful for employers to discriminate against persons with mental illness or disability and job retention requires that employers should retain employees who are disabled while working for them (America Psychiatric Association, 2004).
Employees, in addition need protection against cost of disability and illness. This should include both treatment cost and salaries loss as a result of inability to work. Financial protection is based on three principles (Atkins & Weiss, 2002). First, employees ought to enjoy protection from severe financial expenses through reduction of their cost on mental health care. Secondly, healthy people are supposed to support the sick through subsidizing their health care through strategies such as prepayment services of mental illness. Thirdly, the rich are supposed to offer support to the poor.
Majority of the small business enterprises on the other hand address problems of mental health at their workplace through development of policies. A mental health policy usually assists in definition of the aim and vision of improving mental state of work forces through establishment of a model of action. Once the policy is formulated, it not only identifies the agreement between the employee and employer but it facilitates relationship between the different stakeholders at the workplace. Unfortunately, majority of the employees in small businesses or enterprises, self-employed or on part-time employment do not have access to income protection as a result of mental illnesses (UN, 2000). Such people are at great risk of financial hardship and crisis in case of mental complications which impair their ability to work. As such, the employers and government needs to join hands and devise ways of ensuring all employees are protected adequately against financial crisis cause by mental illness.
Other policies and provisions on mental illness focus on duties of the employer in provision of safe work environment (America Psychiatric Association, 2004). They commit employers to development of safety workplaces. For example, the International Labor Organization develops programs which ensure and promote safety at work places. The main objective of the organization is increasing global awareness on impacts and aspects of mental illness, diseases, injuries and enhancing the capacity of industries and states to implement and develop effective policies and programmes as well as protecting all the employees.
Most of the national laws have addressed employees’ safety. For instance, the 1994 Safety Act and Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulation of 1999 ensures that employers provide safe environments for employers, accesses and controls risks that are associated with mental health (Shaw et al., 2003). The laws as well make employers responsible for ensuring the safety of employees at workplaces and support as well as assisting persons with disabilities. For such policies to be put into place, it demands the analysis of the issue on mental illness, development of actual policy, establishment of strategies to implement it as well as policy implementation. High level of dedication and commitment is needed from the employer in order to ensure development of the policy (WHO, 2005).
Majority of employees are affected by mental issues depending on the health care services that are offered by private sectors, the government and NGOs for their medication. It is crucial that these services should be accessible and of the top most quality. Additionally, a mental health policy on the treatment of persons who are mentally ill should be developed as part of the safety and health policy. High dedication and commitment levels from employers are needed in order to ensure the policy is well developed (Atkins & Weiss, 2002)/
However, there are a couple of challenges that face introduction and implementation of mental health policies in the workplace though they do not come without solutions. First, employers firmly believe profits are higher when employees work for long hours while responding to mental issues can be very expensive to them. Majority of the employees do not understand the link between employees’ mental health and productivity. Second employers who run small businesses and with few employees might only understand the need of addressing mental health issues in large organizations but not small ventures such as theirs. These business owners therefore rely on the government and the existing services of mental health care (Shaw et al., 2003).
Thirdly, stakeholders might resist development and implementation of mental health policy as well as accompanying strategies. This is because they might not be aware of the influence mental health has on productivity and performance at work places. It is important to conduct consultation and assessment with stakeholders during implementation and development of the policies. For instance, demonstration of projects and discussion n meetings can help people get better understanding (NIMH, n.d).
At national level, the Ministry of Health aids the government in formulating mental health policy, suggests frameworks for promoting mental health of employees and implements mental health policies. As a matter of fact, mental health policy is supposed to define relationship between health of employees and work (WHO, 2005). The government has the mandate for promoting mental wellness, preventing mental issues and ensuring mental illness is properly treated. The government also targets workplaces in prevention and promotion strategies. On top of this, the government is an employer itself. However, the administrative structures differ greatly in how they oversee the employment of persons with mental illness.
Mental illness contributes to disability and is linked to numerous problems such as unemployment, poverty, lack of education and other issues. Depression prevalence is high among people who are unemployed than those employed. Unemployment as well has significant effects on the health and well-being of the people (NIMH, n.d.). On top of this, insecure jobs can also lead to health problems. For example, temporary workers indicate more difficulties in working compared to permanent workers. As such, various policies need to be developed and implemented by organizations and government to support persons who are mentally ill. The policies should address issues such as employment, income protection, retention as well as safety for persons who are mentally ill (SAMHSA, 2003). Other policies and provisions of mental illness should focus on the employer’s duties in provision of a working environment that is safe. They should commit employers to guarantee safety at workplaces.
American Psychiatric Association (2004). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Atkins, A. & Weiss, H. (2002). Program evaluation: the bottom line in organizational health. In: Quick JC, Tetrick LC, eds., Handbook of occupational health psychology, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
National Institute for Mental Health (undated) Mindout for mental health. Retrieved on 9 November 2013 from <http://www.nimhe.org.uk/downloads/LineMngrPack-FINAL.pdf>
Shaw WS et al. (2003). Employee perspectives on the role of supervisors to prevent workplace disability after injuries. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, Vol. 13(3): 129-142.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2003). National household survey on drug abuse: main findings, 1991. Rockville, MD (DHHS Publication No. SMA 93-1980).
United Nations (2000). The Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for People with Disabilities. UN General Assembly Resolution 48/96