Public versus Private/Non-Profit Service Delivery
In Canada, social service delivery types include public and private non-profit service delivery. The public service handles different issues, such as domestic violence and spousal support. Moreover, they are used to attend to emergency issues, including fires, and floods. They offer some resources to those who are adversely affected by different incidents. The public service offers their services for free to people. Despite the commitment of public service delivery models to help Canadians, these models face various challenges, such as misuse of funds. It is believed that management of the public models often misuse funds for its gain or integrate the funds in projects that are not profitable. Additionally, public service faces the challenge of acquiring enough resources and donors to deliver services effectively. Public service delivery tends to depend on the Canadian government for resources such as vehicles, and funds. On the other hand, the private service delivery model lacks the capacity to handle complex ad diverse issues, thus it focuses on simple ones, for instance, domestic violence (Kosny & MacEachen, 2010). The model offers human resources to solve such issues. However, the disadvantage of the private service delivery is that it charges for services. As such, most Canadians are unable to benefit from their services since many cannot afford them. Unlike public models, private service models usually have donors and generate funds from other projects to sustain their functions. As a social worker, it is essential to understand the dynamic changes associated with the country’s social welfare to establish effective strategies that can improve non-profit service delivery in future for clients.
Community Based Service Delivery–Friendship Centres
According to Chapter 5 of the text course, the Canadian government had realized that the natives were rampantly moving to the urban areas. Thus, the government decided to establish community-based service delivery models, for instance, the Friendship Centers, across the country to assist individuals to quickly adapt to new social and economic environments (Béland & Daigneault, 2015). Furthermore, the centres were established in ways that reflected the needs of the communities to ensure that the people felt that their cultures were valued and that they were included in government projects. Friendship Centres also meant to equip individuals with the necessary skills for surviving in a new social and economic environment. Moreover, the centres were incorporated with horizontal and vertical management structures to make sure that individuals are well-equipped with diverse skills. Horizontal structure addressed how individuals could develop a quick and strong relationship with their neighbours and dictated that with a strong bond, individuals could easily understand their new environments (Shibuya, 2018). On the other hand, the vertical structure addressed the need to offer individuals with legal assistance whenever they faced challenges in their new environments. As such, Friendship Centres were mean to empower individuals to feel valued and engaged in the new environment through the two structures.
Anti-Oppressive Service Delivery
I believe that a youth shelter is an anti-oppressive service delivery as it offers certain essential services to the youth such as counseling teenagers or young adults who may be undergoing depression situations. Youth shelters focus on specific issues affecting an individual, and the services are based on the assumption that every youth faces different challenges unique from the others. For instance, many youths across Canada are homeless due to many reasons, such as misunderstandings with their parents, neglect, and parental abuse. Many youths may also be homeless due to peer pressure. Indeed, vulnerable youths are usually influenced by their peers to use a drug, which has led to an increase in the prevalence of mental illness among them. The youth shelter is designed to address not only the issues that the youth face but also their causative factors (Coady &Lehmann, 2016).
Traditional non-profit agencies can redesign their approach towards the issues affecting the community by incorporating anti-oppressive practices in their functions. Anti-oppressive practices require these agencies to visit the affected populations to ensure that they understand their problems and establish effective measures to solve such issues. For instance, visiting the elderly can enable the traditional agencies to understand the needs of that population and then develop effective strategies to meet their needs and resolve their problems.
Non-profit work in Canada has undervalued the contributions of women to the sector. Women account for three-quarters of the total workforce in the country’s social welfare yet they are not recognized for their work omen are mostly engaged in emotional labour, empathy and backgrounds works (Ivanauskienė & Dorelaitienė, 2011). These types of works are often characterized by high demands and -stress levels. For instance, some population may want different needs to be addressed at a time, and that may be exhausting considering the background of work include crises intervention, and counseling, among others. Moreover, it is important to increase the salary levels for these women due to the competitive nature of the services they offer to assist the needy individuals and families. Policies should be changed to ensure that women are given more field roles rather than office roles to promote women’s efforts in the field of social welfare. Besides, field work is likely to give them experience in handling social issues. In most cases, promotional opportunities are based on the type of experience they shall have gathered from the field.
Catalyst for Change: Working at the Micro, Mezzo, and Macro Levels
Youths encounter various challenges in their daily lives, such as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying refers to the use of electronic communication to bully an individual typically by sending messages of threatening nature. The vice is rampant in the society, and it has adverse effects on the victims, such as suicidal tendencies, depressions, and stress (Mosher & Hewitt, 2018). Most parents do not usually notice such cyberbullying incidents until their children are adversely affected because the children do not report such incidents. As such, it is essential to develop effective strategies to solve cyberbullying incidents to avert its adverse impacts.
At the micro-level, as a social worker, I would ensure that effective discipline is incorporated in schools. I would also ensure that teenagers who have been adversely affected by incidents of cyberbullying are counselled. Moreover, at the macro level, I would create awareness, and educate the society about the urgency of the problem. For example, I would arrange for schools, and community meetings and discussions to educate people on the negative effects of cyberbullying and how they can be solved when encountered. At the mezzo level, I would advocate for policy changes that curtail the behaviour. Besides, I would suggest that strict policies be put in place to hold cyberbullies accountable for their unlawful actions.
Béland, D., & Daigneault, P. M. (Eds.). (2015). Welfare reform in Canada: provincial social assistance in comparative perspective. University of Toronto Press.
Coady, N., & Lehmann, P. (Eds.). (2016). Theoretical perspectives for direct social work practice: A generalist-eclectic approach. Springer Publishing Company.
Ivanauskienė, V., & Dorelaitienė, A. (2011). Roles of an international social worker in responding to violence as a social problem. Tiltai, (2), 79-88. Retrieved from https://etalpykla.lituanistikadb.lt/object/LT-LDB-0001:J.04~2011~1367175188826/
Kosny, A., & MacEachen, E. (2010). Gendered, invisible work in non‐profit social service organizations: Implications for worker health and safety. Gender, Work & Organization, 17(4), 359-380. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2009.00460.x
Mosher, J., & Hewitt, J. (2018). Reimagining child welfare systems in Canada. JL & Soc. Pol’y, 28, 1. Retrieved from https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/jlsp28&div=2&id=&page=
Shibuya, K. (2018). Dynamics of permanent exit from welfare in Ontario, Canada: Duration dependence and heterogeneity. Canadian Public Policy, 44(3), 241-258. Retrieved from https://www.utpjournals.press/doi/abs/10.3138/cpp.2017-030