Value of Education
College education has become a controversial subject in the recent past considering the divergent opinions that parents, teachers and students have had on higher learning. Scholars have also been dragged into the shifting opinion on higher learning, and through research, they have written so much about the changing perspectives on higher education. While parents and students have come to view higher education as a means of acquiring plum jobs, others see it as a place for inactive intellectual expression and growth, which should be given more attention in order to bring out its full potential from its status as a means of obtaining employment.
In the article, ‘’what is College for?’’ New York Times’, Gary Gutting argues that colleges are much more than pots for training individuals who are seeking jobs. According to him, the purpose for a college is ‘’to nourish a world of intellectual culture: that is, a world of ideas, dedicated to what we can scientifically know, understand humanistically, or express artistically’’ (Gutting). This is a thought echoed by Rosenbaum, Stephan and Rosenbaum, who say that colleges have much more to offer than just bachelors peddled around (Rosenbaum et al, 3).
The three further point out that a lot of misinformation to the purposes and results of college are distributed by both colleges. According to them, they state of the exaggerated claims on the future of successful graduates and a consideration of BA plans by both parents and students without knowing about the possibilities and well satisfying alternatives (Rosenbaum et al. 3). This thought is also shared by Gutting on the availability of other options other than bachelor programs that offer better results unlike college programs. The key argument is, ‘’we could provide job-training and basic social and moral formation for young adults in a way that is cheaper and efficient. This may be through a combination of professional and trade schools, and public service programs’’ (Gutting). If the aim of college is only preparing students for jobs, thus, other options remain widely open for them, and not within the intellectual environment that is offered by colleges.
Over the years, there has been an increase in the number of students pursuing college education. Much of this is attributed to the encouragement of the open admissions policy that protects low-achieving students from being discouraged by counselors (Rosenbaum et al. 5). This results into a completely low number of college graduates from these students. Besides, the experience becomes totally unfit for these students who are eventually disengaged from the material that they are expected to be studying (Gutting). Thus, while the college admissions may be increasing quickly, with the cost of college also being a determinant on how easy it is for students to register into college, the entire college experience is doubtfully unfulfilling for students who ‘’spend only as much time as they require to get grades that seem to be appealing to them’’ (Gutting).
The main disparity between Rosenbaum, Stephan and Rosenbaum’s and Gutting’s opinion on higher education is the students’ perspective about higher learning. According to Gutting, a survey of graduates reveal that 74% find college useful for their intellectual growth, 69% consider is as important for their growth and maturity as people while 55% showed that college is important in preparing them for their careers and jobs (Gutting). In contrast, Rosenbaum, Stephan and Stephan point out that most students, under the open admission program, go to college fully prepared for higher learning. This lack of preparedness results from the fact that ‘’high school students are rarely offered proper information concerning what college requires, how prepared they are, and what actions would ensure that they are prepared’’ (Rosenbaum et al. 7).
The difference in their opinions however, does not take on the definition of college education. On the other hand, Gutting does not define college education as either BA or AA. For the three, the definition of college however, remains tied to BA programs. According to Rosenbaum, Stephan and Rosenbaum, ‘’in everyday language and informal policy discussions, the word ‘’college’’ is used as a synonym for ‘’bachelor’s degree’’ (Rosenbaum et al. 3).
With the definition of college as only an institution that provides BA programs, many parents remain expectant of their children’s pursuit of college degrees. Even with the increasing expenses in taking children to college, parents continuously commit most of their efforts in college education. These parents’ expectations is that after graduation, their children will have secured their future since ‘’Bachelor’s degrees have a million-dollar payoff in lifetime earnings’’ (Rosenbaum et al. 3). This expectation surfaces when the truth is that people who hold jobs that require AAs end up earning much more than those with Bas. This misconception (BA being more profitable in earning compared to AA) has been propagated by public advertisements literature on educational reform as well as guidance and counseling.
The misconception about BA being greater than AA has been impacted by failures in the guidance and counseling program. While the program was aimed at guiding the students in programs that were ultimately within their ability, this has changed over time, especially with the introduction of open admission programs. The guidance and counseling program had largely acted as college gatekeepers, barring students with low grades from obtaining college admission (Rosenbaum et al. 5). Most of the counselors have since protested their placement as gatekeepers. This impacts a proliferation of students into college, some of whom eventually fail to graduate from college (Gutting).
However, the change in the opinions of counselors is a deeply rooted problem in high schools. A good number of high schools are in dire need of counselors since many do not have them. Rosenbaum et al argue that, ‘’data from 2001 reveal that, averagely, the ratio of counselors to students is 1 to 284’’ (5). The situation is even worse in some other schools where a single counselor has to handle more than 700 students. Such a huge workload does not help in assisting the students to make better decisions on whether or not to pursue college education based on their intellectual capability.
The growing number of students joining college is a good indication of academic achievement. However, the insistence on BA programs even for students who are unable to achieve such high academic grades does not put in more effort towards helping students in making career choices. The failure of academic counseling programs is a worrying issue and this should be corrected immediately in order to save the college program and assist students in making the best choices on the careers to pursue.
Gutting, Gary. “What is College For?” The New York Times, 2011, December 14. Web. 3 February 2014.
Rosenbaum, James, E. “Beyond One-Size-Fits-All College Dreams.” American Educator, 2010.
Methodological Process of Ethnographic Observation
Ethnographic observation is a research that is conducted through open-resource questions to collect data on the perception of participants. This kind of research entails questioning the way in which people perceive their environment and exemplify or make sense of the significant events in their lives. This ethnographic design researched on the natural, cultural learning process and used children as an ethnographic model. This type of study abides by a methodological process that entails various steps. Ethnographic observation is completed by different kinds of interviews. These types of interviews included open-handed interview, interview guide approach and informal conversation interview. This is an implication that for the interviews to be efficient in collecting the information, they have to follow the steps that have been outlines in the methodological process. The ethnographic observation that I conducted was done in the steps outlined below.
The first step is access to the ethnographical observation setting. This means that for the observation to be a success, one must be in a position to gain access to the target population in the environment that is under investigation by the researcher. This involved accessing the environment where the children learn. This is followed by making sure that one fully understands the culture and language of the respondents. If this is lacking, it is not possible for the ethnographic observation to be efficiently completed. The researcher should also be competent in making a decision on how to present himself or herself as a researcher. This is important in ensuring that the researcher is accepted by the target interviewees for cooperation. In undertaking this study, I was able to present myself in a friendly manner that the children could easily identify with in their day-to-day routine and also in the learning environment.
It is also crucial for the researcher to make sure that he or she identifies a cooperative informant. This is important in ensuring that the acquired information is relevant and that other informants will find it conducive and comfortable to work with the researcher. The other step entails field testing, refining the questions, probing and intensity of pause. This will ensure that the process of the study is efficient in collection of the right information that is relevant to the research. I had to refine the questions to make it easier for children to comprehend and also make sure that they could not experience any challenges in understanding and giving their responses. The other step is defining the statement of the focus and purpose of the study. This will be critical in making sure that the study abides by the right guidelines that will ensure the success of the whole process. Having noted that the study was focused on identification of how the child process was influenced by the people they interact with. The questions of the research were refined so that the response to the questions showed how the learning process and behavior of children is influenced by the people they interact with.
After the steps outlined above, the final step entails the creation of a rapport and development of good trust between the person doing the research and the respondents. This is also imperative in ascertaining that the process of the study is efficient and conducted according to the right procedures. After this, the questions are appropriately ordered to ensure that the researcher acquire relevant information and is not distracted by impromptu questions. This is followed by audio tapping and maintenance of interview records that will be used for gathering data. Failure to pay do this may impact unprecedented problems, like distortion of information and collection of irrelevant data. The final step involves collecting relevant materials. This is crucial in ensuring that only the right information is gathered according to the guidelines of ethnographical observation research.
This ethnographical design researched into the natural, cultural learning process and used children as an ethnographic model. I chose to use a young child as an ethnographic model to an audience with no background in either ethnography or anthropology. However, it should be noted that children learn things through observation and taking in the actions and things that their parents, siblings and other people that they come into contact with behave. My study revealed that young children will copy what old people do and this influences the way they behave from a tender age. I had to create a rapport without influencing the behavior of children. The observation found out that a significant number of children were heavily influenced by the reactions of their mothers. However, another percentage that interacted with their fathers also showed that they liked to copy their fathers. There were also a significant number of respondents who said that they imitated their older siblings. The research also revealed that some of their behaviors were also heavily influenced by their colleagues in schools and their teachers. This is an indication that the learning process of children is greatly influenced by the people that they interact with.
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The Nokia Microsoft Alliance in the Global Smartphone Industry
Lessons Learnt from Experience
Because of the advancement in technology and the financial crisis in the global market, organizations have been forced to modify their business strategies. Strategic alliance is considered to be among the best strategies for increasing the value of shareholder regardless of the challenges faced towards full implementation (Vanpoucke & Vereecke, 2010 p. 6716). From the Nokia-Microsoft Alliance, there is a lesson that, companies should prepare to partner with others in order to achieve an extended haul. Organizations that are looking towards making strategic alliances should invest in partnerships that offer long term benefits to all the involved parties. It should also make sure that both parties are committed for a considerable duration of time. In most occasions, market share leaders in a particular field may not be the most ideal for strategic alliances since most of them do not usually put all their weight behind the partnership. Organizations should look for companies that can offer long lasting benefits.
When forming an alliance, it is important to build up evaluation criterion and implementation plan well in advance. Besides, it can be learned that there is no partnership that can last forever. Companies should have proper planning when entering into an alliance agreement since it helps in keeping the union in check. On the other hand, it will also foster better relationship because each party will take the relationship seriously. Companies in a strategic alliance must be ready for an impending exit sometime in the future. Partnership offers the potential of working directly with one another and put up interoperability of technology. This can be beneficial to the entire unit. There may be challenges that might hinder the maximum growth and keeping an eye for an impending exit, a company is likely to realize its objectives.
Culture plays an important role in the management of strategic alliances since it determines the results of performance. There are certain countries that have a high cultural context. In order to ensure successful strategic alliances, culture should be established as an indispensable component of the organization. If that culture is not given attention, alliances will not be able to solve arising problems and even negatively impact rational-decision making, thereby harming long time planning for development.
What could have been done better
For the success of the Nokia-Microsoft Alliance, there was need for the two organizations to clearly communicate their purposes to those involved. So much time was spent on discussions about rumors and fears of the partnership. It was viewed by many as a chance for Microsoft to redeem itself as the leading software manufacturers. However, others also saw it as a chance for Nokia to re-affirm itself as the leading global mobile manufacturer. Lack of clear communication threatened the success of the partnership. It was necessary for both parties to effectively communicate the desired objectives of the alliance.
A successful strategic alliance should have leaders who are united, proper coordination and resource fluidity. Leadership unity is the ability of the management to make bold decisions quickly without being bogged down in win-lose politics. Coordination refers to linking, synchronization, meshing or alignment of actions that are part of the strategic union. Proper coordination ensures that there is order in the efforts of the involved parties and helps in the combination of resources of each partner in a productive way. Resource fluidity entails the ability of the companies to re-configure business system and re-deploy resources within a short time.
Implementation of the Solutions
In strategic alliance, partners are required to engage in coordination efforts so as to manage task interdependence that flows from one division of labor or production technologies that are used in handling uncertainties that may come up from external environment or internal tasks. Alliances should be formed on anticipated synergistic benefits of complementarities since it creates several hiccups. Higher level of complementarities is an implication of a more complex division of labor because the task of every player becomes specialized. This enhances interdependence, thus, the need for greater coordination. Proper coordination ensures that there is compatibility between the involved parties. This will further ensure the success of the alliance and benefits to all partners on equal measures (Gulati, Wohlgezogen & Zhelyakov, 2012 p. 546).
In strategic alliances, both parties should embrace leadership unity since it can facilitate faster decision making and commitment to outlined objectives. The central theme of the alliance must be mobilized. Through leadership unity, leaders from both companies will have the courage to come up with tough decisions and the compassion to be attentive to the needs of the other partner (Doz & Kosonen, 2008, p. 96). Strategic alliances should be properly funded. Each partner is required to be honest about its time and financial commitment to the joint venture. Fluidity of resources ensures the easy and faster transformation of business models as well as activity system. While reporting on how the resources were used in the company, the financial reports can be customized to suit the needs of the partnership. In the same way, it does not have to go by the standard reporting formats for every organization in the alliance. This will enhance transparency and confidence of working together (Doz & Kosonen, 2008. P. 96).
