Sample Paper on Geologic History of Arches National Park

Rotevatn, Atle, et al. “Are Relay Ramps Conduits for Fluid Flow? Structural Analysis of a Relay Ramp in Arches National Park, Utah.” Geological Society, London, Special Publications 270.1 (2007): 55-71.

This source explains the genesis and possible reasons for the porous Entrada Sandstone. This feature is folded to form a rollover anticline situated in a hanging wall of a vast north-dipping normal fault. This fault is a portion of the humongous fault zone that dominates the Cache and Salt valleys. The article attributes the geological source of this area to segment linkage and growth. This happens either by the underlapping or overlapping of two independent fault segments then their coalescing together. As the tips of the two segments grow and link together, they bypass the stage of underlapping and become soft-linked overlapping. This resultantly forms a relay ramp as observed in the Arches National Park in Utah. The study points out the existence of several structural complexities resulting from the growth and overlap of two normal faults. These structural complexities represent prime barriers to fluid flow.

This source is essential to the study of the geological history of Arches National Park because it explains the prior events that led to the formation of the porous Entrada Sandstone. The contribution of fault segments is not only imperative to the formation of this feature but also to other surrounding features. The source gives the reader an opportunity to picture the landscape originally minus the faulting processes and to be part of the landscaping processes that led to the unique features in Arches National Park.

Gard Jr, L. M. Geology of the North End of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah. No. TID-27088. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. (USA), 1976.

This report explains the hydrology and geology of the Salt Valley Anticline in Utah north of Moab. The feature lies approximately 244 meters below the surface and is invisible from the Arches National Park. The Salt Valley Anticline comprises of sedimentary rocks dated to the Mesozoic era. These rocks are curved over a gigantic core of salt belonging to the Paradox Member Formations. This group of salts is believed to have been formed in the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa period. The salt is predicted to have been deposited in this area probably due to faulting, after which it migrated to the Salt Valley. A rush of salt formed a linear positive location resulting from the migration, which, consequently, led to the authentication of sediments in nearby locations thus enhanced salt migration. Salt dissolution allowed the formation of a thick top of insoluble residue. The crest of the anticline is split while the axis of the same is flat-floored.

This article focuses on one major landscape in the Arches National Park; the Salt Valley Anticline. Not only does the article present the geology of this features, but it also tries to date the history of the whole area. The time frame that this feature was formed is also indicated including the geological period in question. The explanation given that led to the formation of this feature explains why the neighbouring features are as a result of faulting activities and zone displacement.

Lorenz, John C., and Scott P. Cooper. “Interpreting Fracture Patterns in Sandstones Interbedded with Ductile Strata at the Salt Valley Anticline, Arches National Park, Utah.” All US Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository) (2001): 9.

This report seeks to explain the existence of fracture patterns in Sandstone interbedded with ductile strata at the Salt Valley Anticline, in Arches National Park, Utah. Several localized fractures are normally synonymous with sandstones that are interbedded with ductile strata. These are strata that are pliable and hence deformable. The localized areas of fractures can span several square miles. These fractures are attributable to salt mobility within the underlying Paradox Formations. The different types of fractures observed at Salt Valley are evidence that the patterns of the fractures vary although each fracture may contain consistent strata. This makes it challenging to predict subsurface fracture designs. Nevertheless, a standard feature associated with ductile strata is clastic reservoirs. To fully comprehend fracture patterns, it is essential to observe the outcrop observations and similar structures in the Arches National Park.

I found this report resourceful because it contains the results of an actual study of the ductile strata of the sandstone in the Salt Valley Anticline. The writers sought to study several localized fractures in the area and the Paradox Formations. This report explains the uniqueness of the Paradox Formations due to the different types of fractures involved in forming them. The study must have been perfectly done considering it was meant for the government.

Rotevatn, Atle, and Haakon Fossen. “Simulating the Effect of Subseismic Fault Tails and Process Zones in A Siliciclastic Reservoir Analogue: Implications For Aquifer Support And Trap Definition.” Marine and Petroleum Geology 28.9 (2011): 1648-1662.

This article seeks to explain and investigate five major points. The first is to explain the role of the sub seismic fault tip region in the formation of sandstone reservoirs. The next involves a description of the procedure of zone dislocation and an analysis of the orders of magnitude concerned that are inferior to the chief fault. Thirdly, the authors elucidate on the sub seismic fault extensions and how they trap and prospect the volumes of sandstone reservoirs. Fourth, the outcome of process zones on sweep efficiency as well as water breakthrough is delineated. Process zones hold-up water breakthrough and at the same time raises sweep efficiency. Lastly, the article finalizes by outlining the advantageous effect of sub seismic structural heterogeneity on production.

Unlike the other previous three sources whose main intentions were to explain the history of over surface features, this article seeks to explain subsurface landscapes including aquifers and sub seismic fault tails. This article is vital to the study of the geological history of the Arches National Park because it majors in subsurface occurrences. Landscapes present over the earth’s surface are a direct result of processes and forces acting in the earth’s crust and subsurface.