Analysis and Presentation of Data
From the statistical point of view, data analysis is defined as the process by which researchers develop answers to specific questions relevant to the line of investigation. The process of data analysis involves generation, examination, and interpretation of data based on certain predefined conditions and intended meanings. The investigation process involves identifying issues or problems; determining suitable data, deciding on the most appropriate methods to be followed in answering the outlines questions; and applying the identified methods to evaluate, summarize and communicate the results or findings. On the contrary, data presentation involves communicating the results of the researcher to users of the information in ways that they can understand or comprehend the intended meanings. The methods through which the results are communicated to users depend on the data type, the choice of the researcher, and the degree of communicability.
The significance of data analysis
Otherwise mentioned, the process of data analysis is important to both the researcher and the users of the statistical information. For instance, the results from the analyzed data shed light on relevant issues identified in the research objectives and hypothesis (Russell, 2004). Data analysis also plays important roles when it comes to assessing the quality of the information and its source. Through this assessment, users of statistical information are introduced to problems of quality and their affect policy implementation. In cases where such problems may be prevented, the analysis process becomes important for predicting future improvements in similar surveys (Russell, 2004). Data analysis is also important when it comes to source administration for the purposes of understanding the results of the survey or other similar studies. In every investigation, there is need for the researcher to provide information on data gaps. Such gaps may be used to design and redesign surveys; plan new statistical activities; and formulate quality objectives.
The Appropriate Published Literature in Information Technology
Appropriately published literature is developed from competent and purposeful information literacy competency (Allmer, 2012). The concepts published in Information Technology must be relevant to scientific investigations, and common to a range of disciplines as described in the ACRL (http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlstandards/standards.pdf). Even though the disciplines may be rapidly changing based on the changes on Information Technology, the ideas and concepts published must be consistent to the areas, sources, and formats in a given body of knowledge (Cooper & Schindler, 2014).
Methods of data presentation
The methods used to present data depend on the choice made by the researcher and the type of data in question. However, the commonly used methods of data presentation include frequency distribution tables and graphs (Malinovski, et al 2015). Apart from the use of tables, the frequencies of data sets can be presented using different types of graphs such as Bar graphs, histograms, pie charts, and line graphs as indicated in the diagrams below.
Papers on Information Technology that contain Statistical Analysis
In a study to determine the perceptions of students on video conferencing platform, (Malinovski, et al, 2015) used structural equation modeling to test the credibility of the study models. The structural equation modeling, otherwise known as SEM, in this study included measures of the dependent and independent variables based on specific errors. The statistical analysis model was also used by the researchers to test the hypothesis and to determine whether there are correlations between student’s responses and the proposed theories. Apart from the SEM, the researchers also found descriptive statistical analysis relevant to the study since it allowed the researchers to determine the usable response rate (URR) for the study. With 85% satisfactory URR, the researchers recorded a sample of 198 participants to aid in the investigation.
In a different study to investigate the relationship between information security in areas of investment and organizational performances, (Bose, Luo & Liu, 2013) used both correlational and regression analysis to determine extent to which information security affects firms’ decisions to invest in different business line. While the correlational analysis was limited to the degree of association between the mentioned variables, the researchers, through regression analysis was were able to determine the extent to which qualitative and non-financial factors like security pose severe constraints on firms’ decisions to invest in many lines of businesses. The results of the study were presented in the form of table with the various elements or variables given much weight.
In a study to determine the impact of technology on distance learning, Russell (2004) used ethnographic study design because the sample size that was chosen to assist in the investigation was too small to fit a regression model or other statistical tools. However, the researcher was able to perform content analysis through intelligent software coding (ISC). The analysis included testing student’s attitudes towards online discussions as one of the tools for online assessments.
In general, data analysis and presentation play crucial roles in any scientific investigation since they allow the researcher to provide empirical evidences for the issue under investigation. As already stated, analysis process include identifying issues under investigation, choosing the methods of analysis, and applying the methods to evaluate the issue based on the data collected (Bose, Luo & Liu, 2013). Once the data is analyzed, the researcher will choose the appropriate method to present the results and allow the users to derive the intended meanings.
Allmer, T. (2012). Research Design & Data Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation. SNS3 Research Paper, (12).
Malinovski, T., Vasileva-Stojanovska, T., Jovevski, D., Vasileva, M., & Trajkovik, V. (2015). Adult Students’ Perceptions in Distance Education Learning Environments Based on a Videoconferencing Platform–QoE Analysis. Journal of Information Technology Education, 14.
Bose, R., Luo, X., & Liu, Y. (2013). The Relationship between Information Security Investment and Organizational Performance: A Critical Review. In Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the Northeast Decision Sciences Institute (pp. 305-319).
Russell, D. L. (2004). Paradigm shift: A case study of innovation in an educational setting. Journal of Instructional Technology, 19.