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Doz, Y., & Kosonen, M. (2008). The Dynamics of Strategic Agility: NOKIA’S ROLLERCOASTER EXPERIENCE. California Management Review, 50(3), 95-118.
Gulati, R., Wohlgezogen, F., & Zhelyazkov, P. (2012). The Two Facets of Collaboration: Cooperation and Coordination in Strategic Alliances. Academy Of Management Annals, 6(1), 531-583. doi:10.1080/19416520.2012.691646.
Vanpoucke, E., & Vereecke, A. (2010). The predictive value of behavioral characteristics on the success of strategic alliances. International Journal of Production Research, 48(22), 6715-6738. Doi: 10.1080/00207540903307623.
A Quantitative Study on Strategic Decision Making Model
The outsourcing of Information technology has increasingly become a common occurrence as the impact of globalization and technological developments continues to demand for the quality expertise in IT. Grizzle (1995) says that companies without quality and reliable in-house expertise often opt for outsourcing in order to advance as well as transform business. However, it is obvious that companies and other institutions with strong IT capabilities also adopt the concept of outsourcing in order to address their varying IT functions. This therefore, enables them to focus on their core-operations that involve enhancing cost reduction while also promoting overall productivity. Outsourcing can also be adopted to create a positive impact on business, which may involve maximization of the overall commercial exploitation. For the process of IT outsourcing to be effective, companies should make quality decisions regarding the most appropriate outsourcing model that should be adopted to enhance the overall productivity. Such decisions should be made depending on quality assessment of the prevailing in-house IT capacities to assist in the identification of the various gaps that may need to be filled.
This study is aimed at developing the most suitable outsourcing model that can be applied in Chinese banks. In order to make a conclusion on the best outsourcing strategic model that can be used in these banks, this study seeks to undertake an investigation on the various factors influencing the decision of the outsourcing strategy for use in the banking sector in China through identifying the perceived merits and demerits of outsourcing.
Type of the Study
A quantitative methodology will be used in this study to ensure effective investigation into the issue at hand through the adoption of statistical, numerical as well as computational approaches. Olusegun (2002) says that a quantitative study approach is important since it allows for the use of mathematical models for the evaluation of hypotheses that may have been formulated on the particular phenomenon. The aspect of measurement therefore, becomes crucial in quantitative study approach since it can provide a fundamental relationship between empirical observations made and mathematical interpretations on quantitative relationships. This strategy will be of great significance in this study since it allows the researcher to ask narrow and specific questions that will enable him or her to gather samples of numerical data from those taking part in the study who will be expected to give responses to the study questions. This approach will in the same way also enable the researcher to evaluate the correlation of the collected quantitative data as this will be presented in terms of statistics and percentages. The study will also seek to answer the study questions through testing of descriptive and correlational hypotheses. Descriptive hypotheses will be useful since they will enable the researcher to ask specific questions regarding the level of outsourcing adopted within their respective places of work. Some of the descriptive hypotheses that this study will be testing include:
- The level of IT outsourcing within this institution is above average
- The level of IT outsourcing used in this institution is below average
The cor relational hypotheses will also be very important since they will allow the researcher to evaluate the link between the various factors that determine the level at which Chinese bank outsource. Below are some of the specific cor relational hypotheses that this study will be looking towards testing:
- There is a direct link between the perceived benefits at the decisions made by Chinese banks to take part in outsourcing.
- There is a direct relationship between the perceived risks and the reluctance of the Chinese banks to take part in outsourcing activities.
The type of survey used in this study will be designed in the form of online questionnaires that will help in the collection of data from various participants that will be involved in this study. The questionnaires will be appropriate in this study since they will enhance the creation of standardized questions that would be precisely aimed at gathering relevant information from the respondents. The design of the questionnaires will be in a way that can allow for statistical analysis of the collected data. All questionnaires will have the same questions for uniformity of information collected in order to enhance the validity of the tools of study in seeking responses to the study questions. These tools are especially important in this study because they are cheap and do not require much effort, time and resources unlike other forms of survey tools that may involve verbal or telephone interviews (Anstey, 2010). The researcher will use the study questions in formulating the questionnaire after which he or she will read through the finished document to make sure that it corresponds to the questions of the study. Reading through the completed document will also ensure that questions are crafted in the correct order. Rating scales will also be used in cases whereby respondents will be required to rate their responses to certain questions based on the predetermined scale of one to five. The respondents will thus be expected to apply one where they strongly do not agree with a particular variable, 2 where they just disagree, 3 where their response is neutral, 4 where they agree and 5 where they show strong agreement (Grizzle, 1995). The study questions that the researcher will be seeking response to through the questionnaires include:
- What are the main factors influencing the decision by Chinese banks to take part in outsourcing activities?
- What are the reasons behind the reluctance of Chinese banks in outsourcing?
Data Collection Plan
The study will be aimed at collecting relevant data about the adoption of IT outsourcing by various Chinese banks. The data will specifically be gathered from various respondents, including information technology managers, chief technology officers and administrators to help in determining the various factors that lead Chinese banks towards outsourcing as well as the various reasons that can hinder such firms from adopting this practice.
This study will be conducted in China and involve ten banking companies operating in Beijing, which is the country’s capital city. The selection of these institutions will depend on random sampling, whereby the researcher will be required to pick any bank provided that its two branches would not be involved in the study. However, the researcher will ensure that there is equitable representation of local, national and international banking companies that might have local branches based in Beijing. This will ensure the validity of data since various factors that might beneficial to international and national banking institutions could be risky to the local banks (Li, 2013). The person conducting the research will then choose three information technology managers, one chief technology officer and five administrators from every bank to take part in the study. The criterion applied is the selection of this sample depends on the need for the right caliber of people that can offer suitable responses to the questions of the study. The chief technology officers are important in this research since they are part of the key decision makers on various issues related to technology. Information technology managers are also important as they can provide critical information about the various in-house technological capabilities and the subsequent lapses that can be mended through IT outsourcing. Administrators are equally important since they will offer quality information on the complexity of Information technology functions that might necessitate the adoption of outsourcing activities. This approach also ensures that the sample population is able to respond to the study questions in a manner which is objective and conscientious.
Sample Research Design
The researcher will create a questionnaire that can help in gathering information for responding to the questions of the study. Besides, it will be done in a way that ensures the questions are arranged in the right order. At first, a sample questionnaire will be formulated and handed to the panel of experts for evaluation. After this, the researcher will proceed with developing copies of the sample questionnaire to making sure that all that are sent to the various respondents have the same information. The questionnaires will then be tested on a few friends so that the vague terms are identified before unleashing the data collection tools to the actual respondents. After the questionnaire has been approved by the panel of experts, the researcher will then go ahead to make copies of it and disburse to the respective respondents. A message asking the participants to take part in the study will then be sent to them via the LinkedIn network. The aim of the study will be communicated to the respondents to make sure that the information collected is genuine and not biased. The questionnaires will then be dispensed through LinkedIn to the participants who will be required to fill them in and send back to the researcher within duration of two weeks.
Data Analysis Plan
The researcher will go through all the collected questionnaires to make sure that respondents have filled in the required responses to the questions. The researcher will then download the filled in questionnaires in order to key in the details contained in the questionnaire by every individual in a spreadsheet. The researcher will after this, check the data that is already entered into the spreadsheet to ensure that the information is accurate. The SPSS software will be used in collating and analyzing the entered data in the spreadsheet. The researcher will then undertake the confirmation of the number of people that may have been selected and the responses given by each. He or she will then use the graphs, frequency tables, flow charts, histograms and pie charts to represent the data based on the various responses obtained.
Reliability of the tools of study will be enhanced by pre-testing of the data collection tools. This will be achieved through a pilot test that will involve a few friends and close associates. This will help in enhancing a random measurement of possible errors to make sure that accuracy and precision is accomplished before the study tools are sent out to the various participants in the study.
The validity of the tools of study will be enhanced through engaging a panel of experts to undertake the evaluation of the instruments of the study for identification of any possible in-built mistakes. These experts will especially ensure that the study questions are arranged systematically, and are objective to avoid biased results.
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Anstey, A. (2010). Questionnaire Development: Demystifying the Process, International Management Review, 6 (1): 45-61.
Grizzle, R. (1995). A Split Questionnaire survey Design, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 90(429): 98-101.
Hostetler, H. (2003). Outsourcing Information Technology: Assessing Your Options, SAM Advanced Management Journal, 68(4): 78-91.
Li, E.L. (2013). Study of the Decision-Making Model of Outsourcing Service Provider Selection, International Journal of U and E Service, Science and Technology, 6(2):43-52.
Olusegun, S. (2002). Selecting a Qualitative or Quantitative Research Methodology: An Experience, Educational Research Quarterly, 26(1): 45-60.
Employer Services in Michigan
Demand Driven System to Deliver Employer Services in Michigan
The fact that American universities are offering quality education to their students may not be disputed (Chan & Derry, 2013 p. 28). Universities in America are habitually ranked among the best academic institutions globally. According to Chan & Derry (2013), most university vision statements have two related components that constitute their missions. The first one is to offer quality education to the students. This component is well executed. The second one is the preparation of students for life after school, especially a life of work and careers after graduation. Most colleges have failed in accomplishing this second part of their missions. A study conducted by Chegg established that there is a wide gap between the perceptions of managers and graduates on the readiness of graduates to be successful in the work place (Bridge that Gap, 2013 p. 6).
However, it is encouraging that universities are more actively involved in the preparation of students for life after college. Smith (2012) highlights the recent trends in universities’ approach to the preparation of students for life after college within a historical perspective. One of the reasons why universities have become more involved in preparing students for life after college is increased accountability requirements. Different stakeholders in the education sector require seeing a return on their investments. Higher education is quite costly and people have greater expectations from it. They expect that graduates should get good paying jobs after college, and not become jobless at home. According to Smith (2012, p. 10) due to the prevailing harsh economic conditions, it is incumbent upon universities to form partnerships, within and outside the college in order to come up with programs and services that prepare students for life after school.
The government recognizes the fact that there are various graduates who are employed or underemployed and has over the years initiated programs to assist such people in improving their prospects in the job market. In 1998, the federal government enacted the Workforce Investment Act. This piece of legislation was aimed at increasing coordination among federal workforce development and programs related to it (Bradley, 2013). The development programs offer education as well as training services that prepare individuals for the work place while also growing their prospects in the job market. The WIA Act gave funds for the implementation of the programs under its scope. Although the expiry of the act was in the financial year 2003, it has been extended every year for some time (Bradley, 2013).
Although the WIA Act was initiated to offer means through which youths, adults and displaced workers could acquire relevant skills for the job market, it has mixed results (Hollenbeck, 2009). According to Hollenbeck (2009), WIA seems to be effective for adults. However, those programs for the youth have had negligible efficacy and not showed significant positive results. On the other hand, Barnow and Smith (2008) suggest that most of the programs under WIA have not been subjected to a thorough cost-benefit analysis. Consequently, most of the training programs tend to have no effect at all or at best produce modest positive results. Even though the programs may have a low cost-benefit quotient, some of them can be justified on grounds of equity. The lack of positive results may also be impacted by the poor implementation of the programs. The programs do not have proper funding and the implementation is haphazardly done.
Michigan is among the states that have done substantial work in the preparation of students for the workplace. Long before the federal government enacted the WIA Act in 1998, the Michigan state government had already been doing some pioneering work towards enhancing the efficiency, innovation and effectiveness of its labor force (O’Shea, 2003 p. 55). This work was done b y the office of the governor in collaboration with practitioners from the private and public sectors. The state already had the delivery and oversight structures in place by the time it started implementing the WIA Act in July 2000 (O’Shea, 2003 p. 57).
As early as 1993, the state of Michigan had already initiated a ‘’One-Stop Career Center Model’’ (O’Shea, 2003). These centers were later renamed to Michigan Works Service Centers (MWSC) and formally institutionalized as the delivery model for the state. The state also pioneered the use of technology in the early 90s through an initiative known as the Michigan Opportunity System. This system offered automated information kiosks and tried to ensure better access to training and employment, streamline service delivery and improve the quality and breadth of consumer choices. Michigan has continued to refine the use of technology, pre and post WIA.
The MWSCs are usually operated by private contractors who offer the services on behalf of the state. To make sure that excellence standards are maintained, and that the MWSCs are valuable to clients, they state the minimum requirements for certification as a One-Stop Career Center (O’Shea, 2003 p. 71). For a center to attain certification it must provide the core job seeker and employer services, have set the minimum partnerships and provide on-site program services. The centers should also be accountable for the delivery of services, meet the design requirements for facilities and have acceptable marketing as well as customer relations practices. The MWSCs are also required to have a self-service area which is equipped with the recommended resources, including labor market, automated center and other online-based resources. It is also important that print resources are available.
