Inexperienced Internet Users
Major problems have been highly associated with inexperienced internet users. Lynch (2005) asserted that there are bigger concerns with inexperienced and knowledgeable internet users. This is because their risks of falling prey and victims to identity theft are very high. They are prime targets for the internet phishing scams and identity theft. Lynch (2005) further asserted that people who are not experienced in using the internet are at higher risk of identity theft because they are more susceptible to online scams. Besides, they are more trusting to all online scams. The Internet scams also assume that this group of people has some assets or properties to steal therefore focusing more on inexperienced users. Inexperienced internet users freely share more information about themselves thus making them more vulnerable to identity theft.
The end-user tracking, as well as recording technologies, has high potential for decreasing the cyber security risks especially for users who are inexperienced and less knowledgeable. This is because customer tracking alongside recording is used to change the login patterns of internet users who are susceptible to phishing thus significantly decreasing their cyber security risks suddenly. Limited knowledge increases the risks of internet users to cybercrime. This is because, as explained by Saunders and Zucker (1999), unknowledgeable users lack basic clues of protecting themselves from Internet scams. In essence, they do not know how to identify verified sites, verified certificates, encrypted traffics, as well as scooped email headers, all these increases their vulnerability to cybercrime.
Unlike the sophisticated ones, average internet users are more victims of attacks such as phishing and hacking. Phishing is a mechanism through cyber attackers pose as legitimate companies to obtain financial information from a user and ultimately defraud his or her account. Hacking is a mechanism used by attackers to attack the computer systems, networks, as well as databases with the intention of obtaining culprit’s personal information.
Topic 2: Anonymity
Throughout history of human civilization, anonymity has been occurring in different facets. It was invented long before the internet. The use of anonymity when using internet has helped the industry, society, as well as individuals in many ways. According to Duhigg (2012), society benefits from internet anonymity through the ease of charitable giving. A charitable organization can continue using internet portal to solicit donations. Generous patrons can anonymously give to anonymous charity without regarding the future communications. The society places a high value of anonymous giving to anonymous recipients.
The anonymity of the internet communication plays key roles in supporting and safeguarding fundamental rights of freedom of expression and privacy, which are deeply enshrined in the constitution. In addition, right to privacy and freedom of expression are essential for protecting the extrinsic benefits of political freedom, liberty, autonomy, dignity, self-determination, power, as well as the ability to speak and think without surveillance, censorship, or retribution. As concluded by Hill (2012), internet anonymity makes individuals, society, and company better by establishing and protecting an all-inclusive, people-centered, and development-oriented society.
However, there are subtle dangers of malicious use of internet anonymity. This is because it outweighs the positive benefits that internet anonymity provides. For instance, malicious use of internet anonymity minimizes accountability. Accountability is a strong pillar of the society. The values and practice of the society crumble if accountability is lacking. Minimal accountability will encourage people to insult others thus ruining the society. Second, as pointed out by Duhigg (2012), malicious use of internet anonymity causes severe depersonalization effects on the entire society.
Although the collection of data by private firms makes commerce more convenient, it has the adverse effect of reducing individual privacy. Through the collection of data, private companies can know the exact identity of a user thus making him/her traceable. This eventually affects the privacy of personal internet users. Private forms can collect and hold in their possession personal information such as names, date of birth, email address, phone numbers among others.
Topic 3: Discuss “Right to Privacy”
Many people commonly use the phrase “Right to Privacy”. Nowadays, this phrase is commonplace in newspapers, journals, the internet, as well as many articles. If privacy is a right, then people should essentially understand its basis. According to Alderman and Kennedy (2009), right to privacy is defined as a principle human right that allows individuals to keep their surrounding domain. This includes all things that form part of the person. The basis of the right to privacy is to enable individuals to determine independently which part of their domain other entities or people should access. Besides, the right to privacy should allow the individual to have subtle control of the manner, extent, as well as timing of how other people and entities access and use their domains.
According to Sykes (2000), the right to privacy should protect various aspects that form part of an individual includingtheir thoughts, their home, their body, their property, their feelings, their identity, as well as their secrets. In addition, it should protect the individual’s right to be alone, secrecy, limit the access of other people to his/her personal information, opt to conceal information, protect his/her idea of personhood, protect her/his intimate relationships, and lastly control how other people use his/her personal information. Ideally, the right to privacy should be considered as a fundamental component of human rights thus forming part of various legal provisions. Essentially, it should retrain private parties as well as the government from accessing the individual’s private information.
It is essential to note that the phrase “right to privacy” can be misleading in some ways. For instance, it sends the notion that individual need to seclude them thereby expressing themselves selectively and secretively. In addition, as illustrated by Furgang and Gatta (2012), right to privacy does to give allowance for government and private searches, surveillance, and private access to protect the security of the individual and the nation at large.
Alderman, E., & Kennedy, C. (2007). The Right to Privacy. New York: Vintage Books.
Duhigg, C. (2012). How Companies Learn Your Secrets. The New York Times, 16, 2012.
Furgang, K., & Gatta, F. (2012). Understanding Your Right to Privacy. New York: Rosen Publication Group.
Hill, K. (2012). How Target Figured out a Teen Girl Was Pregnant Before Her Father Did. Forbes, February, 16.
Lynch, J. (2005). Identity theft in cyberspace: Crime control methods and their effectiveness in combating phishing attacks. Berkeley Tech. L. J, 20, 259.
Saunders, K. M., & Zucker, B. (1999). Counteracting identity fraud in the information age: The Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 13(2), 183-192.
Sykes, C. J. (2000). The end of Privacy. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.