Sample Paper on Access to Health in California State

Access to Health in California State

Data regarding the health statistics and information for the California State for this diagnosis.

Windshield Survey and the Population Health Scavenger Hunt

The Windshield survey will consider the people in the California State. Data will be randomly conducted across the neighborhoods and the different sub-states. The sample will be a representative for the whole population. The six chosen sample facilities included the Health Department, Department of Human/Social Services, Emergency Management Director, American Red Cross, Community Center and Fire Department. The survey included the following questions.

  Target population Advertisement Techniques Barriers to Service
Health Dept. Entire California population Social media, pamphlets Overstretched facilities
Dept. of Human/Social Services Entire California population Posters, brochures Insufficient professionals and unintegrated target population
Emergency Management Director Entire California population   Insufficient facilities and funds
American Red Cross Entire California population TV media, social apps, brochures Unintegrated referral system
Community Center Entire California population Social media, pamphlets Inadequate funding
Fire Department Entire California population TV media, social apps Accessibility to major areas and network systems


In the six organizations, the members of staff presented themselves modestly complementing their good handling of their clients (victims/patients/other). The workers were very knowledgeable of their tasks and could handle different languages pertinent to the California State. Most of the organizations (except Fire Dept. and American Red Cross) have referrals processes to complement their tasks. Fees for these health services are charged, except for disaster and emergency response systems and the payment options include the health insurance and personal financing. All these organizations have online presence to reach more and interact with the Californians. The Windshield survey revealed the federal and national state efforts in providence of health care and disaster management. It revealed the accessibility problem ensued in most of the states especially the charged medical fees and lack of government subsidiaries.

Assessment of the Data

  1. Cultural Assessment Tool

Considering the population statistics of the California State, the age composition is as follows

Age Group Population Size
0–1 year 4%
1–5 years 6%
6–12 years 5%
13–19 years 15%
20–29 years 18%
30–49 years 22%
50–64 years 12%
65–74 years 10%
75–84 years 5%
Over 85 years 3%


Interpretation of the Data

The Californian State comprises majorly of middle age person(s) between the ages of 30-49 years. This group provide the bulk of statistics for the study regarding the health concerns. The old ages and the younger persons are reliant on the able middle class for assistance regarding health knowledge and care. Generally, the ages 19-64 years will be considered to widen the young and able age group bracket.

A major part of the population has a negative attitude towards age. Though age is considered a number, many people of California like looking young. This attitude towards aging has put inept stress on the population fraction to look and stay young. The pressure accorded has revealed stress-related diseases. According to the Californians’ culture, a person is considered an adult when he/she reaches 18 years of age. Members of this cultural group displayed no genetically determined physical or physiological features. The health statistics were varied and did not depend on the group’s overall genetical physical or physiological features. The group displayed differences in normal physiologic values, which included but not limited to the systolic blood pressure (that varied between 65-150mmHg), heart rate (that varied between 80-170 beats/minute), and the respiratory rate (that varied between 20-27 breaths/minute) (Armenian, 1998). There existed genetically determined diseases in the cultural group and they included albinism and breast cancer. The cultural group in consideration had no stereotypic attitudes towards body parts and physiological functions. The physical health problems prevalent in the Californian State included diabetes and asthma related cases.

The environment is considered a useful resource and is protected with all means possible. The environment encompasses their personal space, which is prioritized more than the public space. Time is of essence in formal or personal functions. Time utilization is upheld vivaciously as they consider it a significant resource. Changes in physical environment experienced by the group include the rapid conversion of idle lands and bushes for developmental structures, such as buildings and parks. This change may have impacted on the Californians’ health status as the initial air circulation is affected due to rise of buildings and other structures in the place of initial bushes and forest covers.

The Californians have little regard for supernatural forces as they rely more on scientifically-proven data or information. Therefore, supernatural forces play little or no part in the health and illnesses affecting the group. A major percentage of the Californians are Christians. The tenets of the religion are love and respect for God and human beings.

