Although philosophical ideas remain hidden in research, they have substantial influence on research practice. The four philosophical worldviews related to research approaches include the Post positivism which holds the assumptions that are represented by the traditional forms of conducting research and focus more on quantitative research as opposed to qualitative research methods (Bell et al., 2018) The constructivism which is more focused on qualitative research design as opposed to quantitative research, the advocacy/participatory which is perceived as more of a qualitative approach although it can be used a s a foundation of quantitative research, and the pragmatism research approach which arises from situations, actions, outcomes and consequences instead of antecedent conditions.
The three types of research designs include the observational method, where the behavior of the subject, i.e. either animal or human behavior is observed closely. Case Study research design involves an in-depth study of the subject and allow researchers to study rare phenomena, although they cannot be used to determine causes of effects of a problem. Survey research design method involves direct participation of the research subject such as answering direct questions through interviews or questionnaires, and the researchers later describe the responses they receive from the field (Merriam, Sharan, and Robin, 2019)
Quantitative research is primarily used to explore a given phenomenon and helps the researchers to gain in-depth understanding of the underlying motivations or opinions. Its main characteristics include gathering of information through the use of structured research elements, and the results are determined on large sample sizes of a represented population, and the researchers use clearly defined research questions (Vannest, Kimberly J., and Jennifer Ninci, 2015)
Qualitative research is mainly used to describe the research topic in detail, the design develops as the study unfolds, and the data is given in the form of objects, pictures or words.
Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2018). Business research methods. Oxford university press..
Merriam, S. B., & Grenier, R. S. (Eds.). (2019). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. Jossey-Bass.
Vannest, K. J., & Ninci, J. (2015). Evaluating intervention effects in single‐case research designs. Journal of Counseling & Development, 93(4), 403-411.