P2P vs. Client Server Networks
A network can either be a peer to peer network or a client server network. To understand the two, a comparison of P2P vs. client server networks is important. Peer to peer network is also called a workgroup network while server-based network is also known as client/server network.
In a P2P network, several computers are connected without a server but they share information, content or resources. The system does not require a central location where users can be authenticated, files stored and resources accessed.
This implies that users have to remember the computers in a workgroup that has information or resources that they are looking for at any particular time. Users are also required to log in to every computer that has the information or resources that they want to access.
Information or resources are generally stored in multiple computers in a P2P network. This means that users have difficulties in tracking the information that they want. Backing up crucial business information is also difficult. For this reason, most small businesses do not have complete backups. In most cases, businesses have different versions of similar files on different PCs in a workgroup.
There are P2P networks where small businesses use a single computer to run the operating system of the client. This can be a Windows X Professional or Windows 98. In this case, the computer acts as a designated “server” in the network. However, despite helping in saving data at a central location, this does not offer a robust solution to the needs of small businesses such as documents collaboration.
A client server network is different. In a client server network, there is a computer that acts as the server and the central location for users to access and share resources in a single network. The data that all computers in the network can access and share is found in a single, central location.
This makes it easier for users to back up crucial business information. Every computer that is connected to a client server network is known as a client computer. In this network, each user has an account and a password that they use in logging in to this server and access the shared resources.
The operating system of the central computer or the server is designed in a way that enables it to handle the operations and loads of the system even when there are multiple client computers accessing the resources. In most client server networks, Windows SBS 2008 is used. This is because it offers a central point where users are authenticated. It also enables the users to access and store information or resources.
In terms of cost, P2P network is more effective than client server network. However, if you have an IT expert to manage it, you can install a client server network. P2P network is suitable for a business that has few employees sharing files and printer occasionally.
Both networks are used in sharing and accessing files, data or resources. They can also be used by small and large organizations depending on their financial capability and file sharing needs.
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Merger vs. Acquisition
The terms acquisition and merger are used like they were synonymous. However, these terms have a slight difference. A comparison of merger vs. acquisition shows the differences and similarities of these terms.
A purchase can be considered as an acquisition or merger depending on its hostility or friendliness as well as its announcement. Simply put, the difference between merger and acquisition depends on the way it is communicated as well as how the directors, shareholders and employees of the target company receive it.
A purchase is called an acquisition when a company takes over the other and establishes itself clearly as its new owner. From a point of view of legal experts, the target company stops existing once the takeover starts being effective. To them, the buyer is said to have swallowed the target business or company and the stock of the buyer continues being traded in the stock market.
On the other hand, a merger occurs when two companies, usually of a similar size come together and agree to move forward as one, new company instead of staying as separately operated and owned companies. This move is called a merger of equals in the world of business. The companies surrender their stocks and they issue a stock for the new company in their places.
However, mergers of equals in the real world are a rare occurrence. Usually, a company purchases another and the part of their deal is that the acquired company proclaims that the deal was a merger of equals. However, the move is a technical acquisition.
Companies do this because being bought usually has negative connotations. Therefore, calling the deal a merger is a technical way that top managers and deal makers use to make a takeover palatable.
It is important to note that a deal can be described as a merger if the CEOs of both companies agree to join the companies for their interest. However, when there is an unfriendly deal or when a target firm is not ready to be bought, this is usually called an acquisition.
Nevertheless, both merger and acquisition are aspects of corporate finance, strategic management and management that deal with combining, buying and selling different firms and similar entities as well. They can help a company to grow in its location, sector or in a new location or field without establishing subsidiaries or other entities.
Both acquisition and merger can be defined as forms of restructuring because they lead to recognition of an entity while providing positive value and growth. A sector or industry consolidation occurs when there are many acquisitions and mergers because resources of small firms are concentrated and used in establishing larger firms. Both acquisition and merger can lead to financial and economic consolidation of the involved entities.
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Merger Pros and Cons
Considering the merger pros and cons can enable you to determine whether this business move is beneficial to shareholders and top executives of the involved firms or it is done in the interest of the public. Just like most business moves, a merger has its pros and cons.
One of the pros of a merger is the establishment of network economies. In some business sectors, it is important to offer a national or regional network. This implies that economies of scale are very significant because a regional or national network can mean that firms pull resources to offer more efficient services.
A merger can also boost research that is needed to develop a business or an industrial sector. For companies to create new products or invent new technologies, they need to spend money in research, analysis and development. A merger makes companies more profitable because it brings the funds required for research from the two or more companies together. This is vital for industries like those involved in drug research.
Monopoly regulation is another pro of a merger. A company can gain monopoly in a sector that it specializes in through a merger. This is because the companies that come together use their resources in developing products for the same niche of consumers. By benefiting from the economies of scale that comes with a merger, consumers are saved from possible monopoly prices.
A merger enables a company to avoid duplication. Mergers are sensible in certain industries. For instance, if businesses are competing for passengers on the same road, consumers can benefit from having a single firm with low charges in the region. Apart from this, a merger can also reduce congestion and benefit the environment.
Nevertheless, a merger has its cons as well. These include higher prices that come from reduced competition. A newly established firm has monopoly power due to the reduced competition which gives it a larger market share. Thus, the company can increase prices and consumers will pay if there are no competitors in a region.
A merger can leave consumers with fewer choices. This implies that they will buy the products or hire services of a newly formed company even if they are not pleased by them.
In some cases, a merger can cause job losses. This is usually a concern for most parties especially if the takeover is hostile or caused by the need for an asset stripping. A company that wants to merge might do so because it wants to eliminate some of the under-performing sectors.
A merger can also lead to diseconomies of scale. The newly established company can experience diseconomies of scale due to its increased size. Once a merger has taken place, the new firm that is larger than the initial ones may not have the capacity to ensure effective control and it might have difficulties in motivating workers. Workers who feel like they are a mere part of a large multinational can also be less motivated to perform.
