Sample Zoology Paper on Models for Urolithiasis in Animals

The origin of urolithiasis remains to be a mystery for urologists who have depended on the collection of urine throughout to assist in a therapy that helps in the reduction of the disease in animals. Urolithiasis mainly occurs when the balance between promoters and crystallization inhibitors is compromised in the urine. Amid the efforts undertaken to prevent and cure this disease, there has been little progress noted over the years. In order to understand the pathogenesis of the formation of stone, more animal models need to be developed. Urologists have depended on various vertebrae and invertebrate models in the venture to understand the stone formation and create a medication that may help in preventing the growth of the disease in animals.

According to Khan, and Aslam (148), animal models for urolithiasis may be categorized into three groups, which include chemical-induced urolithiasis models, diet-induced models, and minor surgical models (Khan, and Aslam 148). Under the chemically induced models, the first model is of the ethylene glycol induction model in rats, which suggests that the stones formed in animal kidneys are made of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. This model helps urologists in the study of the origin of crystal deposition in kidneys by conducting experiments on rats. The model has been able to prove that the formation of crystal deposits in the kidney is as a result of the administration of ethylene glycol in rats. In an experiment, urologists kept male rats in a lab and administered to them an ethylene glycol high diet for a specific period. They discovered that the administration of ethylene glycol in rats under laboratory conditions resulted in more deposition of calcium and fluoride solids in the kidneys (Khan, and Aslam 148). There are more crystal deposits when the levels of ethylene glycol and higher. When rats were induced with lower quantities of ethylene glycol, their crystal formation in kidneys was reduced substantially depending on the amount of the ethylene administered to them. Urolithiasis can also be treated by giving the rats more tap water and rat chow together with a high lactose diet containing protein, fiber, and minerals. A high lactose diet can also be administered jointly with little ethylene glycol in drinking water.

In humans, the diet-induced model observes that the administration of a standard measure of glycolic acid or calcium and fluoride into the normal diet leads to the production of more calculi within the shortest time possible. The model suggests that diets that are high in calcium levels lead to the formation of calculi leading to the formation of crystals in the kidney (Martins, and Aline, et al. 380). An experiment conducted on adult human beings shows that diets with higher amounts of glycol acid, calcium, and fluoride contributed to the faster crystallization because deposits of pulverized calculi, manganese oxide, oxalate, and calcium were found in the kidneys. An Addition of high quantities of glycolic acid to the regular diet can cause more deposition of crystals within four weeks. After four weeks, the condition has fully developed into urolithiasis. Therefore, the model suggests that foods have low quantities of glycol acid to help reduce cases of urolithiasis. The model also finds that diets with high calcium and fluoride levels promote the formation and deposition of solids in the kidney of rats. Therefore, all diets should have low levels of glycolic acid, calcium, and fluoride to help prevent urolithiasis in animals.

The best model to manage urolithiasis in animals should provide the characteristics of rapid induction, preventive measures, and the rate of reproduction. A model should also provide the kind of medication that can be used to cure the disease in animals (Tzou, David, et al. 447). The most effective model of urolithiasis in animals is the Ethylene glycol administration model, which shows that the induction of ethylene glycol acid in the animal body speeds up stone formation in the kidneys. Stone deposits of calcium, oxalate, and phosphate were found to be in large numbers in the animals that are induced with calculi. The model provides a way of reduction of this disease in animals by using the Unex supplement to lower the levels of oxalate, calcium, and phosphate deposits in the kidney significantly compared to all other models. The amount of serum uric acid and urea increases when animals take in large amounts of Ethylene glycol acid. However, these components are lowered by the administration of Urex and standard drug cystone in animals, and the volume of urine was increased through the same method compared to other models of urolithiasis. The level of basicity in urine is also reduced faster by the use of this treatment model compared to other models here. In conclusion, the administration of Urex to animals with urolithiasis is found to be the most effective model of treatment compared to other models of urolithiasis. This conclusion is done after a comparative experiment among the various models of urolithiasis in animals.


Works cited

Gomase, Pravin Vasantrao, and Sunil P. Pawar. “UROLITHIASIS (KIDNEY STONES) CURRENT PHARMACOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT.” Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 9.4 (2019): 726-737.

Golshan, Shabnam, et al. “Service quality and urolithiasis patient adherence.” International journal of health care quality assurance (2019).

Khan, Aslam. “In vitro and in vivo models for the study of urolithiasis.” Urologia Journal 85.4 (2018): 145-149.

Martins, Aline A., et al. “Probiotic Prato cheese consumption attenuates development of renal calculi in animal model of urolithiasis.” Journal of functional foods 49 (2018): 378-383.

Tzou, David T., et al. “Animal Models to Study Urolithiasis.” Animal Models for the Study of Human Disease. Academic Press, 2017. 419-443.