The educational system in the Republic of Iraq was established in 1921, a year after gaining independence from the British rule. The backbone of the education system in the Republic of Iraq is based on the strong tradition of its people with the language of instruction majorly being Arabic. Other prominent languages used to instruct are English and Kurdish, with the former used in teaching medicine and engineering while the latter is being promoted in the Iraqi Kurdistan region. The most notable aspect of education in Iraq is that it is free at all levels and compulsory through the six years of primary education. After having earned their Primary Certificate at the end of 6 years of primary education, 12 to 15-year-olds attend nominal 3-year intermediate education, which then culminates in a national standardized examination for the Intermediate Baccalaureate (Education System Iraq, 2010).
The Ministry of Education (MOE) is responsible for the management and implementation of pre-school, primary, and secondary education, with the latter including teacher training, fine arts institutes, and technical/vocational education (Situation analysis of education in Iraq, 2003). Moreover, the Ministries of Education, in collaboration with the Ministry of Higher Education, is responsible for the development and execution of the student syllabus. Within the Ministry of Education, the High Committee for the Development of Curricula, Teaching Aids and Examinations is responsible for planning, designing, approving, and revising the curriculum (Situation analysis of education in Iraq, 2003). Also, not only is the committee tasked with the duty of checking and approving textbooks but also to develop teacher guides. (Situation analysis of education in Iraq, 2003).The committee is comprised of members from the directorates of education and various subject experts from Iraqi universities (Situation analysis of education in Iraq, 2003). Moreover, every higher education institutions develop their academic programmes in consultation with the Ministry of Higher Education (Situation analysis of education in Iraq, 2003). Educational legislation over the years has ensured that the government is responsible for the initiation and supervision of educational policies, financing of education, development, and implementation of educational programmes (Situation analysis of education in Iraq, 2003). Laws have been passed to promote educational quality and innovation, including the development of parent-teacher associations (Situation analysis of education in Iraq, 2003).
Although the gulf war had devastating effects on the Republic of Iraq, with many people losing their lives, the education, health, and other social programs continued to grow throughout the 1980s. Moreover, during the 1990-1991 Gulf War, the economy and socioeconomic environment of Iraq were experiencing the negative impacts of the war (Situation analysis of education in Iraq, 2003). This war undermined all the impressive educational feats of the 1980s. From the year 1992 to 1997, support was provided under the UN Inter-Agency Humanitarian Programme for Iraq (Situation analysis of education in Iraq, 2003). The Education ministry of the Republic of Iraq operates its website in both Arabic and English. Moreover, upon graduating/ completion of studies, a student is presented with an official certificate in both the Arabic and English languages. This is because both languages are used in official documentation. Moreover, Iraq has set a standard in educating girls and women, with nearly 80% of the female population being literate. The school curriculum in the Republic of Iraq runs from September to June.
In promoting and advancing the education system, Iraq’s ministry of Education can provide more textbooks and build laboratories and libraries to supplement learning. Furthermore, the methods used to teach in Iraq need to be modified so as to further boost education levels amongst people. Teaching in Iraq relies heavily on textbooks and is often characterized by memorization without understanding (Alwan, 2004). The ministry of Education can introduce more computers to be used for learning as more nations embrace the digital era. Moreover, the lack of libraries makes acquiring information and writing difficult, while the absence of science laboratories means students are not able to carry out practical experiments thereby making them inexperienced with practical applications. These issues can be improved on by the Ministry of Education in order to provide quality education.
Wenger, M. (2016). The Education System in Iraq: An Overview. Retrieved from http://www.nafsa.org/Professional_Resources/Browse_by_Interest/International_Students_and_Scholars/Network_Resources/International_Enrollment_Management/The_Education_System_in_Iraq__An_Overview/
Education System Iraq. (2010, December). Retrieved from https://www.nuffic.nl/en/publications/find-a-publication/education-system-iraq.pdf
Alwan, A. A. (2004). Education in Iraq. Retrieved from
Situation analysis of education in Iraq. (2003). Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001308/130838e.pdf