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Effects of Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use
Benzodiazepine is a group of drugs (diazepam, nitrazepam, alprazolam, temazepam and oxazepam) used to treat restlessness in people who are hospitalized, anxiety, mania, alcohol withdrawal, sleeping problems, agitation and epileptic seizures or fists. There are different types of benzodiazepines including intermediate, long and short acting.
The medication which is widely used in neurology, psychiatry and other branches of medicine can be sniffed, taken by mouth and in some cases, intravenously. The drugs have also been used as induction agents in medical schools during anesthetic practice.
Medics always advice that just like any other drug, benzodiazepines should be used for short term since they are effective. Benzodiazepines also have side effects including short term and long term effects. Short term effects include anxiety disorders and this commonly affects anyone under the benzodiazepine treatment.
On long term use, the drugs can easily lead to dependence. Today, this is considered a risk. Taking the drugs intravenously is also a concern across different parts of the globe because cases of drug abuse have been reported. Even so, there are patients who do not suffer any side effects following the use of benzodiazepines. However,
- If you know someone who has been prescribed benzodiazepine
- If you have been prescribed with the drug or
- You are concerned with addiction or the withdrawal effects of the medication, it is essential that you understand the effects of benzodiazepine treatment over a long haul
This review will therefore take a look at the effects of benzodiazepine use
Effects of long term benzodiazepine use that you should know
Common effects of long term benzodiazepine use include unusual sleep behaviors and anterograde amnesia. These may occur especially if you are using traditional benzodiazepines and more specifically triazolam use.
Next day drowsiness also known as hangover effect is a common with the drugs when used for a long time. This is common with flurazepam and diazepam. The group of benzodiazepine has sedative effects that usually carry on to the next day. As a result, they can easily impair daily activities and driving. The effects are worse amongst the elderly.
Severe allergies including angioedema and anaphylaxis are also associated with long term use of benzodiazepine. They are rare effects of long term benzodiazepine use and usually disappear within a day or two
Long term use of the medication can also lead to addiction, tolerance, abuse or dependence. Benzodiazepines including alprazolam, lorazepam and triazolam are known as potent benzodiazepines and have shorter elimination half-lives. Therefore, they can cause dependence and tolerance following prolonged use.
Research also reveals withdrawal reactions as some of the effects associated with medications that are short acting. The effects are common if you suddenly stop medication after long term use.
Higher doses of benzodiazepine can also lead to rebound insomnia.
Similarly, research shows that benzodiazepine should not be used during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. The drugs can harm the baby.
Use of benzodiazepine by the elderly can lead to many side effects whether a patient is under short acting or long acting benzodiazepine. The drugs can lead to
- Over sedation based on age related factors
- Hip fractures and falls especially if a patient is under the treatment of long acting benzodiazepines
- Impaired blood pressure management and balance control. These have been closely linked to short and long acting drugs.
- Memory loss, mood swing and worsening sleep are also common effects of long term benzodiazepine use amongst the elderly.
- In other cases, coma and unconsciousness can occur. As a result, medics’ advice that elderly persons should use the drugs moderately and if possible, benzodiazepines should be avoided in persons above the age of 65.
Severe effects of long term benzodiazepine use
Long term use of benzodiazepine drugs can also lead to serious health issues including cardiac and respiratory arrest. These effects of long term benzodiazepine use are common if a patient is receiving intravenous (IV) benzodiazepines. Other reactions following the administration of IV medication include
- Nausea and vomiting
- Skin rash
- Double vision and blurred vision
- Injection site reactions
- Slow heart rate
- Respiratory depression and
- Cardiac arrhythmias
Other major effects of benzodiazepines include sleepiness, memory and concentration problems and unsteadiness
Drug abuse and addiction are also now considered possible risks and severe effects of benzodiazepine use. This is why medics advice patients to follow the doctor’s prescription and watch out for addiction signs when under treatment.
How can you tell that you are addicted to benzodiazepine?
Using benzodiazepines for a long time leads to addiction in around 4 in every 10 patients. This can lead to full blown tolerance especially with dose escalation to many times the recommended treatment levels. It is reported that patients under high doses of benzodiazepine treatment can be emotionally and physically dependent on the drugs and can easily suffer psychotic disorder and severe withdrawal if medication is dropped.
Therefore it is wise that you watch out for these signs to prevent addiction
- lack of sleep
- agitation and feeling tense
- if you feel bad after taking the drugs
- if you have to take more and more benzodiazepines to achieve a certain effect
- when you crave the drugs
- Sensitivity to light and blurred vision
Summary on the effects of long term benzodiazepine use
In general, effects benzodiazepine use can be reviewed under different categories including
Psychological effects- they affect behavioral, psychomotor and cognitive abilities of a patient. These effects include anxiety, sleepiness, depression, and episodes of amnesia as well as panic attacks. According to research, 17mg of diazepam or valium over a long time can lead to substantial cognitive impairment. Withdrawal following the use of the same drug for more than three months can also occur.
Physical effects– these include dizziness, vertigo, dysarthria and ataxia. In the elderly, lack of coordination is common and can easily lead to falls. Severe physical effects of benzodiazepine use including weight gain, impairment of sexual function, menstrual disorders and body rash.
Hip fracture is common amongst the elderly under benzodiazepine medication. In different research studies, zolpidem can increase the risk of falls and hip fracture by 2.55 times amongst patients aged 65 years and above.
Real side effects– long term use of benzodiazepines can also cause real life effects such as impairments when driving a car. According to epidemiological research, road traffic and domestic accidents have been widely reported following term use of the medication.
Overdose and dependence risk-overdose risk is also considered a long term effect of benzodiazepine use. This is specifically great when benzodiazepine is used with other drugs including opioids and alcohol. In this case, it is imperative to strictly adhere to a doctor’s prescription and advice.
