Sample Philosophy Paper on Kant Philosophy
According to Kant, there are two forms of the categorical imperative. The first one requires that a person behaves in such a manner the reasonable logical generalization of one’s actions to the rule of the universe would lead to benefit somebody under the same universal rule. The second one states that a person should treat other people as ends and never treat them as means. These imperatives are applied with the main aim of achieving the greater good in the society. The first imperative more direct as it calls on people to act in ways that do not harm others. The second imperative is sometimes applied to mean that a bad thing could be done for the benefit of the person affected by the wrong action. For example, a doctor lying to a patient about their condition to shield them from a more painful truth or a prostitute who engages in the act to feed their young siblings or to find medication for their ailing parents.
The perfect duty is the one that must always, while the imperfect duty is the one which could not be ignored by a person, but there exist other ways of fulfilling it even without doing it. An example of a perfect duty is never to commit suicide while an example of an imperfect duty is helping other people because an individual has plenty of choices on how to implement such duties.
The arguments of Warren take into considerations the arguments against abortion. These arguments include the following;
- It is wrong to kill innocent human beings
- Fetuses are innocent human beings
- Therefore, it is wrong to kill fetuses
Warren admits that these arguments are true but he encounters them by saying that human beings must be full-fledged members of a moral society. He uses the following characteristics to argue in support of abortion;1) human being must have consciousness,2)have reasoning,3)self-motivated,4)the ability to communicate,5)possession of self-awareness and self-concept. Warren points out that the fetus does not meet these characteristics and hence they could not be considered morally as a person.
Simpson’s argument looks at the following abortion arguments;1)all fetus are persons,2)every person has a right to life,3)therefore every fetus has a right to life,4)therefore, abortion is wrong. She argues that number 3 and 4 do not necessarily follow each other. The argument is that the mere reason of something having a life and does not make it wrong to kill it. The argument is further supported by the agreement that killing for self-defense is never wrong.
Thompson’s moral and legal position states that fetus has the right to use the mother’s body only when it is reasonable to hold the mother responsible for her pregnancy. If the mother had tried to prevent the pregnancy by using contraceptives then she cannot be held responsible for the pregnancy. This follows then that when the mother tried to stop the pregnancy though contraceptives the fetus inside her does not have any right to use her body. Beckwith believes that Simpson’s argument gives people the loopholes they need to commit abortion even though they believe abortion to be wrong. Beckwith insists that the fetus has a complete right to the mother’s body irrespective of the mother’s wishes.
Kant insists that morality requires that a person carries out his duties at all the time no matter the circumstances. Mill on the other hand, states that morality is doing what is best to achieve a greater good. In the example of Nazi, the owner of the house would be expected by Kant to say the truth and flash the Jew out. Mill would suggest that the owner of the house lie to the Nazi that the Jew is not in his house. These two actions are considered moral by the two schools of thought.