Social, social class race, ethnicity, language and gender influence teaching in a diverse society as teachers have to understand the various special needs of the students. Diversity influences the student-teacher relationship and interactions which affect academic performance. Diversity requires the provision of equitable opportunities for learners; therefore, an all rounded teaching system (Cummins, Brown & Sayers, 2007). Diversity also necessitates professional development programs for teachers so as to enable them to understand the complexity of the diverse characteristics of their students. Social diversity influences teaching in that the teaching mode and academic curriculum should be social sensitive to prevent discrimination or any kind of societal provocation (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009).
Social diversity affects the modules of teaching especially the use of multiple cultural sensitive techniques to accommodate all learners. Social, social class race, ethnicity, language and gender influence teaching curriculum, participation, intergroup relations, school governance and learners’ assessment. Through diversity, the teaching curriculum has to meet the various personal political, social, cultural and economic environments of the diverse learners to achieve relevance. Diversity facilitates the need for individual participation in extra and co-curricular activities. Through participation, the diverse learners will interact and understand one another (Cummins, Brown & Sayers, 2007). Teaching has to develop intergroup relations through group discussions and group assignment which increases the learners’ social interactions and cooperation.
Diversity influences teaching and school governance as the organization decision-making process need to be shared and inclusive to all stakeholders (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009). Diversity influences teaching especially on the assessment of the diverse learners as teachers have to consider and evaluate the various factors affecting the learners. According to Cummins, Brown and Sayers, (2007) diversity is major issues in the contemporary world hence education programs need to take into account not only academic needs but also political, socio-cultural and economic needs and environments of the diverse learners.
Applications of research on diversity to the creation of culturally compatible classroom findings are that teachers have a distinctive sense of socio-cultural identities of the diverse learners. There is communication of high expectations of success in the diverse learners despite their diverse characteristics. Teachers create a bond between them and learners and also among the learners themselves. Teachers assist the diverse learners in viewing learning tasks as meaningful in the contemporary corporate field (Banks & Banks, 2009).
Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, especially through a formal or informal institution. In the contemporary world, learning is mostly done in formal institutions through academic curriculum (Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2009). The distinction between continuity and classical conditioning is that continuity process behavior is enforced by the corresponding consequence while in classical conditioning process; behavior is simulated by a neutral stimulus. For instance, under continuity process learners study hard so as to perform well and be rewarded while in classical conditioning can be associated with learners’ behavior towards the bell ring (Banks & Banks, 2009).
Application of behavioral approaches to modifying behavioral theories of learning and concerns about their application can be demonstrated by B.F. Skinner’s concept which states that behavior is associated with the stimulus-response connection. Their applications in teaching can be positive reinforcement where excellence and success in academics are recognized and rewarded (“Behavioral Theories”, 2016). Hence diverse learners will aim at academic success so as to be rewarded or to be recognized. Punishment serves to prevent unruly behaviors as it discourages wrongdoers from their behavior. Self-management is applied through the teacher giving individual assignments and homework at specified periods of time; this makes the diverse learners manage their time and assigned work (Banks & Banks, 2009).
Banks, J. A. & Banks, C. A. M. (2009). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Behavioral Theories. (2016). Viking.coe.uh.edu. Retrieved 8 September 2016, from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm
Cummins, J., Brown, K. & Sayers, D. (2007). Literacy, technology, and diversity. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Ginsberg, M. & Wlodkowski, R. (2009). Diversity and motivation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.