It is therefore essential to note that driving while under benzodiazepine treatment is equal to driving under influence and more specifically, with blood alcohol level of 0.050 and 0.079 percent.
Withdrawal effects- these are effects that occur after giving up on the use of benzodiazepine after a long time. They are the most challenging effects of long term benzodiazepine use and they include twitching of muscles
- dizziness and tremors
- irritability and anxiety
- heightening of senses and altered perception
- poor concentration
- bizarre dreams, fatigue and sleeping problems
- paranoia, hallucinations and delusions
Expert advice on how to prevent effects of long term benzodiazepine use
As mentioned earlier, there are patients who do not suffer any side effects of long term benzodiazepine use. However, in such cases, one can easily get addicted to the drugs. As a result, it is essential to avoid long term effects of benzodiazepine use and addiction by
- following the doctor’s prescription and
- Ensure that the drugs are used with caution and in short term (less than four weeks). This prevents long term effects as well as addiction.
- Always have a natural alertness rhythm during the day and sleepiness at a night. Avoid going to bed until you feel sleepy.
- Have a good sleeping environment based on your needs. An ideal sleep environment should not be too hot, too cold, or too humid. It should be quite and dark
- Avoid anything that interferes with sleep when you are about to sleep. This includes nicotine, alcohol and caffeine.
- Avoid strenuous evening effects while under benzodiazepine medication
- In the event of anxiety, take time to resolve them before taking medication and before bedtime
- Exercise distraction and relaxation techniques and avoid daytime naps while under benzodiazepine drugs
- Note than despite the fact that benzodiazepines are known for their effectiveness, they should only be used for short term. They become less favorable and pose adverse effects when treatment is prolonged. What’s more, efficacy will always wane and risks become even more when you become addicted to the drugs.
- It is additionally important to note that patients with severe panic attacks, anxiety and insomnia disorders can be effectively treated with short term use of benzodiazepines. However, a medic should offer a comprehensive treatment strategy for full management of the panic, insomnia and anxiety and to prevent long term usage as well as related effects.
Using benzodiazepine with other drugs
The effects of using benzodiazepine with heroine, alcohol, opiates and other drugs are unpredictable and dangerous. There have been cases of breathing difficulties among many patients. Breathing difficulties increase the risk of overdependence and death.
Causes of Spanish Empire Decline
The reign of Spanish Empire was considered a growth of political power and a sign of prestige especially in the 16th century. However, during the 17th century, many writers and political experts considered it a period of decline for the empire because of a number of factors including
Signing of a twelve year truce with the Dutch by Spain in 1609- This was a humiliating agreement for the Spanish as it acknowledged Dutch independence.
Spanish infantry also affected in 1643 leading to a major defeat for the Spanish as they were decimated at the battle of Rocroi, in Northern France by the French forces. This is an event that damaged the reputation of Spain and contributed to the decline of the empire.
In 1659, the Spanish had to cede territories of Roussillon and Cerdagne to France
The Franche-Comte in 1674 was also invaded by France and Spain had to officially recognize its loss in 1678.
There was also internal separatist Spanish in Aragon in 1648 and in Andalusia as well as a separatist rebellion in Naples between 1647 and 1648. These events played a role in the decline of Spanish empire and its reign.
In 1640, a major event that played a crucial role in the decline of the empire occurred. The Catalans in Portugal and Catalonia rebelled because they were tired of Castilians and demanded to fight the French. They also rebelled because they feared the loss of their local laws of fueros which their strong man, Castile had proposed in 1624.
Catalonia was therefore annexed by the French as Castile’s efforts to crush it failed. As a result, the Castilians and Castilian forces were fought allowing the Catalans to regain their independence in 1668. This was one of the major events during the Spanish reign as it marked the end of Castilian dominance over the Portuguese for the past 88 years.
Similarly, things overseas got worse and did not favor the Spanish empire. Spanish treasure fleets were constantly harassed by the Dutch and Spanish territories faced constant threats. In 1628, the Dutch captured an entire Spanish fleet as it prepared to cross the transatlantic. In 1656 and 1657, the English also laid a lot of waste to the fleet.
Additionally, trading posts in Brazil and Dutch forts in the country and in India and Indonesia threated Portuguese interests. This led to the decline of the empire as it forced the unity between Spanish and the Portuguese.
The other reason that contributed to the decline of the Spanish empire is that Spain lost its precious land overseas. The English seized Jamaica and as a result, Spain was forced to recognize English occupation of the Island between 1667 and 1670. Later on in 1697, France took over the Island of Hispaniola, today popularly known as Haiti and Dominican Republic.
Therefore, the 17th century marked the decline of the Spanish empire and Spanish hegemony. The trend continued through the 18th and 19th centuries as England and France planned for more imperial adventures. The empire disintegrated and by the end of the 17th century, Spain shifted powers to France.
Getting Started: What is an expository essay outline?
What is an expository essay outline? It is a roadmap showing key elements and sections of an expository essay. At this point, it is equally important to define an expository essay. This is an essay explaining a specific subject in-depth and details concise opinions of other people on the same issue. An expository essay outline may also be a report. Unlike other essay papers, the main purpose of an expository essay is to furnish the reader with facts about the subject matter. You may also describe this type of essay as a coalition of facts and opinions.
To put together a good expository essay, you need well-researched facts to convince your audience that you have a mastery of the subject. It is not easy, but with this manual, you should become an expository expert in any field.
This handout contains the following:
- Drafting an Expository essay outline
- How to write an expository essay
- Elements of a good expository essay
- Mistakes to avoid when working on your essay outline
- Selected examples of expository essay outlines
Are you ready? Let us get started…
What is an expository essay outline and how do you draft one?
Crafting a winning expository essay can turn out to be a tasking assignment that will leave you drained and cursing your course. However, it can also be your favorite homework if you understand the basics of expositions.
