Sample Psychology Paper on Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
- When a child updates and changes his/her life schema to include non-life forms it indicates deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning allows one to reason from one or more premises and arrives at logical conclusion. In this case the child previously believed that all living things move but they encounter information about plants which do not move yet they are alive. Updating this information shows that the child is able to apply logic in their reasoning.
- Object permanence is the understanding that objects though hidden will continue to exist. Jean Piaget believed that object permanence occurs during the sensorimotor stage which is the period between birth and two years of age. Piaget studied object permanence in children by recording the child’s reaction which an object is introduced to them and then covered using a blanket. A child who understands object permanence will try to pull the blanket away to reveal the object.
- Piaget indicates that a child that is 31/2 years understand object permanence. Children at this age develop an understanding of objects and can follow their movements. When the object is hidden from them, they will continue the search for the object but only for a short while. The children at this age are also able to respond to familiar sounds and images. Their actions are also intentional instead of reflexive.
- In the pre-operational stage, children cannot manipulate information mentally and cannot understand concrete logic. The pre-operational stage is divided into two stages the intuitive thought stage and symbolic sub stage. Children ask questions and begin to utilize primitive reasoning during the intuitive thought stage.
- It is during the internalization of schema stage in the pre-operational stage that children are able to produce drawings even when their drawings might not be connected to reality. At this stage the children can rely on lasting mental representations to form objects.
- The three mountain experiment was performed by Piaget to indicate that children at the symbolic function stage cannot differentiate between their perspective and that of another person. The children were asked to state what a travelling doll would see if it was placed at the three different places and the children always gave answers based on what they see from where they are seated.
- When a three year old states that it is raining because the clouds are sad it indicates pre-causal thinking. The child utilizes their beliefs and perceptions to explain what is happening. In this case, the child utilizes animism to give an explanation to why it is raining. The child believes that the clouds are capable of life like actions such as crying. The child’s explanation indicates transductive reasoning. Transductive reasoning is the child’s inability to have an understanding of the connection between cause and effect. The child, therefore, relies on what they already know such as individuals cry when they are sad and equates rain to tears and clouds to individuals.
- During the secondary circular reactions phase children are capable of developing coordination between prehension and vision. They can doodle and draw objects which have no form. During the coordination of secondary circular reaction stages children develop coordination between their eyes, hand, touch and vision. They are intentional in their interactions as well as their drawings. The drawings now achieve form and shapes. At the tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity stage children are aware of the many properties present in objects and can now draw clearer pictures. At the internalization of schema, stage children can draw cohesive drawings. It is at this stage that the children’s true creativity is achieved.
- A four year old will pick up a doll as a birthday present for their mother because it is not able to differentiate between an adult’s idea of a gift and a child’s idea of a gift. The child picks the doll based on what they believe would be the perfect gift. At this stage children encounter egocentrism that prevents them from distinguishing between their perspective and other people’s perspective.
- The child lacks pre-operative thought. At that age a child is unable to distinguish between the different properties of elements and objects. When the child becomes content after being handed the two broken pieces of the cookie it indicates that the child lacks conservation and they are showcasing centration. Conservation is the ability to understand that changing the appearance of an object does not affect its properties.
- The child will still pick the rocket ship because it is not able to view things from other people’s perspectives. The child will not be able to factor in the fact that by picking the rocket ship the mean monkey will take it from him.
- The girl will reply that it is a cat. At this stage the child relies on what they can see since they cannot apply logic. Irreversibility is present among children this age where they are unable to reverse the events taking place.
- The child only focuses on the tallness of the glass and does not put into consideration that the two glasses hold the same amount of liquid which is an indication of centration.
- As children enter into the concrete operational stage they become aware of their surroundings and the basic properties of objects. They develop conservation which is the understanding that changing the appearance of an object does not change its basic properties. Moreover, they develop a sense of classification where they can know the difference between two groups of living things, for example they can differentiate between cats and dogs. In addition, as children get into the concrete operational stage they develop seriation skills. They can arrange objects based on their size.
- It is an indication of egocentrism which occurs in adolescents. It is an indication of personal fable social thinking. The girl is afraid that everyone else will laugh at her hair. She feels that she has lost her sense of invincibility and uniqueness.