In the past, economic development, education, labor force development and business service agencies have operated in isolation, far apart from each other (Polzin et al, 2010 p. 2). They are yet to take advantage of the synergies arising when assets from all the domains listed above work together in addressing business needs. For this gap to be narrowed, Michigan created the Business Solutions Professional (BSP) Certification program. At first, the program was mean for upgrading professional skills in workforce development. Its effectiveness was however; lower than expected since it became clear that for it to be effective, practitioners from the education, economic development and business services sectors had to be involved in the plan.
The South Central Michigan Works Business Services staff came up with an integrated approach towards workforce development (Polzin et al, 2010 p. 2). The development of the plan was influenced by observations made by the staff in the process of workforce development. Through the experimentation of their training approach, they discovered that they were able to more effectively serve the businesses and job seekers in the area by shifting from the traditional model of labor force development, which emphasized on human services. The new model created in Michigan engages education, economic development, business services, workforce development and practitioners in a program that integrates coursework and supervised comprehensive field work. The program assists trainees in developing skills, knowledge and the necessary understanding required for using a systematic approach that identifies and addresses business needs as a major element in the creation and retention of employment.
The training design and implementation for the new project is controlled by the adult learning principles. Noe (2005) provides a description of the characteristics of adult learners. Since adult learners are autonomous and self-directed, the implementation of the curriculum is done through interactive sessions that use case studies, role plays, simulations, small discussion groups, problem solving and small group reflections. The participants discuss challenges facing Michigan businesses and offer presentations on these challenges over the course of the program. Adults have vast knowledge obtained from life experiences. With this adult characteristic in mind, the training plan tries to add new knowledge to the existing one, instead replacing the prior knowledge of the participant with the new one.
Noe (2005) also points out that it is important to show respect to adult learners. The curriculum endeavors to facilitate the development of a learning community. Participants are encouraged to share knowledge and experiences, and apply them in accomplishing the given duties. Another feature of adults is that they are relevancy oriented. They should know how the program can make positive contributions to their job prospects. The program uses panelists and guest speakers who educate the participants on the importance of the BSP program. The sessions are backed with personal anecdotes from the panelists and guest speakers on how they benefited from the program and also how it enhanced their personal prospects.
Another characteristic of adults is that they are goal-oriented. They are extrinsically and intrinsically motivated. Most of the BSP facilitators are involved in the program because they believe that their contribution helps in the improvement of the economic prospects of Michigan in some way (Polzin et al, 2010 p. 4). Participants are offered problem cases on a regular basis whereby they are required to apply the BSP skills obtained from the program in solving real life problems experienced in their communities. Noe (2005) finally states that adults are utilitarian and problem centered. They may not show response to knowledge for the sake of knowledge.
The knowledge that is pursued should be a means to an end and not an end in itself. Hence, they can show positive response if they see a relationship between the skills taught and their ability in performing their duties effectively. The program therefore, uses case studies of likely problems in the field and uses BSP method to arrive at solutions. The field work also helps participants to come into contact with real business challenges. They are required to apply the BSP method for finding effective solutions.
The Michigan government has attempted to alter the workforce system from being a job seeker centered to one that is employer focused, that is, a system that is demand-driven (Michigan Industry Cluster Approach, 2012). For the transition to be achieved, the state established five economic and workforce development objectives (O’Shea, 2003, p. 62). These goals include creating a career development system that is integrated through education-industry partnerships from as low as the local level to as high as the state level, developing a career decision-making system that is effective and integrated. It prepares the youth and adults for the job market, and creates a Career Development System that is based on competency and integrates industry skill standards to academics.
The other objectives were to inform and educate the public about Michigan’s Department of Career Development System, how it is accessed and used effectively, and improving the skills of staff members in the Michigan’s Department of Career Development. This will make sure that the staff is able to provide efficient and relevant services to different kinds of clients. This approach focused on the need for collaboration between the private and public sectors. The Michigan state government created different approaches for the effective leveraging of the synergies that can be achieved from education-industry collaboration.
The MWSCs are important starting points for the initiation of collaboration between industry and job seekers. The career centers don not simply act as a bureau for assisting job seekers in getting placement in their preferred areas. They are a useful tool through which the state seeks to attain the five economic and workforce development objectives. One of the conditions for licensing MWSCs or BSP is that they must show evidence of partnership with the local employers (O’Shea, 2003). This requirement is critical in the creation of a career development system that is designed to suit the needs of local employers. The BSP offers on-site training. This is important in making sure that they are able to assist clients in making the right career choices. The BSPs provide a wide range of services and also have partnerships with various industries. This enhances the portfolio of competencies that are catered for, ensuring that more customers can be placed within the job market of the state.
One of the most effective approaches was using the cluster approach to education-industry collaboration. According to Porter (2005, p. 2), cluster refers to ‘’dense networks of interrelated companies that come up in a region as a result of powerful externalities and spillovers across organizations within a cluster.’’ Clusters can drive innovation and productivity. This is attributed to the fact that firms located within a cluster are more flexible when it comes to operation and can make transactions with each other more efficiently, share technology more readily and identify and implement innovative practices more rapidly. Clusters also have the advantage of ability to access goods and services more easily because of the concentration of the same characteristics and requirements.
It should be noted that clusters have inherent advantages that the Michigan state government emphasized on when using the cluster approach. The state identified various priority clusters that could be used as a basis for the demands-driven workforce system. The clusters identified included energy, agriculture, manufacturing, information technology, healthcare and locally identified clusters (Michigan Industry Cluster Approach, 2012). The option of locally identified clusters was to provide localities within the state with the opportunity of choosing the most relevant clusters within their locality.
The categorization of industries into clusters presents logistical advantages when it comes to training. Clusters assist in ‘’convening employers to collect in-depth information on jobs in demand, skill gaps, training requirements, employee screening factors and other related issues’’ (Michigan Industry Cluster Approach, 2012). The Michigan Works State agency is pursuing a ‘ask first, then act approach to workforce development’ (Allen, 2012). The intense focus on demand determines the supply of graduates and ensures that the workforce development system actually produces graduates that meet the needs of employers.
The industrial cluster approach can deliver several benefits to the economy. According to Porter (2005), clusters play a significant role in the creation of knowledge. They help in developing a pool of workers with specialized expertise. In a set up like this, there are higher chances of innovation. Facilitation of the industry-education collaboration therefore assists in making sure that this new knowledge is spread to students who will in-turn be prepared when they join the job market.
Clusters can also be useful in the creation of new employment opportunities. This is usually through outsourcing. Outsourcing is not only done to other business enterprises but also learning institutions (Porter, 2005). Thus, it is ideal that academia-industry collaborations are robust enough to sustain this process. The cluster approach to workforce development can significantly cut down long-term training costs. This is because this approach ensures that only the required professionals undergo training and are released into the job market. Universities are therefore likely to do away with programs which have no demand in the job market. Cases where graduates have to undergo re-training to fit into the job market will significantly go down, hence lowering the overall costs of training.
Based on the above evidence, the industrial cluster approach to workforce development does indeed offer the workers an advantage when they get into the job market. Therefore, it is important that Michigan continues with the implementation of the approach for accrued benefits. According to Stewart and Luger (2003) the best practices should be used in implementing the cluster-focused approach. Foremost, the state should come up with service delivery around clusters. There should be rapid response teams, which comprise of all the relevant agencies for addressing the concerns of the clusters. Besides, the state should also provide one-stop shops where all the needs of the clusters can be met. Secondly, it should also invest in clusters. The investments could be based on research and development, marketing clusters, building cluster markets or providing the infrastructure required by a cluster. The state should also encourage and facilitate networking and creation of links intra and inter clusters. Finally, the government should develop requisite human resource capital that can be effective in the clusters. This should be conducted in collaboration with the clusters.
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Allen, S. (2012). Regional, demand-driven workforce development. Economic Development. Retrieved from http://mibiz.com/item/20203-michigan-works-shifts-to-regional-demand- driven- workforce-development
Barnow, S. & Smith, J. (2008). What we know about the impacts of workforce investment programs. Revised version of paper presented at Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research sponsored conference, “Strategies for improving economic mobility of workers.” Chicago. Retrieved from http://www.chicagofed.org/digital_assets/others/events/2007%20/improving_economic_ mobility/paper_workforce_investment_programs.pdf
Bradley, H. (2013). The workforce investment act and the one-stop delivery system. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=demand- driven+system+%28new+del ivery+of+servicing+employers+in+Michigan%29&source=web&cd=5&ved=0C FIQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdigitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu%2Fcgi%2Fview content.cgi%3Farticle%3D2151%26context%3Dkey_workplace&ei=oL3uUpna NIaO7Qa-tIGABg&usg=AFQjCNGbb4AZnT9WuVx1k8leOWHYFT225Q&bv m=bv.60444564,d.ZGU
Bridge that gap: analyzing the student skill index. (2013). Chegg. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/files/Bridge%20That%2 0Gap- v8(1).pdf
In etymological terms, the phrase catalyst is formed in English (1902), which was carved from a combination of two Greek words, ‘’Kata’’ and ‘’lysis’’ meaning ‘’down’’ and ‘’loosening’’ respectively. As an ambiguous noun, the misconception of catalyst is commonly through a definition that simply defines it as a substance that increases the rate of reaction. Somorjai & Li (2010) define a catalyst as a substance that is added in order to alter the rate of a chemical reaction without experiencing any significant change. This implies that a catalyst can increase the rate a chemical reaction, negative catalysts however, lower the process. For example, Zhou, Hermans & Somorjai (2003) argue that enzymes that are found in saliva speed up the rate at which food is digested. A catalyst can also refer to a person or group of people whose presence agitate a critical change or impact the occurrence of a significant event without necessarily suffering from the consequences. For instance, in the event that a person or a group causes critical government reforms to occur, he or she plays the role of a catalyst of the auspicious event through spearheading and mobilization of others to take an active step towards the success of the intended objective. Cline (2012) points out that a catalyst can also be defined from a negative aspect based on the result of the action triggered by it. For example, a decision for a bombing attack is considered as a catalyst for war.
This essay gives a comprehensive definition of a catalyst while also providing exhaustive and relevant information about a catalyst and its benefits in human life.
As a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing any alteration, a catalyst stays the same in both chemical and mass composition despite having a significant change in other substances. Zhou, Hermans & Somorjai (2003) argue that a catalyst ensures that processes run a required in order to achieve the desired products and the fact that they make processes more efficient and increase the speed of production of chemical substances, it remains a crucial substance in chemical reactions. Catalysts are usually used in small amounts despite the huge chemicals that are involved, and they still serve their functions best at optimum temperature after which their impact is slowed. Besides, catalysts play a critical role with regards to energy consumption in various industries since they ensure that chemical reactions occur at the minimum temperature than it would have required in the absence of a catalyst. In large industries where chemical reactions are inevitable, catalysts are relied upon to save on the consumption of energy by enabling chemical reactions to occur at a higher rate or lower rate at minimum temperatures. This helps the companies in saving up energy costs, thereby maximizing profits.
It should be noted that catalysts do not start a reaction and cannot make a reaction that is impossible to take place. They are designed for use in particular reactions and cannot be used to change a reaction which is recommended for their application since this will significantly affect the resultant products. Thus, industries that manufacture catalysts for use in various chemical reactions label each chemical and the reactants that can be used with them. As indicated by Zhou, Hermans & Somorjai (2003), catalysts can be in the form of solids, liquids or gases based on the nature of the reaction that they are designed to be applied. Catalysts are used in almost all chemical reactions where they either increase or lower the rate of reaction depending on the needs at the end of the every process. However, they are mainly used to speed up the efficiency or effectiveness of a process as well as reducing other potential effects in a chemical reaction.
For instance, the catalytic converter in a car is made up of platinum, which is used as a catalyst purposely for converting unburned compounds that are harmful if released into the environment, in an attempt to ensure that they are less harmful. The oxidation process takes place rapidly in the presence of salty water whereby the salty water acts as a catalyst to speed up the oxidation process. A catalyst in real life can be likened to an individual who incites or aggravates others into taking spontaneous actions for something to occur. Such a person is considered as a catalyst because of the fact that he or she causes an event to occur although the occurrence of the same situation will not affect him or her in any way. The similarities between a substance catalyst and a person who behaves in the same way depends on their nature since they both trigger something to occur faster or slow it down, based on the intended result. Cline (2012) says that if for instance a high school principal may be committed to encouraging his or her students to work hard in class work by giving them the relevant resources that will impact success even though the success will only benefit the students and not the teacher or principal is a catalyst. His or her actions enable the students to have the confidence and determination to study and perform well in their examinations.