Unlike in general essays, expository writing takes a format, which you have to adhere to when working on your paper. To organize your ideas logically, you need an outline for your paper. This begs the question; what is an expository essay outline? In simple words, it is a skeleton of your expository work.
Here is what should appear in your expository essay outline:
- Start with a hook to pique your audience
- Give the background of your subject
State your thesis
- Body paragraphs
- Flesh out your paper with research evidence
- Support every issue to make it valid
- Achieve smooth transitions between paragraphs
- Restate your thesis
- Reveal significance of the issue
- Challenge your audience
We shall expound on these elements in other sections of this handout. Keep reading…
The golden rules of expository essay writing
To write a professional expository paper, here are three principles to always remember and apply whenever you are working on your assignments.
Have clear facts – as you gather details from other sources, present your work accurately such that the content of your paper does not conflict the published facts of the original articles. Do not deform the meaning of anything but focus on emphasizing the source.
Back your analysis – Use the information from different sources to affirm your position. You achieve this by reviewing literature or scanning what different writers have published before you embark on your expository assignment.
Do not give surprise conclusions. Link your analysis and the conclusions you make to enhance logical flow of ideas and prevent losing your audience on the way. Never leave the reader to imagine what you meant when you have the chance to make clarifications.
With these golden rules, what is an expository essay outline should not bother you anymore. Reflect on the rules even as you examine the following example of an outline:
Example #1: Expository Essay Outline
The following is an example of an expository essay outline. Examine it, putting emphasis on the key elements of the outline:
- Start with the hook
- Give background information
- State your thesis
- Fact 1+Evidence
- Fact 2+Evidence
- Fact 1+Evidence
- Fact 2+Evidence
- Fact 1+Evidence
- Fact 2+Evidence
- Fact 1+Evidence
- Fact 2+Evidence
- Summary of thesis statement
- State the main significance
- Bring out pending questions
This is a good expository essay outline. From the example, the introduction, body and the conclusion form the basis of the essay. You may view the entire piece by visiting kibin.com.
With the above example and the introductory sections, let us focus at some of the elements of an expository in details.
The key elements that define an expository essay
As you prepare to work on your expository essay, always remember that exposition requires you to tailor your argument. Though you may begin with personal ideas, you need evidence from authentic sources to convince your readers.
In some cases, your instructor will assign you a topic to work on. Alternatively, he or she may give you the freedom to choose own topic. Whichever the case, a mastery of the following components is vital as you reflect on what is an expository essay outline.
Ideally, an expository essay follows the standard format of an ordinary essay. You will have an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion. In terms of the length, stick to your instructor’s rules. However, expository essays take a five-paragraph format.
The first paragraph is your introduction where you orient the reader. Using a hook, grab their attention and proceed to give them a reason to read on. The intro also gives contextual formation about the topic and concludes with a thesis statement.
The second, third and fourth paragraph form the body of your essay. Here, prove to the reader that you did a meticulous research by fleshing your essay using support materials. Use topic sentence to introduce every new idea and maintain smooth transition between the ideas.
Your last paragraph is the conclusion. Do a summary of the issue, reveal its significance and include a call to action by challenging your audience to act. In case your paper is long, you will need more arguments to solidify body paragraphs.
Thesis statement is probably one of the elements that cut across all written assignments. It gives bearing, and direction to your paper. A good thesis statement will act a backbone of your essay. In exposition, your thesis statement carries your main idea. Build a holistic thesis that does not depend on your opinions but rhymes your evidence.
Use the body of your essay to support your thesis statement. Remember that in a 5-paragrah essay, you will need three arguments, backed with undisputable evidence.
Do you now understand what is an expository essay outline? To drive these points, take a look at the following example:
Example #2: Expository Essay Outline
A. Attention grabber-HOOK.
C. Thesis statement– state your position on the issue
- Body Paragraph 1: First Point
- Follow the map of your thesis statement and discuss the first point.
- Give evidence to support and expand your first point
- Briefly introduce second point for smooth transition
Body Paragraph 2: Second Point
- Follow the map of your thesis statement and discuss the second point.
- Give evidence to support and expand your second point and make it valid
- Briefly introduce the counter augment as you transit into the conclusion
- recognize the opposing views plus evidence
- negate the counterarguments
- Use a call to action to drive your point and close the discussion
Do not introduce new information to the conclusion
Revise and edit your essay.
This is another excellent example to help you understand what is an expository essay outline. You can view the en tire outline by visiting www.wdeptford.k12.nj.us.
Remember that this is not the only format. Be flexible and ready to adjust to a new format depending on the essay instructions.
Final ideas to help you understand what an expository essay outline is:
To write an excellent expository essay, employ the following nuggets:
Select a topic. Pick a good topic, which is interesting, arguable and manageable. Avoid too broad or too narrow topics.
Draft your thesis. Have a statement that controls your ideas. Ensure that you support this statement to the letter.
Select your method of develop. Flip through all the methods and choose that which serve your thesis.
Organize your essay. Ensure that your ideas flow logically and with clarity.
With these ideas, what is an expository essay outline should no longer pose a challenge when handling writing assignments.
Example #3: Expository Essay outline
Topic I. _________________________________________________
Subtopic A. ___________________________________________
Supporting details 1. ______________________________________
Subtopic B. ___________________________________________
Supporting details 1. ______________________________________
Subtopic C. ___________________________________________
Supporting details 1. ______________________________________
Subtopic D. __________________________________________
Supporting details 1. ______________________________________
From this example, you can see important elements that will give a fantastic expository essay. Notably, you must provide evidence on every point you give to make it valid. You can view the entire outline by visiting www.valdosta.edu.
Make this handout your daily companion and become a super writer… all the best.
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Mary I of England
Queen Mary I was born in 1516 to King Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon. It is important to note that Mary was the only child who survived infancy in the marriage. She ruled as Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 when she died at the age of 42.