The religion has little influence on healthcare perceptions. It is believed that God works through the healthcare structures to heal. Marriage is perceived as a person’s personal volition and is not coerced by the society. Marriage mostly occurs from the age 30. Independence and maturity is highly upheld for ideal partners by the Californians. The family structure mostly consisted of both spouses and 2-3 children. The couples shared the family roles and responsibilities interchangeably. They jointly made decisions that affected the family directly. The groups were open and receptive about heterosexuality. Victimization was prohibited and the society had integrated heterosexuals in the established structures or norms. Contraception was normally used as a family planning tool and helped plan/determine family structure and/or size. Contraception could be used for avoidance of unwanted pregnancies, especially by the youths and unmarried person(s).

A disease was considered as any ailment that interfered with the normal functioning of the body. In case of an ailment, health care facilities were considered solution centers and/or private health practitioners. Home remedies existed for small ailments, for example, headaches and stomach upsets. Home remedies included fruits, herbs, and fluids, such as water and other blended fruits and/or vegetables. There also existed Over-The-Counter (OTC) drugs employed by Californians, for example, pills for headaches and/or stomach upsets. Home remedies are used parallel with the remedies from the health practitioners.

  1. Disaster Assessment and Planning Tool

The 20-75 years age bracket was more likely to be affected by a disaster. These could be experienced in form of physical, mental, and health relations. There were special health needs shown by affected people in the population, especially equipment and professional advice and care regarding ailments like cancer and diabetes. The Californian State is mainly composed of the white population, but this has no effect on daily occurrences and/or operations, for example, in the face of disasters. In the advent of a disaster, communicable diseases mostly prevalent included tuberculosis and tetanus. Current existing communicable diseases include HIV infections and/or tuberculosis (Black, 2005).

Disaster preparation is an integrated aspect in the Californian population. Personal and public efforts will be implemented in the forecast/advent of any disaster to cushion against their effects. Regarding past disasters, the community has instilled disaster evacuation procedures and replenishment of medical supplies and personnel in the occurrence of any. Factors that influence disaster response include the type of the disaster, the scope of the disaster and/or the impact level of the disaster. Counselling sessions are accorded to the disaster victims, as mental illnesses are prevalent among Californians during a disaster. The community relationships have no potential effects in perpetration of disasters, for example, civil strife or war as the population is integrated and cohesive, for example, the community will ensure the reunion of members separated by natural disasters.

  1. Neighborhood/Community Safety Inventory

In the California State, air pollution was evident but measures had been introduced to control the pollution rate and effects. Water pollution was non-existent as the water resources were well protected except for the rainfall-related resources. The water pollutants in this case included industrial emissions into the atmosphere. Other pollution forms in the Californian State included land pollution, which was at a small degree as compared to air pollution. Local weather effects pose little hazard on the environmental safety and/or conditions. The environment is well maintained and there are effective means for sanitation and waste disposal. In response to hazards or disasters like fires, short time is undertaken, for example, 30 seconds at the call of 911. Public and personal resources, such as swimming pools are well regulated with regard to sanitation and health concerns. Industrial emissions like lead are smaller in percentage concentration, but has perceived effect on the population safety. The safety regulations and/or procedures make the Californians feel secure and protected.

  1. Population Economic Status Assessment

The population size of the California State was about 40 million as by the recent statistics in 2014. The average household income was $61,094 and about 15% of the households are below poverty level. The composition of the low-income group is as shown below

Racial/Ethnic Group Percentage of Poor Age Group Percentage of Poor
African American Birth–1 year 20%
Asian 1–12 years 15%
Hispanic 13–20 years 16%
Native American 21–30 years 14%
White 31–50 years 10%
Other 51–65 years 8%
66–84 years 9%
  Over 85 years 8%

Interpretation of Collected Data

The Californian population survey reveals that the majority births are experienced in African households which collect the numbers to the health situation of the state. The old age person(s) contribute less to these health statistics. Being poor, the larger percentage have little or no access to quality health services and information. Government funding has to be included to help these persons.

The proportion of families eligible for public assistance was at 10% and 9% of this population was receiving public assistance. The population unemployment rate was at 6.3% as by latest statistics in April 2015. 60% of the population had employment-based health insurance covers and benefits and $147 million was allocated to the public health fund to cater for health expenses and development. The major source of payment for the healthcare services is the insurance covers and/or benefits.