According to Somorjai & Li (2010), a catalyst makes something to take place at the desired rate or speed. It may slow down or speed up a similar process based on the nature of the catalyst. For instance, if there was intense argument between two people or groups, there is a possibility of another person coming in to incite them to fight. In such a situation, the third party that incited the individuals to fight serves as a positive catalyst by provoking the fight. A provocative speech given by an individual bevy on a people in an attempt to act in accordance with their wish renders such an individual a catalyst. For example, if associations of people like a workers’ union want to protest over an issue, they may be reluctant in taking action. However, in the event that a single person who is not a member of the union but feel concerned takes the lead to provoke them to take action in a bid to make their voices heard, the person is called a catalyst because he or she mobilized the members towards protesting immediately.
However, if the third party intervenes and tries to calm down the protesters in order to avoid imminent fights, he or she is considered a negative catalyst. It a catalyst suddenly disappears; the expected results may not be achieved with the rate at which it was anticipated since the result may take long or short period of time. Catalysts are mostly preferred for correcting a situation by either slowing down or speeding up the same rate. This is always relative to the expected products upon the completion of the process. The term is commonly used in academic discipline, especially in chemistry and English. In chemistry, it mainly appears in chemical reaction processes. As pointed out by Zhou, Hermans & Somorjai (2003), in today’s commercially produced chemical products; catalysts play a critical role in one or two of the processes required in the production. The use of catalysts also helps in reducing the level of environmental pollution by reducing the harmful impacts of certain substances released into the air. Besides, many foodstuffs are manufactured using catalysts, which would otherwise not been achieved.
This essay has given an in-depth description of a catalyst through a relevant approach to bring out its etymological application. The essay emphasizes that the term catalyst was achieved through the combination of two Greek words, ‘kata’ and ‘lysis’ which mean ‘down’ and ‘loosening’ respectively in 1902. As illustrated, a catalyst is an ambiguous noun which simply implies an alteration on a process in order to obtain the anticipated results. The easy has also unveiled the negative definition of the word, which is always wrong while also giving an anecdote about it. The definition of the term revolves around its description, a narration involving the word, processes that are related to it, the causes and effects of a catalyst and examples in real life situations and also academic disciplines.
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Cline, M. (2012). Virtual Reality: a Catalyst for Social and Economic Change. New York:Mychilo Cline.
Somorjai, G. A., & Li, Y. (2010). Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis. London:John Wiley & Sons.
Zhou, B., Hermans, S., & Somorjai, G. A. (2003). Nanotechnology in Catalysis Volumes 1 and 2, Volume 1. New York: Springer.
Analysis of Kent Monkman’s Performance and Visual Art Interventions
As an artist who believes in retelling history as opposed to blaming the colonizers, Monkman is an artist who uses specific personas in his paintings in the attempt to retell the native’s own version of events. There has been a gross misrepresentation of the native culture and identity by certain popular artists, who could have used the pedestal or platform of their art to tell the actual story, but instead used their positions for self-grandeur. Christianity perceived the native cultural practices as either laughable of deviant hence suppressed them. Consequently, the natives themselves began to deny their own culture and suppress themselves.
Monkman’s arguments are mainly based on the sexuality of the Natives, and how the colonialists portrayed them as being ‘on the brink of extinction’, as well as the contributions of colonialism to the long-held perception of the native Indian by the white community. The artist attacks the works of two famous painters in which they portray Canada as being an uninhabited land, an element that grossly undermines the very existence of the Native Indians. According to him, even though Caitlin through his works might have sounded the death knell for the Native Indians race, a renaissance is possible if only the natives retell their stories.
The artist further argues that the native Indian was grossly misrepresented and he uses a rather surreal method, packaged in the form of a ‘two spirited’ character to clearly illustrate this notion. With works that combine humor and irony, Monkman challenges established artists like Catlin. The artist immerses himself in his art by inventing a character who has a conflicting gender in order to portray his mixed heritage and the revered ‘two spirited men’ of the native Indians’ culture. The essay further argues that the white colonialists dominated over the Native Indians.
As a concept, sexuality is given much weight in Monkman’s works and through his pieces of art, he addresses the sexuality of the natives. The ‘two spirited man’ can be perceived as a depiction of a suppressed side of the natives’ sexuality. Even though the majority of the native tribes commonly practiced homosexuality, they had to suppress this with the advent of Colonialism and Christianity, as these institutions considered non-heterosexual sexual relations as deviant. While he depicts the whites as simply dressed in the loin cloths, Monkman portrays Share as a sexually charged character.
The theme of misrepresentation is recurrent in Monkman’s arguments because it is central to his work and beliefs. Despite the fact that George Catlin and Albert Bierdstadt believe that they are the sole artists who have the opportunity to record the native people’s accounts and the verge of their extinction, they misuse their opportunity and portray the natives as “doomed savages” belonging to dying tribes.
Monkman must have intended to spearhead renaissance when he created the character of Share. Whilst her name is a depiction of the sexual undertones that she must carry with her everywhere she goes, her domination of the white man is apparent and her outfit boasts of the latest brands in the fashion industry. Share does not suppress her sexuality and a clear indication of the Renaissance in Monkman;s works are depicted through the physical incarnation of Share’s Testickles and the use of light.
Reflections on the contribution of the article to sexuality studies
Since Share uses both sides to dominate, s/he is the perfect blend of hyper-femininity and masculine authority. This is the portrayal of sexuality as an instrument that can be used in domination and Foucault states that sexuality can be used as atool that can offer a lot of maneuversas well as a launchpad for diverse strategies. Yet Monkman uses this tool is used to right the wrongs of imperial machinations and and the same time invent a new identity for the native Indians, ultimately creating a platform through which they can reinvent themselves. He does this by reinventing the status of Two-Spirited people (Swanson, 2005.Pp 9).
Studies on sexuality can use Monkman’s pieces of art as a tool to decolonize and demystify Native sexuality especially considering that the current perceptions of Native Indians and their sexuality are mere constructs of imperialists and a wrongful depiction of them.
The Two-Spirit, is an embodiment of the male and female spirit hosted in one body and advocates for the acknowledgement of sexual orientations besides heterosexuality.The Native gay community has embraced the term “Two Spirit” and popularized it because it has brought a level of acceptance of this group even among heterosexuals.
The works are evidence of the infusion of sexuality and identity. As such, by suppressing the sexuality of the natives and therefore resulted in the loss of identity of the Native Indian communities. Christian imperialists quickly suppressed the diverse sexual practices of the Native people the repercussions of such suppression are clear. Due to the denial of the existence of homosexuality existed amongst the diverse native tribes that interacted with the white Christian cultures, anthropologists were unable to record this diversity as they feared severe punishment (Swanson, 2005, pp 11).
Therefore, Monkman’s art also offer lessons on the Renaissance of native sexuality. In his art pieces, Monkman uses light to convey the message of re-emergence of the Natives identity through their sexuality.
Looking at Monkman’s works, it seems that he was fighting conflicting natures within himself, even as he tried to retell the story of the native Indian. This is depicted when he plays the role of the imperialist on one hand, while his alter-ego, which he controls, is the depiction of a strong and confident native who makes the white colonialists bid to her whims. Despite this, he displays the native as clad in Louis Vuitton and Hudson Bay accessories and therefore this can be perceived as a deliberate alteration, that executes exactly what Monkman intended to fight- the misrepresentation of the native Indian.
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Swanson,Kerry.The Noble Savage Was a Drag Queen: Hybridity and Transformation in Kent Monkman’s Performance and Visual Art Interventions. E-misferica 2.2 (2005) Available online at http://hemi.nyu.edu/journal/2_2/swanson.html
Major Urban Problems
Change has always been an inevitable factor and is always bound to happen. As such, it is very essential for us to shift our deliberation on averting and preventing change and instead focus on embracing it. Change usually creeps up on unprepared individuals because they live in denial. This is clearly exemplified when urban cities crept upon unprepared citizens and although urbanization has its own benefits, it was accompanied by a number of problems that both the public and the government were unprepared for.
The overwhelming power of mayors is among the first major problem that came with development of urban towns. Fresh Urbanization came with a strong mayoral system which possessed the authority to influence the livelihood of the population in a negative way if deemed fit by the mayor. A strong mayoral system will provide an avenue for corruption since the mayors have overwhelming powers.
The more upsetting issue is the fact that the mayor has powers to hire and fire any person if he wishes. This power can intimidate civil workers to bid the mayor’s will in order to remain in his good books. This can create loopholes for the mayor to request for unconstitutional favors and the civil servants will be forced to fulfill such requests. Furthermore, the mayor can also use his power and elect any person he wants into key positions in the public institution. Such elections can leave the elected persons indebted to the mayor and hence cause them to act unconstitutionally if asked to do so.
The staffing requirements within the new system are another problem that face the urban areas. In this system, lower employees are hired based on their professions hence making such professions too specialized such that employees cannot innovate or expand beyond their niche. This creates a work environment that inevitably breeds boredom and reduces efficiency and productivity among employees.
Additionally, the urban political system also enhance the collaboration between the public and private sectors. Despite the benefits of the collaboration between the two sectors, it also comes with various drawbacks. The risks involved in transactions in the public and private partnerships pose the biggest challenge. Such a risk is usually transferred to the government in that it increases the expenditure on the part of the government. The increase ultimately trickles down to the town’s budget, and prompts the mayor to raise the taxes.
Progress in Reforming City Government
As mentioned earlier, the inevitability of change is not questionable and this prompts the need to take note of the progress of changes. It is important to compare before and after change situations so as to accurately assess whether the change is good or bad. The second part of this article delves into the reformations undertaken by the city government in the past 100 years. The paper will give recommendations on the positive as well as negative impacts of change and assess whether change has actually bettered the situation of city government or deteriorated the way they are run.
After conducting an analysis of the steps city governments has undertaken during the past century, it is clear that there has been progress. The issue of voting rights is the first indication of progress whereby in the beginning of the 19th century only white people who owned property had the voting rights, a trend that has long been abolished the evolution of city governments. This trend had previously denied people of color as well as men who did not own property and all the women the right to vote irrespective of their ethnic backgrounds. The changes gave all citizens the power to appoint their political leaders and influence how their city is run.
The concept of voting with one’s feet was also brought about by the evolution of city governments . Through this system, individuals who are displeased with the way the city is operated were given the option of searching for greener pastures in other cities. Nevertheless, this might be considered as a drawback because of how cities are run today, and people can easily choose to leave their cities instead of sticking around and changing it. Many citizens participated in civil rights with the aim of changing their cities in the 1960s. Such fighting spirit is no longer witnessed in many cities because individuals can easily leave their city or just move away, and leave the rest to struggle with the political system. For citizens who have immovable assets, voting by feet can be used as an oppressive tool (Walker 11). This is because the city can decide to seize their property for its own purpose and use, if such individuals leave their property behind.
It is also imperative to assess the shortcomings of the city governments during this 100-year period, before making any analysis. A major shortcoming lies in the reluctance of the city government to allocate resources based on census results as it was case during the earlier days. This ensured appropriate resource allocation to sectors and areas that were most crucial. This is the opposite of what is happening today as resources are allocated based on the interests of diverse parties. As a result those who are most convincing parties that can push forward their interests tend to get what they want, while the weaker ones remain suffering.
Despite the drawbacks of voting by feet, it is necessary to note that it is much better than the flat denial or prohibition of certain members of the city from having the vote. This presupposes the essence of voting by feet as an improved method of running the city governments in the modern era. Regional preferences and national diversity has also been accommodated by the concept of voting by feet (Walker 15). This is attributed to the decentralization of authority that facilitates different economic and social improvements in the cities.
The concept of prioritizing the public interests above other things has been brought about by the evolution of mayors. Since the 1990, there have been several attempts by mayors to implement the best business practices in the cities. This portends their attempts at running the city based on public interest and not on political intention. Through doing this, the mayors have all their intentions set on advancing their economies and developing their cities and such progress is evident in the evolution of city governments.
The distribution of power to commissioners and councilors is yet another progress in the evolution of city government. There are frequent meetings between the commissioners and councilors to discuss the diverse policies based on the interest of the people they represent. This means that without the tampering with the system of city government, then the policies that reflect the wills and needs of the majority in society will be passed in the city.