The early years of Mary I of England were mired with a range of challenges. Firstly, she was separated from her father following the divorce between King Henry VIII and Catharine. However, the separation would be seen as annulment of the marriage in modern days. Since the marriage was invalid, Mary I was deprived of some royal privileges as a claimant of the throne. This infuriated her, and got angry with her father for denouncing the Roman Catholic Church, which was against the King’s divorce. She believed that his father, King Henry VIII was responsible for her illegitimacy to the throne. According to Mary, if the King had obeyed the RCC, her right to inherit the throne would not be questioned by anyone. Holding this position, Mary cemented her loyalty to Rome. However, by the time her father died, she was second in lineage after Edward, her half-brother, who was sickly.
Queen Mary I rose to the throne in 1553 following the death of Edward. At this time, Protestantism had gained ground and proposed Lady Jane Grey, who was Mary’s cousin to take over the throne. However, Mary received public sympathy and took over the throne. She was inaugurated as Queen of England on November 30, 1553. With all the powers she had, Mary ordered the execution of Lady Jane Grey, her cousin to prevent her future attempts to oust her. This earned her the unofficial title “Bloody Mary”. Many people believed that Lady Jane would have live were it not for the interference of the Spanish diplomats.
As mentioned before, Mary I was not happy with alienation from Rome, which was instituted by his father, King Henry VIII, leading to the establishment of Protestantism in England. While on power, Mary tried to get back England to RCC. Bloody Mary had hundreds of Protestants executed, including leaders and bishops. First to be murdered was John Rodgers who published the “Matthews-Tyndale Bible”. Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury was the second, before hundreds of others followed during Mary’s bloody terror reign. Roman Catholicism restoration by Mary I was remarkable. Most of the Protestant bishops were loyal during the reign of Elizabeth I, dying as they served house arrest terms.
Because of her inclination towards the Roman Catholic, Mary I introduced a raft of social reforms, which terribly backfired. Many people did not recognize her marriage to Phillip II of Spain, which took place in 1554. This marriage would not stand the test of time, since Mary could not give birth. She died of ovarian and uterine cancer. Following her age at 42, she was succeeded by Elizabeth I, her half-sister, who undid most of her failed social reforms. Among other things, Elizabeth I took England back to its Protestant state. Because of the turn of events in England, English refugees in Switzerland published the “Geneva Bible” before they returned home and printed the Protestant Geneva Bible.
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Kingdom of Bohemia
The Kingdom of Bohemia was founded after the collapse of the Great Moravian Empire. This Kingdom became paramount in the development of the Czech. It was not an ordinary kingdom as it symbolized early modern cultural, economic and political entity. Because of this, Czechs believed that the birth of the kingdom was one of the brightest periods in history of their nation. In this kingdom, dynastic politics took center stage, overshadowing national or ethnic questions of any nature since it was a medieval state.
The Kingdom emerged in the 10th century after the unification of Czech tribes by the Premyslid chiefs, giving it a centralized rule. However, the Kingdom existed in the shadow of the Roman Empire after it was cut off from Byzantium. Otto I visited the Kingdom of Bohemia, demanding an accolade in the year 950. As a result, the Kingdom became part of the Holy Roman Empire. On the other hand, German emperors maintained the use of Roman Catholic clergy to expand their influence into Czech. It was during this time that the Premyslid also seized the opportunity and utilized the German alliance cement their rule against revolutions. In this way, they struggled to ensure that they retain their independence relating to the empire.
In 1029, the Kingdom of Bohemia acquired Moravia. This was after a long battle with Poland and Hungary. Following these developments, Moravia was to be ruled by the King’s younger son, as it continued to be an isolated margravate. It is important to note that the relationship between the Kingdom of Bohemia and Moravia was oftentimes severed. In such cases, Moravia was subdued directly to Hungary or to the Roman Empire. Though Bohemia and Moravia had an interlaced fate, the latter never participated in civil and religious battles of the former.
The Kingdom grew from strength to strength as the years progressed. It is worth noting that the 13th century marked the most dynamic period of the rulers over the Kingdom. Emperor Fredrick II was very much obsessed with Mediterranean affairs and the Great Interregnum of between 1254 and 1273. This preoccupation had significant impact as it undermined his influence in Central Europe, allowing the Premyslid to take charge of the Kingdom.
The events of 1212 would also form part of the Kingdom’s history as King Premysl Otakar I obtained as a Golden Bull from the emperor. This was a confirmation of his title and his lineage. Premysl Otakar II, who succeeded the King, married Margaret of Babenberg, a German Princess. This made him the duke of Austria, winning upper and lower Austria, together with some parts of Styria. He took over most parts of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola. In 1273, Rudolf, Hapsburg emperor started to strengthen his imperial power. Rudolf won the battle in 1278 against Premysl Otakar II, who died during the encounter.
There was widespread German migration during the 13th century. This was highly encouraged by the Premyslid kings who intended to weaken Czech’s nobility at that time. German colonies were mainly mining districts of the Kingdom of Bohemia, and other German populated towns.
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Argumentative Essay Outline
An argumentative essay outline acts as the ‘blueprint’ that will guide you on the points to discuss in the paper. An outline shows what will be covered in the entire essay from the introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion. Therefore, knowing how to write a good argumentative essay outline can be an ideal way of crafting an outstanding argumentative paper.
Developing an outline is task that many students often assume when writing academic papers in general. However, it should be noted that outlines play an important role in essay writing. A well-crafted outline for an argumentative essay will enable you to easily remember the points to address in the paper, in proper format while writing. In this way, you will not waste time trying to remember what to discuss in the paper.
A good argumentative essay outline will also help you in determining the best format or structure to pursue in writing the paper.
Since an outline highlights the issues to be addressed in all the parts of an essay, you can use it to make further analysis on the best angle to take in writing each section so as to deliver a unique and high quality argumentative essay.
A good essay outline should be comprehensive enough to cover all the areas that you intend to discuss in the paper. However, this should not be taken to mean that an outline is like a typical essay. It should instead, only show the key points and statements that will be discussed into detail in the paper.
