Sample Psychology Paper on Psychosis and Trauma

Psychosis and Trauma

For years, psychotic disorders such as hallucination and delusions have been believed to be a consequence of degenerative biological diseases such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. Subsequently, the prescribed treatment of psychosis predominantly focuses on biological interventions, which is based on management than recovery. However, recent researches such as those conducted by Morrison, Frame, and Larkin (2003) as well as Kilcommons and Morrison (2005), who are leading scholars in behavioral science, have made it evident that environmental factors mainly trauma plays a significant role in the etiology as well as maintenance of psychotic disorders. The hypothesis presented in this paper suggest that, with results from studies such as Morrison, Frame, and Larkin (2003) as well as Kilcommons and Morrison (2005), it is possible to cure psychotic disorders by using Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) which has proved successful for PTSD patients as explained by (van den Berg, David PG, et al, 2015). For the reason that Psychotic disorders are considered as most complicated and chronic types of mental illnesses, there is a need to get an unequivocal comprehension about the ability to not only manage but also cure such disorders.

Relationship between Trauma and psychosis

Morrison, A. P., Frame, L., & Larkin, W. (2003). Relationships between trauma and psychosis: A review and integration. British Journal of Clinical Psychology42(4), 331-353.

Illnesses such as Schizophrenia, Dementia, and Anxiety disorder are identified as the main causes of psychotic disorders. Such ailments are regarded as of degenerative biological diseases and thus their symptoms are not cured but only managed through bio-medical interventions. However, according to Morrison, Frame, and Larkin (2003), Traumatic events such as sexual, physical, as well as psychological abuse are often described as a cause of mental distress; for instance, extreme fear and anxiety that may cause delusions as well as hallucinations. The conclusion presented comes from a study reviewing the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis performed by the help of 400 participants (50% being the control respondents) indicated that the subjects suffering from PTSD had a prevalence of between 28% and 74% of exhibiting psychotic behaviors. This study nevertheless was a repeat of a similar study done by Milliken, and Jones, (1994), which was significantly criticized due to defects in its methodology in particular traumas are not measurable, variable thus, may not be effective in particular disusing effects suggesting no clear conclusion could be drawn. Over the years Morrison, Frame, and Larkin (2003), developed a process that bypassed these weaknesses by developing matching trauma participants with a standard control group thus showing a differentiation in psychotic consequences as per the trauma suffered. Nevertheless, Kilcommons and Morrison (2005), went ahead to develop a much focused study focusing on hallucination and delusions.

Kilcommons, A. M., & Morrison, A. P. (2005). Relationships between trauma and psychosis: an exploration of cognitive and dissociative factors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica112(5), 351-359.

Hallucination and Trauma

Hallucinations, both tactile, auditory, and visual, tend to be explicated as trauma flashback in an attempt to reality and distressing recollections (Morrison, Frame, & Larkin, 2003). Additionally, as explained by Read et al. (2005), the contents of a hallucination experienced by an individual suffering from PTSD tend to be firmly connected to the details of the event experienced. A study by Kilcommons and Morrison (2005), confirmed that hearing voices, which is the most common type of hallucination expressed by individuals suffering from psychotic illnesses such as schizophrenia, had a history of Childhood traumatic experiences. According to the researchers, the severity of childhood abuse is directly linked with the austerity of the hallucinations; additionally, experiencing multiple traumas increased the likelihood of experiencing all types of hallucinations. In summary, from the data presented hallucinatory experiences may reflect dissociated traumatic content impinging on conscious awareness.

Delusions and Trauma

Individuals suffering from childhood trauma tend not only hallucinate but are also found to analyze threat-related information differently from others selectively. Kilcommons and Morrison (2005), indicated that it could be empirically argued that abusive experiences can make a victim conclude that people around them are dangerous, which creates paranoid reactions to regular events. The conclusion was supported by Read et al. (2005), stated that individuals who suffered from childhood abuse expressed significantly more delusions that persons with no trauma history thus, giving support to the premise that trauma is associated with psychotic behavior

Trauma-Focused Treatment

Van den Berg, D. P., de Bont, P. A., van der Vleugel, B. M., De Roos, C., de Jongh, A., van Minnen, A., & van der Gaag, M. (2015). Trauma-focused treatment in PTSD patients with psychosis: symptom exacerbation, adverse events, and revictimization. Schizophrenia bulletin, 42(3), 693-702.

Over the last two decades, cognitive behavior therapy techniques have been used to address specific emotional as well as mental health needs for individuals as well as families struggling to overcome the negative effects of early trauma. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is particularly sensitive to the outstanding issues of mood disorders resulting from violence, grief, as well as abuse. Traditionally, TF-CBT lasts from eight to about 25 secessions depending on the patient’s condition and can be done in an outpatient environment a factor that is preferable as different patients respond to therapy differently due to location. According to a study by van den Berg, David PG, et al (2015), about 74% of the patients that were placed under TF-CBT reported a significant decrease in psychotic behavior while an additional 8% highlighted a change psychological distress after treatment. The hypothesis presented in this study indicates that TF-CBT provides a means to cure psychosis or manage it from the cause.

From the above information, there are a variety of studies that have made it possible to empirically argue that psychosis or its symptoms can be as a result of trauma. Hallucinations and delusions have all been identified as highly prevalent symptoms of a traumatic event, with this then cognitive behavior therapy techniques can be recommended as the best treatment policies for such cases.

 

 

References

Kilcommons, A. M., & Morrison, A. P. (2005). Relationships between trauma and psychosis: an exploration of cognitive and dissociative factors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica112(5), 351-359.

Morrison, A. P., Frame, L., & Larkin, W. (2003). Relationships between trauma and psychosis: A review and integration. British Journal of Clinical Psychology42(4), 331-353.

Read, J., van Os, J., Morrison, A. P., & Ross, C. A. (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica112(5), 330-350.

van den Berg, D. P., de Bont, P. A., van der Vleugel, B. M., De Roos, C., de Jongh, A., van Minnen, A., & van der Gaag, M. (2015). Trauma-focused treatment in PTSD patients with psychosis: symptom exacerbation, adverse events, and revictimization. Schizophrenia bulletin42(3), 693-702.