After a thorough analysis of both the shortcomings and progress of the evolution of city governments, it is evident that there have been improvements in the governance of cities in the 100-year period. This is evident in the power given to the citizens during election of who lead their cities. In addition, the leaders into mayoral positions have also displayed progress by running the cities using good business policies and not political intuition.
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Beliefs and ideas before attendance
In both history and tradition, Christianity and Islam have come a long way and even though both religions share a common origin, Islam has some beliefs with regard to the attendance of Christian services. Contrary to our Islamic beliefs, Christians are of the opinion that God exists in eternity and is simultaneous a communion of three distinct persons. In Islam on the other hand, God cannot exist in multiple state and any such belief would be a denial of monotheism (Kataregga & Shenk, 1980). Given the strict rules and regulations within my religion, I found it difficult to attend the church services when I visited the Christian community. For example, in Islam, you cannot enter a praise of worship such as a church without having a specific purpose and this is mainly because it is considered an offense and even the angels of the prophet could not step into any house that had images (Kratzke & Bertolo, 2013). Christians have also claimed that Allah had a family with a son and wife which makes it sinful for any Muslin to enter the church and approve of their claims let alone loving and taking them as friends.
According to the Qur’an, Christian foundations are built on theological positions that are based on falsehood and are misled. The Qu’ran also tells us that Christians actually conceal the truth with their falsehood and this makes them our enemies because even Allah fights against them(Kataregga & Shenk, 1980). Ever since the time of Adam, Islam has been existent and hence will continue. However, as Muslims we believe that Christians will be judged by Allah for having upheld what we perceive to be grave doctrinal errors and will thus face the wrath of god. We also believe that our religion has superiority over others and the conduct of Christian nations as well as vices make Islam more ideal. The Qu’ran also sends this message because it notes that Muslims are the best in mankind because they condemn wrongs and command rights.
I first tried to visit a church in Evansville, Indiana, US and my first church to visit was the St. Anthony of Padua Catholic church. There were many traditions practiced among the community. First off, the Catholics had to take the Eucharist as a symbol of eating the body and drinking the blood of God. I found this intriguing because I could not understand how they could eat their God’s body but they explained that they had to eat consecrated bread and drink church wine in order to fulfill the teachings of Christ. This was meant to perpetuate and appreciate the sacrifice that Christ made on the cross.
Special attention was paid to this ceremony because of the silence and state of holiness that the congregation exhibited. Other rites that were practiced in this community were the Passover feast and the Palm Sunday. Palm Sunday was celebrated in remembrance of the triumphant entry into Jerusalem by Jesus and during this the congregation gathered and waved as well as scattered the palm trees to signify what the crowds did when Jesus rode into Jerusalem in a donkey. Apart from palm trees, there are people in the congregation who used native tree branches. On the other hand, the Passover feast was also called the last supper and during this festival, the Christians partook of the body and blood of Christ. This was in commemoration of the event that led to the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt after years of slavery, during which God passed over the Christians’ houses and slaughtered the first born males of the Egyptians hence leading to their escape which was led by Moses.
During the service, the Christians sang many hymns and said prayers. Their songs were also enjoyable to because they were accompanied by instruments. The prayers were difficult to understand because some of them were read from a book. The prayers were also repeated in similar manner on every Sunday. There were also different dress codes in the church and these included suits, kanzus, full dresses, short skirts, trousers, shorts among other clothes. Besides the nuns or sisters, other females in the congregation did not cover their hair (Kratzke & Bertolo, 2013).
Having experienced the difference in this community I was left in confusion, pleasure and amusement. I was confused because of the strict laws of Islam that forbade attendance of church masses. After attending these services I discovered that Christianity and Islam were very different. The religions also had many similarities that I had not been aware of before. For instance, Christians believe that God is the sole creator of the universe and He made prophets such as Moses, Noah, Jesus and Abraham. The Catholics also read from the Old Testament which Muslims refer to as the Torah and New Testament, which is popularly known as the Gospel or Holy Scripture. According to them Satan is evil and in the last days(Kataregga & Shenk, 1980).
Contrary to Islamic practices, nobody washed their body or wore full-length clothes that covered their entire body. In fact, women were not veiled or covered from head to toe. Another stark difference was that everyone entered the church with their shoes on. Because of all these, the St. Anthony of Padua Catholic church practices differed against all the Islamic practices and beliefs (Jackson & Samuels, 2011). Despite my confusion concerning the partaking of the body and blood of Christ, I must say that I was shocked that I was well welcomed in the church and nobody discriminated against me on the basis of my religion and other beliefs.
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Jackson, K. F., & Samuels, G. M. (2011). Multiracial Competence in Social Work: Recommendations for Culturally Attuned Work with Multiracial People. Social Work, 56(3), 235-245.
Kataregga, B., & Shenk, D. (1980). Islam and Christianity. Uzima Publishing House.
Kratzke, C., & Bertolo, M. (2013). Enhancing Students Cultural Competence Using Cross-Cultural Experiential Learning. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 20(3), 107-111.
Bleeding can have serious impacts on the victims and many paramedics, regard controlling bleeding as an important practice in their daily lives. There are diverse methods of controlling bleeding in patients within the pre-hospital settings. This is done to avoid endangering the lives of the patients. In Keeping it Under Control by Timothy Perkins (1), there are certain methods that have been in use for sometimes that are deemed more problematic and endangering hence can no longer be adopted. In his article, he advises against the use of methods such as tourniquets because of the adverse problems it causes to people. Instead, Timothy Perkins goes further offer alternative methods that are efficient in controlling excessive bleeding such as the use of hemostatic agent and compression bandages that have been used for many years now during military operations. This article is aimed at informing and convincing paramedics to adopt such bleeding control methods which do not cause serious problems to the victims. The article by Perkins provides an important analysis that evaluates varied methods and suggests the best modern methods that are safe.
To achieve his goal, Perkins employs a number of appeals in his article and one of the key aspects is ethos. In the article, the author introduces himself as a learned professional who is highly knowledgeable in the field, and he does this by writing his name exactly after the title of the article as Timothy J. Perkins BS, EMT-P. The initials at the end of his name can appeal to the readers hence preparing them psychologically for the academic article. His article is started in a professional and academic manner, and states some of the scientific facts about controlling of excessive bleeding. Throughout the article, he maintains a professional tone with an academic angle that entails citing certain sources of information which are used in the article. It is such aspects of the article that create credibility among the readers concerning the author.
The article also shows the aspect of appeal to pathos and this mostly appeals to the medical audience. For Timothy Perkins, doctors, nurses and other health care givers are the most suitable audience for his article. Nevertheless, paramedics would find the article extremely useful given that they deal with many bleeding cases before rushing victims to hospitals. The article points out certain techniques that are useful to help in stopping bleeding immediately after incidents or accidents, especially because of the dangers posed by excessive bleeding that can even lead to loss of lives.
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Perkins, Timothy. Keeping It Under Control. emsworld.com. 2007. Web. January 28, 2014
UBC Writing Centre.The University of British Columbia. 7 May 2007. Web. January 28, 2014
Accountable Care Organizations
An Accountable Care Organization is a system of doctors, hospitals as well as other health care providers who converge and share the obligation of offering exceptional healthcare to patients at reasonable prices. The objective of forming ACOs by the state is to gain more savings on Medicare costs. Majority of the baby boomers in the U.S are about to retire and are probable to obtain medical care as a result of age connected illness. This liability of offering medical care to aging people affects employed individuals as well as the state (Gold, 2011). Hence, ACOs concept was enacted to attempt to lessen the costs of offering medical care. This kind of medical care service is new and as a result the administrative framework that ought to be adopted is not reputable. The law is as well unclear on the leadership system for ACOs. A number of the groups anticipating to operate the ACOs incorporate insurers, doctors as well as health care centers (Gold, 2011). The rule is ambiguous on who ought to manage Accountable Care Organizations, because it was working on making its administration flexible.
Where Leadership Will Be Needed
The goal of ACOs is to adjust from payment mode that remunerates for huge sum to another one that rewards for worth (Spoerl, 2012). This is projected to meet the goals of an improved prevention of diseases, offering improved patient care experience as well as pulling down cost of health care in case of upsurges. All this is possible whilst ensuring that the corporation is economically stable and flourishing (Spoerl, 2012). In line with CMS, every Accountable Care Organization is anticipated to bear a legal framework that gets and allocates mutual funds impartially amongst all those involved in the Accountable Care Organization. The satisfactorily number of the customers to be served by the ACO need not to go past 5000 participants (AHA, 2010). The ACO need to hire ample number of healthcare experts to take care of all its customers. It needs to accept to be running for a minimum of three years. It need to grow as well as offer ample content on the health experts so as to aid in allocation of beneficiaries as well as in transfer of funds due to shared services (AHA, 2010). Each Accountable Care Organization is anticipated to describe the procedures to practice evidence- based health care, have undertakings to enhance the quality of services whereas the expenses are lessened and offer organized care. Information showing implementation of patient based care is necessary of the Accountable Care Organizations. The administration and guidance of the ACO ought to incorporate clinical and also administrative systems (AHA, 2010).
Clinical leadership and professional leadership will as a result be necessary for Accountable Care Organization to work successfully and meet the mutual funds in Medicare treasuries that makes it a fascinating enterprise. Creating Accountable Care Organizations which have been functioning since the start of January 2012, has not been smooth (AHA, 2010). The procedure has been designated as asset demanding and wastes a lot of time by those working in the sector. Clinical administration will include operation as well as directing of medical experts and healthcare centers as well as the area where medical concerns are demanded. The management part will incorporate the insurance corporations that are linked with Medicare as well as the administration of the assets of the ACO. The management guidance does not require any medical credentials, however they are probable to be successful if focused on business. They will hold the obligation to pursue the associates to be incorporated in the Accountable Care Organization as well as get the beneficiaries offered by ACO.
Primarily, they will take part in the allocation of mutual funds amongst the members. This disparity between clinical leadership and administrative leadership will make sure that the health care experts focus on offering exceptional care to the beneficiaries, who are assured of well cared funds. The interaction between the two bodies of running the Accountable Care Organization ought to be effective. This will aid in assuring productivity of the entire corporation as well as dealing with issues that any of members have. The managers picked to administrative posts ought to be qualified, versatile and creative so as to lead a company whose blueprint is a fresh idea in the market. There are restricted case studies that will provide a comprehension on how to operate Accountable Care Organizations (Spoerl, 2012).
Skills Needed for Leadership
The two divisions necessary in operation of Accountable Care Organizations need diverse collection of abilities so as to run successfully.
Clinical Leadership Skills
Clinical leaders will have the obligation of supervising daily operation of health organizations. They as well have to make sure that the quality of the medical services offered is of best standards. These managers are experienced medical experts as well can have trustworthy perceptions on medical exercises undertaken by the ACO (BMA, 2012). Abilities necessary for clinical experts incorporate political and communication skills as well as clinical trustworthiness.
The communication abilities essential for most of clinical leaders is ability to listen well. Majority of experts in the healthcare sector have uttered disappointments for not being listened by their bosses, in line with research (BMA, 2012). Thus, it is essential as a clinical leader to listen exceptionally well to the opinions and verdicts of corresponding medical experts. The capability to think about the guidance as well as the occasional condemnation is a great facet of a great clinical manager. This presents the idea that the manager is set to work with subordinates (BMA, 2012). Health care experts are indeed connected to managers who are prepared to confess in case of errors as well as improve their tactics as required.
Political skills include the capacity of the manager to agree on as well as develop harmony amongst medical associates. Arbitration, coaxing as well as swaying abilities are not incorporated in majority of health care education programs and this makes it challenging for experts to practice. Health experts go for an open consultative tactic (BMA, 2012). This is due to the fact that attempting to unite the opinions of vast self-governing experts mainly all over the areas of hospital medicine is quite challenging. A clinical manager ought to have the capacity to reinforce his trustworthiness by developing backing from associates. They ought to be capable of working in groups as well as be accountable for decisions settled on. Being responsible for the results experienced from the decisions made is a trait of an excellent clinical chief (BMA, 2012).