Well written outline for an argumentative essay will enable you to properly organize your thoughts and get an overview of the order and logic that an effective argument should take.
Tips to help you write an argumentative essay outline
An argumentative essay is an essay whereby you are required to investigate a subject, collect and evaluate evidence and establish a stand in a concise manner. This means that a good outline must show that you took all these into consideration.
The following tips will guide you on how to create an impeccable argumentative essay outline.
Develop a thesis
At the point of writing an outline, you have already done research on the topic and decided on the points to address. However, it is important that you clearly state the main claim of your essay before proceeding to other parts.
The thesis is the foundation or basis of the essay and should be indicated in prior to give direction on the points to be listed in the outline. An effective thesis should try to illicit a strong response from readers.
Considering that the thesis is the main argument of the paper, you can always re-phrase or change it as you wish to depict the particular stand that you will be taking in the essay. As you come up with new ideas and generate new links, the scope of your essay will likely be altered and this should be reflected on the thesis too.
Take time to brainstorm
After choosing the ideal thesis for the paper, you should embark on collecting and analyzing evidences that can be used to support it. These can include information from both primary and secondary sources.
In brainstorming, list the points or ideas that you think are related to your main argument. These will be later on refined to determine the best supporting ideas for the essay.
Take a critical look at those ideas and start to organize them into various categories. Bear in mind that a good argumentative essay should consist of a hierarchy of ideas that assume a logical progression.
Group all the related ideas together and try to establish how every group relates to another. From those points, you should be able to choose the outstanding ones that can be used in creating topic sentences.
For every key idea that you have identified to use in supporting the thesis, you must also find examples or evidence for tabling a compelling discussion.
There are other additional factors that you should also consider when writing an outline for an argumentative essay. For instance, a good outline should always be clear in every detail so that you are not inconvenienced during writing. The outline should be written in simple language and without complications.
Avoid vague statements in the outline, instead, only list the necessary points or ideas that can enable you to effectively discuss the subject of the essay.
Steps on how to write an argumentative essay outline
In order to make your work much easier, it is advisable that you use bullets or numbers to categorize your points based on the particular sections of the essay that they will appear. This will help you in differentiating the points for every paragraph of the essay.
Follow the steps outlined below to find out how to easily create an argumentative essay outline.
After the topic of your essay, it is advisable that you clearly put down the main claim that will be discussed in the paper. However, you can also write yours just immediately after listing the introductory points.
Wherever you choose to put your thesis, it should be noted that it usually appears towards the introduction of the essay paper.
Under the introduction, you should list the main points that will be used to give readers an overview of the subject of argument. On this part, you can list some unique information about the topic, a question or even anecdote that will open the discussion.
In the outline, you should also clearly indicate the main points to support your claim and give further examples to help readers in understanding the context of argument. If you are instructed to include only a particular number of paragraphs, you should ensure that the main points meet the required threshold.
For instance, if the body of your argumentative essay should have three paragraphs, you should clearly write three topic sentences in the outline. Each topic sentence represents the main point to be highlighted in a paragraph.
Under every topic sentence, write down the examples or evidence to substantiate the argument. In order to deliver a proper argument, it is advisable that you list down two or three examples. However, you may also decide to include more or less depending on your argument.
The outline should also show how you plan to end the discussion in the essay. Since this is an argumentative paper, the conclusion may also point out to further exploration or discussion of the topic.
Write down how you intend to restate the thesis and close your argument in a logical manner that will enable readers to understand its context and importance.
Examples of argumentative essay outline
Reading argumentative essay outline samples is also another easier way of finding out how to effectively create essay outlines.
Sample Argumentative Analysis Paper Outline
Thesis statement: People are still tired of vampires. Faced with tremendous backlash from anti-Twilight (and spinoff) crowds, the genres as a whole is taking a huge reputation hit among a certain demographic…for better or worse.
Main supporting analysis: A three-month look at message boards, blogs, and news sites before and following the release of a Twilight film.
- The Vampire’s bad rap
- Anne Rice
Though more socially acceptable, Rice’s looks established the vampire as more geek fodder than horror.
- Teenage girls, another subset most people react badly against, picked up books.
- Other examples include Backsteet Boys, Bieber among others.
- Message boards
- Blogs/ news opinion sites…
Read the entire sample here.
Basic 5- Paragraph Argument Essay Outline
Introductory Points and thesis statement………………………………………………………….
Refutation Points (if required)…………………………………………………………………….
The major points I wish to make in this essay are:
- …………………………………………….. (Detail or example)
- ……………………………………………. (Detail or example)
- …………………………………………….. (Detail or example)
- ……………………………………………… (Detail or example)
- ………………………………………………. (Detail or example)
- ……………………………………………….. (Detail or example)
- ………………………………………………. (Detail or example)
- ……………………………………………….. (Detail or example)
- ………………………………………………… (Detail or example)
Conclusion points ………………………………………………………………………………….
Find the above outline sample on this link
Classic Model for an Argument
- Introductory paragraph
- Sets the stage or the context for the position you are arguing for
- Introduction should end with a thesis statement that gives your claim…
Sample Thesis statement
- The production, sale, and possession of assault weapons for private citizens should be banned in the United States.
- Body of your Argument
- Background Information
-This section gives the reader the basic information he or she needs to understand your position…
- Reasons or Evidence to support your Claim…
Get the whole sample at valenciacollege.edu.
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Globalization on Non Western Cultures
Effects of globalization on non western cultures can be seen in different spheres of human interactions. These include the political, economic, environmental, technological, and social spheres. Generally, globalization is sweeping different areas of the social life of the non western societies.
Non western cultures include the Chinese, Indian and African cultures which have been affected by globalization. Before globalization, Chinese, Indians and Africans had distinctive cultures. However, the globalized world presents difficult challenges and new opportunities for the non western cultures or societies.