The Californian population has an individualistic approach towards most psychological or health-related issues. Personal interests are considered first for a major fraction of the population and the population prioritize goals in the order of goals, individual, family and the group. Stress-related issues or complication are common within the population, but collective management techniques have been incorporated for tackling the issue (California, Preventable hospitalizations in California: Statewide and county trends (1997-2003), 2005). Intergenerational conflicts are rare within the population and the Californians perceive change as a measure for advancement of the humanity. They embrace change to enhance their adaptability, for example, by understanding the perceived capabilities that come with advancement in age and how they cope with them. Resignation and fatalism attitudes are not evident in the major fraction of the population, though measures have been instilled to handle the minority population affected by these attitudes.

Death is a rare topic in the population, but handled well. Openness is guaranteed in handling the topic. The population has a receptive attitude towards death. Since the major population is Christian-oriented, they believe in afterlife and perceive death as a tool or enabler in transitioning to the next life. The public has considerable knowledge of life-threatening diseases and is advised to seek professional assistance and care during the period of contraction/detection and after. It is perceived that death can occur anywhere and the family members and close persons should be involved in the rituals and/or practices related to death.

Healthy eating is a dietary practice performed by major fraction of the Californians. They are conscious about their health and recommend natural foods for healthy living. Packed foods are synonymous and are taken by the entire population. They are preferred over the naturally prepared foods due to their readiness and affordability. Foods are typically prepared by first screening their content and either using natural/artificial oils for cooking. Acculturation on dietary practices lead to both positive and negative effects, for example, allergy in case one is not accustomed to certain oils and development of body tissues and/or muscles in case the taken food is well recepted and processed by the body (California, Preventable hospitalizations in California: Statewide and county trends (Elkins, 2005).


Identified Problems

The top three identified problems in California State included:

  1. Lifestyle diseases: life style diseases have become rampant due to the lack of nutritional information and care which can empower the public against such. The research revealed occurrences of such instances among the residents of California State.
  2. Insufficient access to health information and services: some medical information is assumed to be common sense which creates the sense of neglect. Negligence is a recipe of disaster as the people will suffer an ailment that can be handled well at local dispensary or other health institutions.
  3. Disaster reception and insufficient capacity: the allocation of funds and facilities to emergencies and disaster will ensure that the affected persons receive good medical care. Insufficient capacity and poor reception of disasters has torn the medical situation of California State in such instances.

The selected problem for the research will be the insufficient access to health information and/or services. Tackling the said problem will increase medical know-how and access to healthcare across the California State. This will aid in the attainment of the Healthy People 2020 goal of achieving health equity across the entire population and creating a favorable social and physical environment that enhances good health for the population.

Topic: Access to Healthcare

The California State has integrated plans to counter health-related issues and/or disasters. Though these plans are in place and partly implemented, there is limited access to professional advice/information and healthcare. This has forced a major part of the population to resort to unconfirmed sources like the internet for analysis and prescription. Medical insurances and/or benefits are readily available in the market, and are utilized by major fraction of the population (Elkins, 2011). They will therefore consider public health facilities that are more receptive to the insurances compared to the private ones that are business-oriented.

The community resources set in place to counter the insufficient access to medical information and healthcare is through the use of voluntary community health services. Trained nurse and/or doctors organize training sessions in the community regarding different health topics that affect the Californian State. Communicable diseases like HIV Infections are particularly addressed during those rounds/trips (Goodwin, 2006). Public funds allocation, both by the federal and national governments, are used to equip the health facilities and increase the capacities of these health facilities. This would mean that more people would have access to health care and advice, and will be more conscious to make better health choices and/or actions. This will help avoid lifestyle diseases like diabetes and cancer (Williams, 2005). The improved access also means the availability of mental, physiological, and psychological health services.




Armenian, H. K. (1998). Epidemiology and health services. New York : Oxford Univ. Press.

Black, N. &. (2005). Understanding health services. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

California. (1999). California perspectives in healthcare California . Sacramento, CA: Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development.

California. (2005). Preventable hospitalizations in California: Statewide and county trends (1997-2003). Sacramento, CA: Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, Healthcare Quality & Analysis Division.

Elkins, K. R. (2011). Successful strategies for high participation in three regional healthcare surveys: an observational study. BioMed Central.

Goodwin, N. G. (2006). Managing health services. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: Open University Press.

Williams, S. J. (2005). Essentials of health services. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.