Sample Sociology Paper on Race in America

Race in America

Race refers to grouping of people into categories in relation to their physical traits, social relations or genetics aspects. In America, race is an issue that has resulted in inequality between the white and black citizens. Regardless of the fact that this country is the land of opportunity, the case is different considering education and employment. Due to racism, Africans Americans are not granted similar chances. As a result, this issue creates a situation where Americans access quality education and are highly paid in contrast to the minority.

  • The role of societies in race construction and how the construction is changing in a constant manner;

Social construction that is linked to race is classified on basis of differences in biological aspects. Race is mostly associated with skin color, hair color and texture and facial appearance. Responsibility of communities in construction of race are clear among the Native Americans. For instance, they made use of race to validate unequal distribution of resources and authority. This further classified a section of individuals in society as inferior which still persists today. Construction of race has been witnessed in different spheres of the American society including learning institutions, medical centers and judicial system across the US.

The construction of race is constantly changing, which is a clear indication that there is no effective criteria in handling the issue of race in America (Desmond, 2016). A good example is the biological race construct that has been reflected in test of science. The changes that attribute to the aspect of race in community has led to divisions in political, social and economic spheres. This implies that the construction of race has contributed to increase in differences, which affects social groups. In this regard, it is the social aspects that causes poor academic performance among the minorities and not biological factors.

  • Identify and engage the role of the privilege in the creation and maintenance of social inequality;

In relation to race, individuals who are privileged belong to groups that have more powers in contrast to those who are less privileged. Their responsibility based on social inequality is that they take over politics, good jobs and opportunities that arises in the society. This further renders individuals in the minority groups to suffer due to the oppression they encounter because of race. Privilege creates social inequality by subjecting individuals such as people of color to live in poverty. This is clear when they fail to access quality education and health care because they are regarded as low class people based on their race (Desmond, 2016). Additionally, the privileged also contributes to social inequality when they deny the minority from accessing opportunities. For instance, in film making, the whites are given more roles contrasted to the blacks. This implies that the privileged individuals in the society creates inequality by focusing on racism. As a result, this hinders the minority to access opportunities and fulfill their dreams in society.

  • Historical and Contemporary Constructions of Race and Racial Formations

In the current society, race is constructed based on perception. It depends on the manner in which a person perceives himself and how he is viewed by others. Racial formations are attributed to ancestral history. This is inclusive of skin color, and other factors that include cultural, political and economic practices. Historically, racial formations were linked to immigration and colonialism. Currently, racism is purely based on physical appearance such as skin color hence causes inequality.



  • How popular culture reinforces and critique race inequalities;

Based on popular culture, race inequalities depend on physical characteristics and how individuals understand the world. In this case, the aspects of race are critiqued by the media which determines the thoughts of people concerning race in the community. In America, the whites are categorized as the superior while individuals of color are linked to inferiority. Critiques reveal that the society has managed to handle discrimination but has failed to deal with injustice and racial inequality (Guterl, 2013). Through popular culture, we learn that inequalities in race emerged from historical eras such as immigration and colonialism. Changes that are linked to different races made dominant individuals to have more authority compared to the minorities. This facilitated racial inequalities by granting the whites power over culture, landscape and languages. Race inequalities is criticized as an act that denies the minorities opportunities and rights that are accorded to superior groups.

  • How study applies to humanities and social sciences

Research about race applies to social sciences and humanities by reflecting on ways that social identity affects human beings and their lives. This is common within the social settings they operate in. It evaluates on the past and current race aspects that affects the American society. Study focuses on humans by integrating disciplines in social sciences. It puts emphasis on local problems that affects the American society and the entire world. In relation to social sciences perspective, race is attributed to societal aspects and not biological factors.  Race is linked to humanities when individuals in the dominant groups subjects the minority to oppression in society.




Desmond, M. & Emirbayer, M. (2016). Race in America. New York: W. W. Norton & Compan.

Guterl, M. P. (2013). Seeing race in modern America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press