Due to globalization, non western societies are feeling the forces of westernization, democratic ideologies and technology. For this reason, some of these societies see globalization as an invasion by the western countries.
Initially, some non western cultures marginalized some groups of the society. With globalization, such cultures are now facing a challenge with some of them being faced out of the contemporary society. Some of the belief systems and traditional cultures in the non western cultures are now seen as ancient and unfit for the contemporary society.
Cultural perceptions that some non western cultures perpetuated such as perceptions on domestic violence, psychological wellbeing and mental health have also changed dramatically with globalization. The ways of thinking and lives of the people who practice most non western cultures have also changed with globalization.
For instance, in the past the position of a woman in some non western cultures was in the kitchen. The woman was supposed to give birth, take care of the family and attend to domestic chores. This way of thinking and living has changed with globalization.
Today, women participate in economic and political activities alongside men. Women are also doing what such cultures reserved for men only. Thus, globalization has played a significant role in ensuring gender equality in some non western cultures.
Culture is not static and it is learned as one grows. Non western culture has been influenced by the western culture that is spread in different ways. For instance, the Chinese education system has been affected by globalization. New curriculums and courses have been introduced in the education system.
This implies that young people in China are no longer learning their indigenous culture. Instead, they are learning culture that has been influenced by the western culture. Other aspects of non western cultures that have been affected by globalization include language, symbols, religion, expressions, stories, songs and social celebrations.
Generally, the effects of globalization on non western culture are diverse and immense. Cultural behaviors of people have changed in different ways due to globalization. To fit in the contemporary world, globalization has forced people to change their ways of life in the non western cultures. Thus, new cultures have been shaped in non western societies by the forces of globalization.
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Globalization on Indian Culture
Effects of globalization on Indian culture are depicted in different cultural aspects. India has one of the richest cultures in the world. However the overwhelming effects of globalization are now visible in the Indian culture.
For instance, due to globalization Christianity has spread in India with some Hindu believers being converted to Christianity. Religion is an important aspect of the culture of any society and this is the case in India. However, despite religion playing a significant role in the lives of the Indians, Hinduism is gradually being replaced by Christianity in some places.
Apart from giving up their religion, the new converts are also adapting the new culture that comes with Christianity. This includes dressing like the Englishmen and even emulating them in other ways of life. Thus, globalization has enhanced the spread of Christianity and cultural changes in India.
Societal roles have also changed with globalization in India. The traditional culture in India defines a clear social hierarchy. Children are made to know their places and roles in the society from their early age. However, these roles are now changing with women performing roles that were initially performed by men only.
The family as a social unit also depicts the effects of globalization on the Indian culture. Having joint family systems is part of the Indian culture. The traditional practice of the Indian society has always been to have arranged marriages. However, this is changing with globalization. Some Indian men and women are defying this tradition and picking their marriage partners contrary to the Indian culture.
India has one of the best and most popular foods in the world. Indian herbs and spices are popular even in the western cultures. However, this cuisine is now facing threat from the foods of other cultures. Globalization has made Chinese foods, burgers, pizzas and other foreign foods popular in India.
Clothing is part of the Indian culture. Traditionally, Indian men dressed in Dhoti while women dressed in saris. Women could wear fancy blouses and men shirts while little girls dressed in pavada. However, globalization has affected this and there is the indo-western clothing in India. This is a fusion of the sub-continental and western fashion. The effects of globalization on the Indian culture can clearly be seen with some young people in India wearing min skirts, t-shirts and jeans.
Indian music and dances have also been affected by globalization. Indian music includes folk, religious, pop, classical and popular music. Among the popular dances in India include Odissi, kuchipudi, kathak and bharatanatyam among others. With globalization, western music is gaining popularity in India. Western dances such as hip hop, jazz, balley and salsa are gaining popularity among the young people in India.
Education which is vital in passing cultural practices has also been affected by globalization. Young people in the villages who never used to attend school before are now going to school. There are also new schools in the villages.
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Globalization on China
There are many effects of globalization on China. Globalization has affected many countries across the world and changed the way people live in the current era. In simple terms, globalization can be defined as the mixing of economic and cultural influences that have existed for many years in different parts of the world.
In China, globalization has brought challenges and opportunities. For this reason, China has to come up with strategies and policies that will enable it to overcome the challenges and to exploit the opportunities. Implementation of these strategies and policies has made China to experienced significant effects of globalization.
Globalization has forced China to adopt an opening-up policy. This can be seen from the way China is opening up to both the developing and the developed countries. It has done this in the economic field and other aspects of social development.
This opening up is not a blind one but a strategy that has enabled China to find a path for development. This path suits the national situation of China and it is aimed at enabling it to enhance its economic growth. Thus, China is not just following the whims of globalization but adopting strategies that will enable it to benefit from globalization.
Many countries across the world are coming together to enhance their risk-resistance ability. China has not been left behind. It is promoting regional cooperation to enhance its risk-resistance ability. For instance, it has signed a Framework Agreement with the ASEAN. This agreement is aimed at enhancing regional economic cooperation.
China is also more vigilant in observing global happenings and taking appropriate measures. This explains why China was able to withstand the Asian financial crisis of 1997. Thus, by adopting strategies that enables it to cope with globalization, China has been able to take control of its economy.
Additionally, China has also called for the establishment of a fresh international economic order. This order should provide globalized cooperation and regulation. It should also involve all countries whether rich or poor, small or big, weak or strong.
Effects of globalization on China can also be seen in cultural changes that have occurred in this country. Chinese culture is very rich in terms of music, dresses, foods and festivals among other cultural aspects. However, this culture has not been spared by globalization. By learning new things from other cultures Chinese have adopted new ways of doing things such as how they trade with other people.
Some people in China have also adopted western culture and abandoned their own culture. Education is part of the Chinese culture and it has also been affected by globalization with new curriculums and courses being introduced in the Chinese education system. There are people who also prefer t-shirts and jeans as a way of dressing yet these were not part of the traditional Chinese culture.
