Sample Sociology Paper on Functional Status: ADLs and IADLs

ADLs refer to the essential tasks one undertakes daily, like eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, grooming, and mobility. On the other hand, IADLs entail performing complex skills like handling finances, preparing meals, handling shopping, handling home medications, cleaning, and necessary home maintenance activities. Eating envelopes feeding themselves with nutritious foodstuffs. Bathing entails being able to clean oneself properly. Also, clothing oneself means being able to choose the right clothes for the right weather. Toileting involves being able to use the toileting facilities and being able to notice the urge to toilet. Mobility is all about the ability to move around, up the staircases up and down without tripping. Lastly, grooming encompasses brushing teeth, combing the hair, and maintaining personal body hygiene.


Assessments Done to Determine an Elder is Capable of Caring for Themself at Home

A geriatric care manager carries out a daily activities assessment to determine if a senior can undertake daily activities like bathing, laundry, cooking, cleaning, and dressing. (Seematter-Bagnoud & Büla, 2018). This assessment will also seek to establish if a senior safely take their medications. A physical health assessment identifies challenges an older adult might face and how to improve them. Lastly, mental health and cognition assessment can be conducted to ensure that the senior is mentally healthy. The aim of conducting these assessments is to ensure that the seniors are safe as they transition into old age stages.

Types of Services Available to Help Promote Overall Elder Health

Seniors staying in their homes, those under assisted living and nursing homes, need special services to promote their overall health. Some of the elderly’s services include housekeeping, shopping, meal preparation, money management, medication management, mobility, and personal care services (Robinson et al., 2019). Seniors are likely to have a problem with housekeeping issues as they advance in age. To make their lives easier, the caregivers should help the seniors with housekeeping duties by themselves or by enlisting a housekeeper’s services. Shopping should also be organized. Preparing seniors fresh meals or enlisting the services of meal deliverers could boost their health. Additionally, as seniors advance in age, they are likely to have challenges handling financial matters as far as expenses are concerned. Also, seniors need to be assisted in managing their medication due to dementia. When it comes to mobility, seniors are likely to have problems moving around. Therefore, they need special assistance. The physical and mental health of seniors is also likely to weaken, so is their hygiene.


Types of Supportive Services Available to Assist the Elderly in Staying in Their Own Homes

Supportive services might take different forms depending on their level of need (ACL, n.d.). Personal care and chore can be provided to such seniors. These entail non-skilled assistance of activities like bathing, eating, dressing, and getting into and out of their beds. Home health supportive services can also be offered to seniors. These services range from occupation, respiratory, or physical therapy to preparing family trips or chores. Also, nutrition supportive services can be provided. These include delivery of ready-to-eat meals and drinks. The last service is the provision of transport services. The service providers ensure that the seniors move from one place to another safely.

Resource 1: Granacher, U., & Hortobágyi, T. (2015). Exercise to improve mobility in healthy aging. Sports Medicine45(12), 1625-1626.

This article focuses on the elders’ education regarding their safety (Granacher & Hortobágyi,2015). Seniors should exercise and stay active. This can be done by exercising. While a physical therapist’s services can be enlisted, several exercises can be done to boost mobility like wall pushups and toe lifts. Seniors should also join assisted living community centers. The centers have programs that boost mobility like dancing classes, trips, and nature walks. Elders should also be educated on the need to be extra careful while moving around. A single misstep can easily hinder their mobility forever. Sticking to routine exercises can significantly improve the mobility of seniors as they advance further in their lives.


Resource 2: American Psychological Association. (, 2014). What mental health providers should know about working with older adults.

The author of this article centers on the need for proper engagement between healthcare providers and their elderly patients. Seniors develop complications that come with old age, like loss of hearing, impaired vision, or dementia (APA,2014). To deal with such complications being exhibited by their senior patients, healthcare professionals can use a few tips to maintain a positive patient-healthcare professional relationship. Healthcare professionals should show respect to the seniors to assist bridge the generational communication gap. Recognizing sensory challenges like declined cognitive abilities or hearing loss can help elderly patients feel appreciated. Besides, healthcare professionals should also exercise patience while dealing with seniors. Seniors are slow to speech and might take longer to respond.



ACL. (n.d.). Senior centers and supportive services for older adults | ACL administration for community living. ACL Administration for Community Living.

Robinson, L., Saisan, J., & White, M. (2019, July). Home care services for seniors.

Seematter-Bagnoud, L., & Büla, C. (2018). Brief assessments and screening for geriatric conditions in older primary care patients: a pragmatic approach. Public health reviews39(1), 8.

American Psychological Association. (, 2014). What mental health providers should know about working with older adults.

Granacher, U., & Hortobágyi, T. (2015). Exercise to improve mobility in healthy aging. Sports Medicine45(12), 1625-1626.