Clinical leaders ought to hold as well as sustain clinical trustworthiness among coworkers. They ought to have amassed massive know-how, exposure as well as study clinical abilities upon selection as bosses. They ought to uphold clinical duties and depict incomparable devotion to clients given that they hold their management posts (BMA, 2012). Being a supporter of patients’ wellbeing as well as always keeping in touch with patients is most probable to reinforce the status of a clinical leader among subordinates. A successful clinical manager ought to motivate his or her subordinates by displaying good personality. They have to be spirited and hold an emotional resolve when going through stress caused by coworkers (BMA, 2012). They ought to show exceptional passion from their job and the broad health care career. This optimism and zeal is the gateway to aid them deal with challenges. Majority of health experts have a distinctive aspiration to feel more confident in the obligations and this is anticipated from the leaders. Honesty, decency and responsibility for decision settled on by clinical chiefs are the core non-negotiable principles that define them (BMA, 2012).
Administration leadership skills
A good administration executive ought to be a good listener, ascertain the issues being experienced by the corporation as well as procure possible solutions. Listening makes it easy for employees and customers of a company to be heard as well as clear up their anticipations. Listening without coming up with verdicts makes it easy for the subordinates to trust and treasure their leader (Bairre, 2013). They should be excellent communicators capable of sharing opinions in a simple and neat manner whilst looking at the demands and wishes of the targeted audience. They ought to be candid, optimistic and considerate in their interaction (Bairre, 2013).
Good administrative leaders are exceptional managers who focus beyond the accessible opportunity and offer allowances for occasions that may not be predicted in a short time. They come up with the company’s objectives as well as outline its purposes. They go on and define how they can be accomplished, promising effectiveness of the corporation. It is their duty to motivate as well as inspire their subordinates in the company (Bairre, 2013). This is possible via acknowledging achievements, praising and appreciating their hard work. The leader ought to easily assign tasks to subordinate workers as well as offer them an opportunity to be the best. This presents the subordinate worker a sense of worth and being trusted with the administration whilst giving the leader time for other important obligations. They ought to be able to create a guiding relation with coworkers as well aid them in grasping and learning up-to-date skills (Bairre, 2013). Being advisors, they have the responsibility to infer advancements, guide as well act as role models. The skills and exposure they possess should aid grow other people.
Administrative leaders ought to be at ease with technology and fathom how to make use of diverse systems (Peacock, 2013). These leaders need to have fundamental monetary as well as budgeting abilities and pay attention to the client. In this situation, they ought to be focused on the requirements of beneficiaries as well as apply this in creation of policies in the company. These managers ought to be versatile but not loose. They as well have to display some firmness to avert making decisions carelessly for the company (Peacock, 2013). They ought to offer the corporation a feeling of direction, give an ear depicting humility, and however be brave and not to dread taking risks for development of the corporation.
Communication Style Required of ACO Leadership
The four communication techniques exercised by people include; passive, passive aggressive, aggressive and assertive communication styles. A passive communicator shuns articulating his or her emotions, ideas as well as perceptions. When communicating, they do so in a remorseful way and as a result others may not pay attention (Roher, n.d.). Other people may probably misuse them and make them feel worried, desperate and confused. They cannot control their lives. They are vulnerable to being stressed frequently. They as well try to hate other people as they hardly get their necessities fulfilled (Roher, n.d.).
Passive-aggressive individuals are deceitful people who do not succeed to handle openly their issues. They seem to have no problems towards other people, but they hold their anger against others. They regularly embrace cynicism, baffling body language as well as rejection. They chiefly attempt to interrupt or demoralize other people (Roher, n.d.). Because of these conducts, many people do not belief them. Aggressive communicators defend themselves, although in the wrong manner. They regularly tamper with the rights of other people and are rude when conversing (Roher, n.d.). This actions are caused by lack of enough authority. These individuals attempt to rule others via control and have an arrogant body language. They are also bad tempered and have sturdy and irritating feeling of authority. Aggressive individuals isolate other people via these conducts as well as feel powerless as they cannot not have their needs satisfied in a great way (Roher, n.d.).
Assertive communicators are capable of articulating their views in a flawless and decent way. They try to meet their needs without having to infringe or push away the rights of other people. These people are confident and embrace a cool body language as well as a good tone while interacting, they are excellent listeners and utilize strength of their mind (Roher, n.d.). They feel in-charge and others feel comfortable and related to them. These individuals get what they desire thus they have no time to control or overlook other people. These communicators defend themselves, as well as take blame for their mistakes. To successfully meet their obligations, the administration of ACOs is required to adjust with the firm technique of communication. For executives inclined to other techniques of interaction, they ought to improve on specific facets of communication with others to acquire a better style (Roher, n.d.). The passive communicators ought to turn into better communicators by articulating what is their mind regularly. Aggressive communicators ought to articulate themselves in a reliable manner and value other people. The passive aggressive communicator can easily enhance his or her efficiency in interaction by articulating on how to handle difficulties (Roher, n.d.).
Vision and Mission of ACOs
The mission of an organization is the reason for its existence and it aids in decision making undertaken by the leaders of the company (Goldsmith, 2011). As Accountable Care Organization is an association of medical care providers who focus on offering exceptional healthcare at affordable rates, the mission may be asserted as: “A partnership of health care facilities and physicians dedicated to providing comprehensive, affordable, high quality and sustainable medical care for the patients and community with emphasis in preventive health care”
The vision asserts that the reason for the success of the company and provides a roadmap on what the corporation hopes to achieve and what to be in future. By alerting clients on the values of the company as well as conveying to investors and associates on how the company will run, it presents a hope for a bright future (Goldsmith, 2011). A sample of a vision statement of ACO looks like: “to be a leader in the transformation of the existing health care system from volume-based system of value-based one by creating a replicable and affordable framework that results in the best possible health for the community at the lowest possible cost whilst strengthening and preserving the health safety net.”
The ethics of a company are the ideologies workers, shareholders and beneficiaries put up with. Together with the mission as well as the vision, they make the company stand out from its competitors. To certain scope, they determine the company’s organization conduct and culture (Goldsmith, 2011). These values that you will find in an ACO incorporate;
- Enhanced preventive healthcare for the community
- Patient-oriented care
- Incessant development
Companies have to express their goals so as to accomplish and fulfill their vision and mission. These goals are well-planned, and aid the medical care planner in focusing on those chores that bring changes to the firm (Goldsmith, 2011). Accountable Care Organizations set the following goals and they are the reason why they were communicated;
- Lessening the expense of offering medical care
- Improvement of communication and transparency
- Enhanced access to healthcare
- To boost quality of healthcare
- Enable coordination of healthcare
- Personality Skills Needed
The character traits of individuals chosen as executives of Accountable Care Organizations are most probable to affect how the firm runs. For instance, communicative executives will be able to share with many doctors as well as be able to sway many other to join hands and build a sturdier Accountable Care Organization. These individuals are also capable of engaging beneficiaries helping the ACO get the necessary least number faster than if not involved in the process. The characters of these individual in the management or leadership group of an ACO ought to be unique, because each has his or her own strong points and flaws (Denham, 2010). The moment the diverse individuals are brought together, they can build a successful management group.
The outgoing persons hold the best abilities and may be used to inspire employees as well as safeguard external undertakings of the firm (Denham, 2010). The shy people are exceptional at analytical abilities and would thus be quite ample to have them run the funds as well as the budget for the firm. They can as well be beneficial when it comes to forecasts and tactical planning. Other characteristics vital for running an ACO are determination, assertiveness, self-consciousness and much more (Denham, 2010).
As much as assertiveness is a core trait, those in the management group ought to be supportive as well as confident to inspire others. Zeal is essential, as it glows out from these individuals to motivate the rest of the team. These individuals ought to also be well-versed with their abilities, desires and charisma. On top of this, besides understanding their capabilities, they ought to have self-esteem in those skills (Denham, 2010). These personnel should be morally upright, goal-oriented as well as have self-control. At last, they ought to exhibit an ability to survive when they encounter devastating issues.
The above discussion makes it clear that Accountable Care Organizations need to be separated when it comes to management. This is due to the fact that ACOs will have both medical and corporate facets. Each will demand experts from particular areas so as to operate competently. Interaction between the two core groups is necessary for easy operation of the firm.
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AHA. (2010). “Accountable Care Organizations: AHA RESEARCH SYNTHESIS REPORT.” American Health Association Committee on Research.
Bairre, C. (2013). 7 must-have leadership skills for administrative professionals. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.iaap-hq.org/blog/administrative-professionals/chrysta-bairre/administrative-professionals-week-7-must-have-leade [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
BMA. (2012). “Doctors’ perspectives on clinical leadership.” British Medical Association: Health Policy & Economic Research Unit
Denham, D. (2010). The 10 most important personality traits for career success. [online] Retrieved from: http://blog.timesunion.com/careers/the-10-most-important-personality-traits-for-career-success/633/ [Accessed: 26 Jan 2014].
Gold, J. (2011). Accountable care organizations, explained. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2011/04/01/132937232/accountable-care-organizations-explained [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
Goldsmith, T. (2011). Accountable care organizations: the key to transforming healthcare?. MHA. Sawyer Business School, Suffolk University.
Peacock, L. (2013). Leadership: the eight essential skills – telegraph. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/jobs/9920854/Leadership-The-eight-essential-skills.html [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
Roher, T. (n.d.). The different types of communication styles | ehow. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/info_7956333_different-types-communication-styles.html [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
Spoerl, B. (2012). Advancing accountable care: 5 hospital aco leaders share insight. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-physician-relationships/advancing-accountable-care-5-hospital-aco-leaders-share-insight.html [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
Hrafnkel: Guilty or not Guilty?
The main character, Hranfnkel, in the Scandinavian family story is vindicated for his killing actions. He slayed Einar, who was one of his workers. His vindictive deed was illegitimate, but, the verities that back his deed overshadow the conflicting facts. The Icelandic perception of civilization, rule, and the relevance of one’s word all provided an extremely sturdy backing for Hrafnkel actions (Coles 1).
In line with the account, Hrafnkel was a respectful and caring man. He was gentle to every person who worked for him and those who complied with his orders. Nevertheless, he was quite strict and coldblooded to his enemies as well as individuals who opposed his directives (Hermann 37). It was due to his strict and pitiless personality that pushed him into slaying many people. The other quite imperative trait of Hrafnkel’s character is that he was so committed to his God Fray. He depicted his loyalty to Fray via pledging to him “Large temples and a half-share in all his best treasures” (Hermann 36). Freyfaxi, one of his many horses, is amongst the dearest resources that he dedicated to god Fray. Consequently, Hrafnkel took “a solemn oath to kill anyone who rode the stallion without his permission” (Hermann 38). Freyfaxi was a holy asset to Hrafnkel as he had dedicated it to a god that he cherished so much.
Einar, who was a victim of homicide, and had been a servant of Hrafnkel in his farm for many years. Nevertheless, he contemplated of looking for job in Hrafnkel’s settlements, when things were not in his favor. On agreeing to serve Hrafnkel, Einar settled never to ride on Freyfaxi; the sacred horse that he had warned him about (Coles 2). Einar promised “never to be so wicked to ride the one horse which was forbidden to him” (Hermann 40). He was as well sentimental of the penalties of disagreeing with Hrafnkel commands. The supreme directive being never to ride on the blessed horse without approval (Coles 2).
The indisputable verity in this entire account is that murder actually occurred, but, the most imperative question is whether Hrafnkel was responsible of taking life of another person or he was right to slay this individual as a form of sentence. In relation to the saga, Einar, was a devoted worker for a short period that he “never lost a single sheep” (Hermann 40). Nevertheless, after being a servant for Hrafnkel for a number of months, things went astray, and he lost 30 of his employer’s sheep at last. He searched for the lost sheep everywhere without any trace. He panicked and so opted to take a horse in his endeavors. He could not ride any of the available horses, except for Freyfaxi the sacred horse. He had no other option that to contradict his employer’s directives. As a result, he opted to ride his boss’s horse without authorization, as he was determined to find the lost sheep (Coles 3).
Exploring this instance, it can be summed up that Hrafnkel’s life taking acts were vindicated in several means. When he employed Einar as his sheepherder, he cautioned him from riding his sacred horse, Freyfaxi. Einar could ride the rest of the horse except Freyfaxi. Hrafnkel had made it apparent that he would slay him if he rode his sacred horse. The core motive for Hrafnkel act was defending his horse that he had already presented to god Frey. He had made it clear to those around him that it was him or god Frey who had the right to ride Freyfaxi (Hermann 38). In the course of this old times account, a man’s expression was quite imperative. People who kept their talk were highly respected. Hrafnkel affirmed to Einar that “Warning wards off all blame”, which meant that “I will kill you if you ride Freyfaxi, and it will be your fault” (Hermann 40). It was apparent that he could ride Freyfaxi when permitted. The most vital question is why did Einar had to ride his boss’s horse without his approval? The instance was not an emergency, because he had been looking for the lost sheep for a while, and the option to ride Freyfaxi was made beforehand. From the time when he started serving Hrafnkel, he was conscious that demise was the punishment for any person who rode the sanctified horse (Tracy 117).
