John Ridley Stroop introduced the concept of the Stroop effect in 1935 in his thesis presentation. The effect presents several theories on how the word color influences the ability to say the term regardless of its complexity (Basu, 2022). Furthermore, Stroop revealed that people found it challenging to name the properties or the object, but they could easily read or say a word without intense thinking. Stroop found the findings interesting such that he created a Stroop effect experiment that consisted of words with different colorings to examine this effect more effectively.
The Stroop effect experiment follows a specific procedure. First, the participants are required to look at the screen, and once a word pops out, they are not expected to say the word but to recognize and name the color of the word (Basu, 2022). The experiment looks even more challenging since some terms are presented in different colors from what the words may imply. The independent variable of this research is the varying types of word coloring, while the dependent variable is the accuracy and speed of words being pronounced. Therefore, the null hypothesis for the study will be that there is a correlation between varying types of word coloring and the accuracy and speed of the words being spoken. On the contrary, the alternative hypothesis is that there is no correlation between varying word coloring and the speed and accuracy of words being read.
Previous studies have utilized the Stroop effect experiment as a form of stage model. These models are used to explain the cognitive processing of information by the brain. Furthermore, research has found that if the meaning of a word differs from its color in this experiment, it leads to a prolonged response time or a significant number of errors if the participant identifies the color quickly (Petukhov & Polevaya, 2017). The trend is closely related to automaticity, a cognitive process where an individual can speak without thinking about what they say or do. This can cause lead to a significant number of errors. An example in a real-life situation is when a chef may put back some ingredients on the fridge after preparing a meal. However, instead of putting back the ingredients in the refrigerator, they might also end up putting the meal. Therefore, the Stroop-effect can be associated with the cognitive processing of information by the brain.
The methodology will be utilized in the experiment to test the hypothesis. First, all the participants must be present in the computer room and make a pair. There will be 30 participants who will form 15 teams using a single computer. One of the participants in the pair will press the space bar after hearing a response from the partner, while the other will state the color of the word that popped on the screen. The study’s primary objective was for the participants to pronounce the color of the words popping on the screen as fast as possible. Every participant will go through 60 conditions where they will be expected to identify the phrase color as quickly as possible and with the list of errors. An automatic timer will record the precise response time (Goenarjo et al., 2021). moreover, the tester will click the color pronounced on the screen to determine whether the first pronounced word color is correct. After one of the pair members is done, the participants are expected to switch roles.
The obtained result will be analyzed using the reaction time graph. A graph will be drawn to establish how different word colors affected the reaction time. Next, the accuracy graph will be plotted to determine how the word color influenced accuracy.