Sample Research Paper on How Research Has Evolved Since the Florence Nightingale Era

Nursing research began during the Florence Nightingale era. Her landmark publication titled Notes on Nursing focused on the environmental factors that influenced the emotional and physical wellbeing of people (Wallace and Kahn, 2015). Nightingale’s most notable research contribution involved statistical analysis of factors that affected the mortality and morbidity of soldiers during the Crimean War. The research established that mortality and morbidity could be reduced through proper nutrition and hygiene (Wallace and Kahn, 2015). Many years later, nursing research has considerably evolved to increase nursing practice knowledge aimed a laying the foundation to enhance patient care. The focus of nursing research today is to build up evidence utilized fulfilling the needs of patients, advancing quality care, and improving the wellbeing.

Discuss How Research and EBP are Different

Even though both research and evidence-based practice (EBP) are systematic, they serve various purposes. Research is utilized to investigate a phenomenon with the intention of using the findings to add to existing knowledge. EBP attempts to bridge the gap between the research being conducted and the nursing practice (McNett, Tucker and Mazurek, 2019). Indeed, EBP is supported by research. The focus of EBP is to retrieve and appraise the best evidence provided by research. Thus, EBP examines research findings to identify approaches effective in improving the nursing practice, as well as advancing quality care to patients.


Describe One Past/Historical Unethical Breach Of Research Conduct.

The Tuskegee study represents a notable unethical breach of research conduct. The research was purposefully conducted to examine the nature of untreated syphilis among the African-American men inhabiting Tuskegee, Macon County, Alabama (Swetlitz, 2018). The research undertaking was unethical as the subjects were injected with a virus causing syphilis without informed consent (Swetlitz, 2018). The informed consent principle would ensure care of the subjects participating in the study. The principle would essentially defend the dignity and identity of the research subjects as only willing subjects would participate in the research undertaking. In this manner, the subjects would with intent, willingly, and astutely participate in the clinical investigation by giving consent.



McNett, M., Tucker, S., & Mazurek, B. (2019). Implementation science: A critical strategy necessary to advance and sustain Evidence‐Based Practice. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 16(3), 174-175.

Swetlitz, I. (2018). African-Americans are disproportionately enrolled in studies that don’t require informed consent. Stat News. Retrieved from

Wallace, D. J., & Kahn, J. M. (2015). Florence Nightingale and the conundrum of counting ICU beds. Critical Care Medicine43(11), 2517–2518.