The other motive that vindicates Hrafnkel murderous act is that his actions set an exceptional example to all surrounding people as well as the rest of his workers. It unmistakably depicted what would befall in case one went against his directives. For Einar, he had the choice of alerting him of the lost sheep and save his life instead of opting to go break his firm promise. Despite the fact that Hrafnkel had slayed a number of people, his deeds were defensible murder as not all wrongdoings avowed in his book carried a punishment of manslaughter. Even though homicide was illegal under the common law of the Vikings, it is likely that reasonable killing was pardonable (Yeo 262). Even states castigate wrongdoers by execution if found guilty of certain misconducts. The Scandinavian family story occurred when the federal states were not present. Therefore, Hrafnkel had no other option but to do it himself (Hermann 8).
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Hermann, Pálsson. Hrafnkel’s Saga and Other Icelandic Stories. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971. Print.
The Story of Hrafnkell, Frey’s Priest. [translated by J. Coles.] Eng. , 1882. Print.
Tracy, Larissa. Torture and Brutality in Medieval Literature: Negotiations of National Identity. Cambridge [England: D.S. Brewer, 2012. Print.
Yeo, Stanley M. H. Partial Excuses to Murder. Sydney: Federation Press, with the assistance of the Law Foundation of New South Wales, 1990. Print.
Days of Glory
The director and screenwriter of this film are Rachid Bouchareb and Oliver Morello respectively. They produced a film that showed the contribution the North American Soldiers made by fighting in France against the Nazis in the World War II. The Arabs fought for France, their native nation which set the emotionally-charging drama seen in the rest of the film. Starring in the movie are Jamel Debbouze, Bernard Blancan, Sami Bouajila and Samy Naceri. In the bid to break the powerful 1943 grip by Hitler that lasted three long years, France recruited African armies, comprised of 130,000 North Americans, who were committed to place their life at risk in order to because the downfall of the death machine that was Nazi into a bottomless pit.
However, regardless of their remarkable sacrifices, the French dubbed themselves contemptuously as natives. They dreamt that one day, they would visit their country which they had fought for from afar. However, in the end, their selfless efforts were transcended by their superior contemptuous disregard for the services offered by these soldiers. Their soldiers provided invaluable aid in the darkest hours of the world. The historical context of the movie dates back to 1944-45. During the liberation of the Alps, Italy, the Rhone Valley, the Vosges and the Province marked the deadliest stages in the allied triumph.
France was in the position to take allies following the Armistice. The first French Army they recruited from Africa executed the bloody and triumphant demonstration on the German Nazis and helped circumvent the German officials and occupiers of the Vichly regime. Approximately 130,000 African soldiers were part of the French troops with the remainder of the troops was made up of young French soldiers who fled from the profession. Often, this film reminds views of the story that is forgotten of “native” French soldiers. The North Africans, Arabs especially believed they were natives of France and they were fighting the Germans for France they believed to be fighting for their country. The French superiors however, betrayed them in their hour of need. This is the message passed all through the film (Jeffries 1).
The director of the film is Rachid Bouchareb. He was born in Paris, France to Algerian parents. He is well known for producing art that is thought provoking, by challenging multiculturalism and philosophies of immigration. The ways through which ethnic differences and culture play out in different societies in historical periods comes out clearly in his art pieces. For example, in the film, Days of Glory, he depicts the kind of discrimination that goes on in the Free French Forces to the North African Soldiers. The soldiers from North America received 2nd class citizenship despite sacrifices they made in the fight for their “native” county. The film also fits the philosophy through the manner in which discrimination continues through the setting.
There is a distress portrayal of discriminations and injustices that were enforced against African soldiers from Tunisia and Algeria in one of their exploits. In one of these episodes, it is clear that the North African soldiers but nothing more than cannon fodders used by commanding officers to be on the battlefront. Rachid Bouchareb presents suffering of the soldiers go through an the kind of deep discriminatory military institution, which offers a prism through which we can look at discrimination immigrants in modern France have to go through. As such, his films, especially The Days of Glory, had public discourse in the French forums, which helped in bringing about changes to the manner the French natives looked upon the North African veterans (Jeffries 1).
Rachid Bouchareb uses cinematographic techniques in order to portray the message he wants viewers to perceive in the best manner possible. He uses powerful drama, which shines a light into the North African soldiers, fighting for the Free France after D-Day. The piece of art in itself is not a masterpiece, it entertains and the characters are well established from the start to the end of the film. Thought it can be predictable at times, the most important and notable thing about the film is ripples it creates as well as the impacted created in minds of French people who saw the film. It is worth noting that immediately after release of the film, the French government made an agreement for the first time to begin paying compensation to remnant widows that North African fighters left behind. Hollywood film style, though, is different in some aspects. For instance, it failed to merge French, English and Arabic at the same time and in the same film. However, the film shows Arabs speaking in Arabic while slapping or fighting someone (Todd 1).
African films do not follow similar formulas as those by Hollywood film maker style. They are stories telling of something valuable, informative and not products that are for selling only. They are part of informative entertainment teaching the society about their value. African directors produce films challenging conventional ideas of cinemas by drawing global themes, cosmopolitan scripts and local legends. Products of African films are issues affecting local and ordinary people on a daily basis. Rachid Bouchareb produced a similar theme regarding an issue affecting international and local immigrants to France on a daily basis. The film is about discrimination African soldier went through as they offer their services to the military France. He produced a film that was thoughtful that moved the France government to start paying compensation to remnant widows the African soldiers left behind.
The major question that made me interested in research of the movie is the relationship France had to Muslims. Majority of the Arabs in North African countries are Muslims an anytime Muslims are fighting, it is never a simple war. Possibly, this was part of the reason France recruited the Muslims so they could fight with all they had. What is more, the rest of the European countries did not have as many Muslims as France, yet they were closer to them. As a matter of fact, majority of Arabs in North African countries claimed they were French notices. Additionally, Muslims believed in Liberty, Equity and Fraternity which, are aspects lacking in the film. The question therefore remains on the kind of relationship French had with the Muslims from North Africa.
The film Days of Glory is a depiction of some realities that are happening to humanity throughout the globe which tend to be forgotten by people too soon. An example is the role played by African-Americans in the making of the nation that is now the United States of America. During Second World War, African-Americans were at the forefront of the military battle, an advantage they did not have initially, to the point they redeemed the nation. The country has been in a state where Whites do not favor the Black man as the president despite the role the Blacks made in making it the nation it currently is.
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Todd, Andrew. “Sotigui Koyaté Obituary.” The Guardian, 2 May 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2010.
Jeffries, Stuart. “Rachid Bouchareb: My Film about the 7/7 London Bombings.” The Guardian, 6 July 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2010.
Doing the best I can: Fatherhood in the Inner City
Synopsis of the Book
“Doing the Best I can” is a book that looks into the truth regarding inner-city fatherhood. There is no doubt that whenever one becomes a parent, so much is expected from them. Clearly, it is expected that they should provide clothing, food as well as other basic needs for the child, to make sure they have shelter, happy, comfortable and encouraged life. Additionally, the society expects when one becomes a parent, they should teach the child compassion, religion, good morals, respect and other moral living aspects like sending them to school. What is so amazing is that even the president of the state expects fathers to stick around the baby.
This poses a major question, which is, just how easy is parenting? What aspects make a good father? Such questions are answered in the book written by Kathryn Edin working with Timothy Nelson, Doing the best I Can.
Newscasts, commencement speeches as well as other kinds of speeches overflow with the recommendation: youthful Black men must make improved “choices”, specifically, they are expected to accept responsibilities as well as bring children they parent. Any reluctance to do so as stated by Timothy and Kathryn is “denounced as one of the leading social problems of our day”.
Nevertheless, the reality on inner-city fatherhood is a reality. Kathryn and timothy, in seeking the answer actually went to Camden, N.J in order to observe the behavior of one hundred and ten men in Philadelphia and Camden. Their main objective was to have an understanding of the experiences of White men, Latino and Black men, all of whom comprised unwed fathers. To the surprise of the authors, they made the discovery formation of a couple was, for majority of men, an informal incident, almost like an accident. Affairs “just happened” and so did pregnancies, which in majority of cases, “happened” comparatively at a similar speed. Despite the fact, authors also noted there were pregnancies that appeared to be “semi-planned”.
Experts could point to the opposite, though fathers indicated a “surprising desire to parent their kids”. For the largest part, individuals interviewed were happy regarding their “own” children. As a matter of fact, Kathryn and Timothy came to the establishment that, it was the child the father was actually attached to. The mother, was an afterthought. Yet, in the end, decisions that pertained to financial help, daily provision for the child and child bearing were responsibilities assumed by the mum, regardless the fact fathers did what they could by using their limited resources either financially or physically. Additionally, every man was quite precise regarding whom a “good father” is citing deeds and actions that were contradictory to that which they expected from their own dad…
Without doubt, doing the Best I Can is a captivating solitary book. From the start to the end of the research, Kathryn and Nelson wind up some readers while they bring others down. It is however evident that it has encouragement as well as a strong call to responsible fatherhood within pages that are contained in the book. The book, doing the Best I Can, does not in any way substantiate most of the aged beliefs; on the contrary, it turns them into the region of knowledge with compassionate and hopeful sympathy in opposition to “unintelligent” behavior. What is more, the book includes an advice and warning to inner-city white, black and Latino women which is quite a revelation.
The book’s main new contributions to the literature
Doing the Best I Can is a book that makes remarkable contribution to the existing research and literatures in the field of unwed fatherhood and parenting and single motherhood. More importantly, it addresses the concern of development and growth among children that is based on cultural, economic, environmental and social factors. The behavior of a child as well as his or her ability to navigate through different stages in life is viewed as one of the most crucial indicators for socioeconomic wellness, though factors influencing it still remain unresolved. There are suggestions that determine the behavior of a child and these are reliant on whether the parent is poor or rich. The impact on development of the child, in case of poor parents, could also be affected by economic and social challenges. Doing the Best I Can focuses on the manner in which social and economic factors influence the healthy development of a child. Using data from 110 men, who are White, Black and Latino, with income groups, the authors discerned financial constraints, unplanned pregnancies, unwed fatherhood and relationships that came to an end are the major child development contributors.
There are more studies that attribute child development to environmental influences and they take it to be responsive to socioeconomic factors (Fan & Chen, 2001). The negative relationship between infant development and economic development has been given a lot of weight in literature. Ford et al (2010) makes the argument that income inequality leads to health risks. This is contrary to absolute hypothesis, which postulates that income is the only thing that affects health and not how it is distributed. The study additionally provides analysis of various connections between health and income, in which case, the argument is that income has great impact on health, income affects health following epistemological transition.
The book also contributes to literature on motherhood and poverty. It is common to find poor women giving birth early in their lives when they are not financially prepared to offer support to their children (Edin & Nelson, 2013). Early motherhood, positively relates to the financial stability of females and labor participation rate, which means women with financial challenges and low labor participation give birth often to unplanned babies on the desire or promise to be married. However, coefficient for female labor participation is close to zero, with possible explanation that women who take part in labor are breadwinners and hence, they have enough income to spend in maintaining the health of the babies, though at the same time, they lack time to care for the babies hence have a net off-effect.
Based on findings in the book, social work professionals have an understanding of challenges faced by unwed fathers, single mothers and reasons contributing to unplanned pregnancies. Social workers entrusted with the mandate of helping people make decisions, understand life, and avoid future problems and other numerous responsibilities. As such, understanding the reason men or women participate in an affair they are not ready to face the consequences is crucial for them to be effective. Such knowledge is outlined in the book Doing the Best I Can and can be of great assistance to women in inner city.
How the premise presented in the book relates to life-course development
Drawing from the book, Doing the best I can indicates how cultural and economic challenges change the meaning of fatherhood for the urban poor people. Because of hardship, parents often leave responsibilities of child raising to mothers. This leads to hardships in the early years of a child’s development. Such issues relate to the growth and development of children since they are often affected by the social and economic state of their father.
Overall, the book exposes a notable trend in process of child developmental psychology. The author’s findings are linked with theories of human development and other theories explaining that unconscious happenings affect a child’s growth. Many psychonauts have worked as individuals helping others solve their behavior problems and well develop them. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are 2 scholars and psychonauts who have made some great impact in the field. Freud believed have to be caused (Mac Brayer, Milich, & Hundley, 2003).
