An epidemic is a disease that affects a mass number of persons within a population. A
pandemic is an "epidemic" that occurs over a wide area. There has been an outbreak of
pandemics before and in the present. Recently, Covid-19, commonly known as coronavirus,
became an epidemic in China's Wuhan city before turning into a pandemic, causing mass
interference on human lives. Coronavirus is the third severe epidemic caused by a coronavirus in
the past 20 years (Yang et al. 102434). Coronavirus originated from bats. Wars and natural
disasters, just like Covid-19, have affected the lives of people before and continue to affect in the
Handling of a pandemics, natural disasters and wars by managers depend on what they
learn on how their predecessors handled similar situations. If handled casually, a pandemic can
lead to mass destruction. Managers who underestimated the exposure to pandemics in their risk
factors and the vast majority decreased in value at the onset, and the pandemic triggered
unprecedented changes in the U.S. (Schoenfeld et al. 249)
Therefore, managers entrusted with handling peoples daily lives must learn from the previous
managers how they handled the situations to help prevent damages of the previous occurrences
even as they improve on the measures put by their predecessors.
Funding and adequate testing capacity must be enhanced. Well stocked laboratories for
fast, reliable and accurate testing is very vital.
Last Name 2
It is evident, so many countries were not well prepared for the Covid-19, and funding was an
issue even for developed nations. They had insufficiently trained staff, and some even lacked
adequate testing laboratories which made the diagnosis and accurate testing to be difficult and
allowed the disease to spread even more (Muenz et al. 4). Current managers must take note and
correct what their predecessors failed to do.
Early detection and diagnosis are vital since it makes it possible to make all the necessary
arrangements to contain an outbreak. Had world war one and world war two been detected and
acted on earlier, there would have been less destruction of human lives. On the Covid-19, some
countries were ignorant to believe it was a Chines disease that could reach then hence did not
attempt to prepare. Early detection of cases is vital to inhibit the spread of the virus because the
identified cases can be isolated and undergo required tests and treatments. Contract tracing,
isolation of patients and quarantine of close contacts is critical. (Yang et al. 102434). Managers
must educate the public on how to care for themselves to prevent the spread. Transparency is
essential for managers since the action is easy to take earlier to contain the spread of a disaster.
Renown world managers gave wrong comments regarding the disease, and the result was that
there was much spread of the virus exponentially (Forman et al.). Managers need always to give
the correct information even if it might be unpopular to the subjects.
In conclusion, knowledge from the past needs to be effectively translated into action.
There is a need for managers to invest in health systems, human resources and modern
technology. There is a need to cut waste within the health system. The ordinary people must be
educated on how to handle themselves on the impending attack from wars, pandemics or other
Last Name 3
Moreover, as (He et al. 719-725), put it, controlling the source of infection is essential in
protecting susceptible persons. A manager must take responsibilities for effective measures to
prevent destruction due to wars, pandemics and other natural calamities.
Last Name 4
Forman, Rebecca, et al. "12 Lessons learned from the management of the coronavirus
pandemic." Health Policy (2020).
He, Feng, et al. "Coronavirus disease 2019: What we know?" Journal of medical virology 92.7
Muenz, Rachel. "Diagnostic Preparedness for Pandemics." Insight (2020): 4.
Schoenfeld, Jordan. "The invisible risk: Pandemics and the financial markets." Available at
SSRN 3567249 (2020).
Yang, Yongshi, et al. "The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel
coronavirus epidemic in China." Journal of autoimmunity (2020): 102434.