Chinese traditional food has also been affected by globalization with the introduction of western foods such as cheese.
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Effects of Globalization on America
The effects of globalization on America are both negative and positive. However, positive effects of globalization on America moderately outweigh the negative effects. Most Americans agree that globalization has positive impact on the economy, consumers and American businesses. However, some Americans are of the view that globalization has negative effects on the environment and American jobs.
According to Josh Bivens, the EPI Research and Policy Director, labor intensive companies are off-shoring some of their operations in the developing countries. This has decreased labor demand in the United States. Subsequently, wages paid to non-college educated people has reduced due to globalization.
Globalization has also increased the demand for skilled, professional labor in the United States and capital. This has increased the income earned by college-educated workers in America. The result of this is a widening gap between the poor and the rich.
Trade between America and other countries has grown due to globalization. American businesses are able to trade with poor countries of the world. However, this has negative impact on the American workers. This is because the overvalued dollar makes imports cheaper while making exports expensive.
Due to globalization, investors have established firms in America. Currently, there are many jobs in America that depend on international trade or corporations. The number of foreign direct investments in America has also increased due to globalization. This has greatly contributed towards the globalization of the American economy.
Globalization has also brought different countries together. For instance, European countries are establishing economic ties. China is also establishing regional economic ties. These developments brought about by globalization give these countries bargaining powers that are bound to affect the U.S and how it does business. If the economies of these blocs suffer, the economy of America will also be affected.
Effects of globalization can also be seen in the spread of cultural ideas of other people in America. America is also spreading its culture in other countries. This includes spreading of the popular American films, television shows and music to other countries.
Globalization has also made the American pop culture to become a global culture. Today, people in different parts of the world are practicing pop culture as they see it in movies, television shows, music, and satellite broadcasts.
Globalization has also led to the spread of other cultural aspects of the American culture such as clothing and foods. According to Kim Campbell, the former Prime Minister of Canada, globalization has led to the spread of the American culture to a level where it appears that America has moved to the world instead of the world moving to America. This has made many other people to admire the American culture.
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Winners and Losers of Globalization
Globalization has some clear winners and losers. It has greatly benefited the global middle group especially people in Brazil, Indonesia, and China as well as the top 1% in the world. While this is the case those at the bottom as well as the low middle class in rich countries have being left out. Globalization came with several complications for instance principles were lost as a result of fast economic growth such as human rights ecological sustainability, democracy and social justice.
Since the economic crisis that was witnessed recently, globalization effects have been felt on every scale and this includes international, local and national. Because of this fact, people, especially those in developed countries are forced to analyze their future because they are afraid of the new labor market state as well as the rapid economic growth of industrialized countries like South Korea and China. At the same time, developing countries are dealing with usual issues such as hunger and poverty.
Winners of globalization
Who are these so called “globalization winners”? They are the elite capitalist class most of who come from developed countries otherwise known as global players. This class has significant characteristics some of which include the following:
- Economic interests which are becoming global linked than exclusively national or local in origin.
- Their behavior is based on global competitiveness as well as consumerist practice and rhetoric
- They have similar lifestyles which mainly include high education patterns
Another group that is in the list of winners is consumers because prices tend to decrease because of the increasing competition. People who are skilled laborers are also winners as they adapt to new technology revolution and internationalization of distribution and production. What is more, they also specialize in competitive service and industries with high inputs of technology which makes it possible for them to boost productivity and relative wages.
Losers of globalization
Unqualified workers or those who are lowly qualified are the greatest losers and this is because they lack the skills, qualifications and knowledge that is required for them to keep up to date with technical developments. Also, in this group of losers are capitalists in developing nations because majority operates within markets where the competition is less and without any regulatory frameworks. This means they don’t have the ability to lobby governments in order to get high profit margins. Nonetheless, these profits will plummet or get reduced with introduction of foreign investment which can also produce locally through use of better technology guaranteeing high productivity.
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Sea Level and the Location of a Coast
Sea level is the average level of the earth’s oceans and it is used to measure heights in the same manner elevations are measured. The mean sea level is a geodetic point of reference which is where the sea rests when there are no tides, currents, atmospheric effects and variations of water density. If there was no movement of the oceans, there would be no wind or tides. Consequently, there would be no changes in the sea surface.
Due to wind driven and tide changes, sea levels are always constantly fluctuating. It is therefore essential for the mean sea level to be calculated at given locations over a couple of years. There are several factors that affect sea levels and they can have varied geographical time scales. Careful measurements in the variations of mean sea levels offers information regarding climate change and is interpreted as evidence to support the view that current sea level rise is an indication of global warming. Sea level changes that are as a result of wind driven and tidal changes are referred to as eustatic changes. Since the start of the 20th century, there has been sea level changes noted globally which average 2.0 millimetres per year. The Environmental Protection Agency carried out a study which indicates the sea level rise is still expected to rise another twenty centimeters by the year 2100.
Some of the known factors that affect rise of sea level include carbon levels, thermal expansion, melting ice sheets and earth tilt. In cases of earth tilt, large tilts result to more sun at poles. Rise in sea level affects low lying areas that are along coasts. This will include barrier islands as well as river deltas.
Eustatic variation causes
Such sea level rises are the result of external forces. A large majority of experts are in agreement the current sea level rise noted globally is as a result of global warming induced by humans. There are three major factors that cause sea level and coast location changes and they include:
- Nonpolar melting of glaciers
- Thermal ocean expansion
- Change in ice caps volume of Greenland and Antarctica
As the climate gets warmer globally, the ocean sea level is also gradually increasing since warm water occupies a large volume. Also, due to the warm climate, nonglaciers and mountains are also melting further adding to the oceans volume. Rise in sea levels has great impacts on coastal regions. While it might not necessarily affect storm intensity, the coastal regions become vulnerable to storms.
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