Freud also believed a person goes through some psychosexual stages from childhood through to adulthood and whenever they miss one pint in these states, they can remain stuck for the remainder of their lives. They included 5 stages that include anal, phallic, oral, and genital and latency stages. The first stage is oral which is evidenced in the child’s first year. Everything in this stage is cantered in the mouth as that is where they put everything. The second is anal stage which covers the age bracket of one and 3 years, it focuses on the anus and its products. In this stage, children endeavor to gain control of their excretory functions. Phallic stage starts at the age of three to five years and focuses on sexual activity, as the boys desire to spend time with their mother while the girls with their fathers. This happens for boys to learn what it takes to be a father and the girls, a mother. Failure of this taken place results in individuals admiring men and women who are the replica of their parents (Georgiou, 1996).
The third stage is known as latency stage and covers the age bracket of 6 to 12 years, children in this stage are more social and they also develop the urge of making cross sex friendships. Genital stage occurs during adolescence and above and its where attraction between individuals of the opposite sex is clearly evident. At this stage, people have the urge of practicing sexuality; sexual libidinal, hedonistic desire is also part of the stage (Baumrind, 1996).
Erikson’s theory presents social development aspects that are different. His primary stages are the same to Freud’s, though the last ones talk more about development in adults. Each stage is characterized by the development of ego strength or virtue. The developed virtue is what forms part of the person’s or child’s ego skills. As such, a negative form of ego strength arises if it is developed poorly at any of the stages. Every stage has a crisis with conflict that is centered on a given issue. Conversely, the early development stages give way to later stages though rehabilitation occurs later in healthy relationships that one engages in life. Other relationships are vital in every stage; as such intergenerational interactions are very crucial in assisting children, young people as well as the elderly develop life skills that are important. The development, whether in an adult or child, can as well affect their cultural and social development.
From these developmental theories, it is evident that the findings in Doing the Best I Can indicate children of unwed fathers encounter numerous challenges in the course of infancy that affect their growth (Edin & Nelson, 2013). These include identity issues, anxieties, ego, failed dreams, unmet needs and poverty as well as other problems. Precisely because of this, they might not be in the position to develop desirable behavior when they are grown. For example, because of anxieties, ego creates a defense mechanism to avoid them; all the mechanisms may be unhealthy and immoral but still capable of helping one cope with harsh realities. Some of these mechanisms include; denial which is most common, people are afraid of admitting the obvious truth which appears to put them down before others, it endeavors to protect ego from aspects it cannot cope with though the process is energy consuming. The most common form of denial is addiction, which many people view as problematic and they fail to admit that they are under the influence of alcohol or substance. Repression is another defense mechanism, striving to maintain information from mindful consciousness. While the memories might be kept under cover, they might not disappear fully and in some cases, might influence future behaviors. Displacement is another defense mechanism people use in order to relieve their stresses on others. When people become frustrated by situations, they become harder on their family and friends and they are said to have displaced them (Baumrind, 1966).
Role of Social Work for Professionals in Human Development
Children who are fatherless or those from poor families always remain marginalized in society and they experience “considerably high rates of poverty than those who come from rich backgrounds in the UK” due to exploitation and discrimination by other groups that have vested interests (McCarthy, 2007). However, over the years, the need for a foundation that is strong to make their rights known and as such, find ways to improve their status in society has focused on the work of social activists and professionals (Fan & Chen, 2001). Additionally, other parties involved offer their support to the poor children come together and they decide to undertake initiatives that offer them equal opportunities as others within the society.
In the same manner, the UK government is focused on “greater emphasis on improving employment outcomes for the ethnic minorities” to enhance their economic status (McCarthy, 2007). Additionally, some of the organizations in the UK, like Oxfam, created events that involve policy makers, policy papers and published articles as well as linked with media in order to give the poor families a platform where they can articulate ideas in society. According to Robl et al. (2012), the concerted efforts made by the agencies as well as support of poor people has helped them to immensely improve and develop their economic position in order to enable political mobilization.
As children coming from poor families continue to fight for a place in the community, social work experts are managing their lives across the world. These professionals as well play a critical role in fighting for a society that is just and improving the status of marginalized people and enhancing services efficiency for all. In the UK, such experts fight for the minority rights and they make sure their suggestions and views reach policy-makers (McCarthy, 2007). They also work with ethnic minority women in order to provide a basis for them to air their views. The political mobilization, on the other hand of ethnic minority people has played a central role in making it possible for them to achieve their goals.
While doing an assessment of the financial needs of children coming from poor backgrounds, it is also critical to develop communication with not just family members and primary educators of these children but a need to communicate with the children. Communication is critical in the emergence of the need for both school and residential settings. It contributed to effective development of the child. Skills that are related to effective and clear communication plays a crucial role in helping the child since often, fatherless or children from poor background suffer the common inferiority problem, anxiety, aggression and others, as such, communicating with peers is difficult (Henderson, 2006). According to Santamaria (2005), even though they have socializing problems because of their deprivation state or poverty, they can still learn the skills and get along with others well. They might not complain but they can feel and this contributed to their intellectual, physical and emotional state.
Improving quality of life and evolution of attitudes to improve the social and economic well-being of the population, the major objective of social work professionals is developing an individual centered on development plan. Advice is offered to people so they can maintain respect, dignity, promote safety, health and comfort. The standard of services social workers provide is also maintained to satisfaction level of the individual and their primary caregivers (McCarthy, 2007). This is due to the fact people providing social workers services must be aware of their duties and responsibilities and they should also have good skills and knowledge that is needed to create services that are of high quality (Brooker, 2007). Social work professionals, in summary play a crucial role in development of human life through the provision of advisory services to policy makers, educators and the family members of children who come from poor or fatherless backgrounds. Also, there is need for social workers to carry on with learning more about social development of children in modern world with partial involved of the fathers.
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The merging of different cultures in the process of integration of traditional features of native culture with unique or new features of the introduced culture to create new beliefs and traditions is known as cultural syncretism. The process often occurs when different countries seek to explore other countries, which ensures the integration of native and foreign cultures (Balme, 1999).
The concept mainly denotes the integration of contesting political and religious doctrines often attribute to specific rituals that ultimately get accepted as the common aspects of local practices. Therefore, it acts as a process and a hinges definition presenting inappropriately intertwined cultural and religious categories that tend to be alienated to each other.
The idea therefore defines the extensive imposition of a foreign culture to an existing one via the introduction of foreign beliefs and practices. This attributes to the development of politicized cultural approach or topography only describing a prevailing cultural condition without explaining the processes under which the condition occurred (Serge, 1998).
Cultural syncretism in Africa and America versus China and India
It is clear that significant similarities and differences in the way the idea of concept of cultural syncretism occurred in the west and in Asian nations. It is also clear that India and China were faced by same aspects that enhanced syncretism in America and Africa as similar episodes included integration different cultural orientation growing from different races that resided within cultures already existed.
According to Balme (1999), diverse communities particularly from the African origin that had clear social and cultural practices in resided in the culture of America. Conversely India and America had been invaded by foreign communities and had clear cultural practices that could be in diluted nature practices to create new ones (Stewart, 1994).
The growth of Shang dynasty led to the creation of creating different cities in Chinese territory that allowed foreign
societies with defined religious and cultural practices to reside within the country. The communities had also been particularly retained cohesive relationship that enabled them to share various wide range cultural practices that helped them to fight barbarians that existed in the region (Serge, 1998).
India was also invaded by foreign societies leading to the growth of distinct cultural orientation that could impact native Indian culture. The growth of Aryans in the Indian Territory also led to the introduction of unique dialects that were closely related to European languages and new religious beliefs that led to the introduction of books relating to the new religion (Stewart, 1994).
The West and Asian countries territory invasion also touched the political field leading to the modification of leadership systems that had discriminatory authorities. The political system of the USA for instance included the incorporation of various African races that were largely segregated in the political arena.
The African Americans on the same note were also not permitted to vote or engage in political activities on an equal footing as the Americans. China and India conversely were characterized by divided authorities that included high class communities on top of their bureaucratic systems as well as poor populations including outcasts in the society who occupied the bottom hierarchy (Yacob, 1995).
It is also evident that the effect of invasions was clear because cultural influences in the American territory were accepted easily compared to that of Asian countries. The availability of different societies with unique cultural practices also offered room for the introduction of unique music styles that signified the new American society. The religious culture additionally included new practices from various communities living in the region and it created a cohesive society that preached same beliefs.
However, such developments were non-achievable within Asian nations because they resisted any cultural and religious practices that could be accepted in the society. Different factors also generated the differences including religious beliefs as well as societal structures. Amongst unique features that can be connected to the differences were spiritual orientations that some cultures had because they could determine the level at which foreign practices would be incorporated into the existing culture.
For example, Indians believed in preaching enlightenment spirit via the use of main native scriptures making it hard to incorporate spiritual teachings that originated from other cultures (Serge, 1998).
China also had a unique religious system that had been held for a long time. All religions within the region strongly believed in peaceful coexistence making it hard for other religious cultures that were bound to disintegrate the people to be accepted in the country. Christianity which included the main religion in American society also had formal structures that could pave way for integration of new cultural settings.
Existing religions within the Indian and Chinese territories even so did not have any formal structure and as a result, they could not allow for any changes in their cultural setup to take place within their religious systems (Yacob, 1995). The unique nature and level at which different cultures were incorporated in the west and the two Asian countries also left a significant affect that is still common in modern day societies.
The modern day American Christian legacy according to Stewart, relates to the way in which they invaded foreign nations thus influencing the communities that strongly believed in idolatry. The other important legacy that has since remained by orientations differences towards cultural change is that which appears to be common faith betrayal in one culture appearing to be some form of appropriation in another culture. This further explains why modern day society religions appear to object what others consider to be comfortable to them (Balme, 1999).
However, it is obvious that modern day American society would be completely different in the process of Cultural syncretism that takes place in the region. According to Steward (1994), the political culture of the US would be very discriminative as the government would be divided into Black Americans, having a separate governance system and White Americans with their unique system on the other hand.
Unlike the government system that is prevailing in Modern day American society, the political culture of the US would be characterized by conflicting racial politics that would also be sidelined discriminatively by each group of individual on racial grounds (Yacob, 1995). It is also notable that the music system in America could not be the way it is in the event of cultural syncretism if it did not occur.
While various cultures integrate their orientations to create a clear and advanced music system, each society would be struggling for dominance in the music arena while challenging music styles would also exist (Stewart, 1994). This kind of disintegration would in the end affect the advancement level of each style because they would have a small part of the audience challenging and supporting its advancement or growth.
While it is also clear that a specific resistance level to cultural change displayed syncretism to take root in early encounters that existed in China and India, cultural orientations would be quite different from the way they are in modern day of syncretism did not impact at the time.
The two nations according to Serge (1998) would have a structured religious unit if their sacred texts would be given a chance to undergo interpretations as well as translations characterized with clear religious traditions. However, this was not the case in different religious orientations that existed thus, explaining the reason as to why they have been quite tenacious and resilient to be in a position to expand and grow.
Religious orientations in India and China also focus on work as part of their religious orientation in that dedication to work defines the deeds of each and every individual and needs to be rewarded positively.
The effect of including syncretism at an early stage would also be clear as smaller communities that do not belief in cultural work emerge in the end. This would also reduce the productivity of a person as he or she would be resistant to work and led to trade commercialization (Balme¸1999).
It is clear that the effect of cultural syncretism was rampant in China, India and America as foreign cultures incorporated part of their practices into their already existing cultures. Even though the syncretism effect occurred within the American territory at an early age in history, this was not the case in China and India as many factors included religious beliefs, social structures, economic orientations and political systems that could not enhance assimilation effect of different cultural practices.
This further explains the reason as to why cultural practices could be incorporated easily within the American territory yet it could not be realized in the two Asian nations.
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Balme, C. (1999). Decolonizing the Stage: Theatrical Syncretism and Post-Colonial Drama, Oxford, Clarend on Press.
Serge, M. (1998). Cultural Diversity, Pedagogy, Assessment Strategies, The Journal of Negro Education, 67(3): 65-80.
Stewart, C. (1994). Syncretism/Anti-Syncretism: The Politics of Religious Synthesis, London, Routledge.
Yacob, T. (1995). Ecumenism, Culture and Syncretism, International Review of Mission, 84(3): 78-99.