The role of nutrition in the health of a patient or for that matter a human being cannot be over-emphasized. Nutrition plays an indispensable function in the maintenance of health, the management of chronic conditions and the treatment of serious illness (Chernoff, 2013). Geriatric nutrition employs nutrition principles and tenets to prolong effects of aging and disease, to assist in the management of the physical, psychological, and psychosocial changes related to the elderly community. Essentially this impedes the rate and frequency of diseases such as diabetes, cardio-related illnesses, cancer, and stroke. This increases one’s longevity.
An array of indicators precedes a dietary regimen prescribed to a patient, say a diabetic patient as a textbook case. Ideally, the patient’s prevailing nutritional status in respect to Body Mass Index, outlook of weight changes, and evidence of nutrient deficiency is a sign for a specified diet to manage their health. Related closely to the former would be a patient’s current condition based on a clinical observation. The medium of nutrition support, for instance in fluid form or solid, is crystal clear as a sign board for a specific dietary regimen as an intervention. The method of administering the dietary regimen, say food fortification, proprietary oral and enteral tube feeding are but some of the various indicators for a specified diet for a particular patient.
First and foremost, a prescribed diet model is a fundamental building block of preventive and therapeutic medical treatment package and all too often, experience will remind us prevention is better than cure. Recent knowledge in medical research, science and technology trace the genesis of many diseases to nutritional origins and anomalies. It is that light that informs and influences the existence of an intimate correlation between specified diets and certain lifestyle illnesses. A text-book example being the discovery of enrichment and fortification of selected foods and the availability of nutrients supplements that have largely led to the eradication of diseases derived from mineral and vitamin deficiencies. Further research intimates the role of diet in both the prevention and treatment of conditions such as obesity, osteoporosis, low-birth weight, mineral deficiencies, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Key noting is the fact that such conditions act as stepping-stone to other far much complex and chronic diseases. A body of evidence for instance, point to the fact that obesity exacerbates and catalyses the likelihood of getting diabetes by increasing insulin resistance (American Diabetes Association, 2010).
Clinical research and data systems establish a firm direct relationship between diet and food on the one hand. And the maintenance of an upbeat health and prevention of lifestyle diseases which are chronic in nature. Worth mentioning, is a scenario where a pre-diabetic patient who is prescribed to gradually cut down on their glucose intake either to slow down or eliminate altogether the patient’s mathematical probability of being diagnosed with full-scale diabetes. In this regard an enormous body of scientific knowledge compounded with research demonstrate the scientific efficacy, expediency, and efficiency of prescribed diet as device of prevention and treatment of diabetes and other diseases.
The psychology behind regulation is to ensure that patients and generally all the people have adequate nutrition to sustain life and good health and minimise the prospects of diseases. It therefore follows that people must have their nutritional needs evaluated and food/fluid must be sufficiently provided to meet the same needs. The criterion for food/fluid restriction and encouragement appropriate for a diet guideline is remarkably either the nutrition or no nutritional value of the food or fluid. The impetus behind food or fluid for that matter is based on the fact, that restrictions play an imperative role in the prevention of build-up of toxic substances that are could be of detriment to a patient’s health and medical status. For instance, medical patients who have been prescribed for dialysis are forbidden from fluids such as ice creams, yogurt and fruits. The idea for encourage of certain fluids/food as part of a dietary regimen finds explanation in the need for a particular nutrition for that particular patient. A diabetic patient who has been diagnosed with anaemia should be prescribed foods/fluids that will enhance the increment of blood in their body. Further a patient whose immune system is weekend is clinically mandated to observe a food and drink regulation that increases white blood cells and bolsters their immune system.
A legal duty is bestowed upon a medical professional to take into account people’s preferences, religious beliefs, and cultural backgrounds when making the decision of regularizing and prescribing a food and fluid regimen. This will immensely influence the nutritional teaching plan of a patient with cultural difference. A comprehensive nutritional teaching plan must embody a food and drinks strategy that addresses the nutritional needs of people using the service. It must encapsulate the assessments and review of risks to people’s cultures and nutritional needs. Another imperative obligation on a practitioner is that they are required to fully detail the risks posed by the dietary regimen to ensure the patient comes up with an informed decision. The right room temperature of the diet must be as well captured in the teaching scheme. The teaching scheme must make an inclusion of a catalogue of tools and appropriate equipment to help patients eat and drink independently and reliably.
Recent developments include the discovery of a plant widely available in Southeast Asia, a plant believed to contain pharmacological properties such as the restriction of anti-diabetic activities. Partial hypothesis note that the plant otherwise known as Vernonia cinerea improves insulin sensitivity. It executes the former through the enhancement pathways in the liver. The stimulation of pathways leads to the improvement of glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice.
A most recent research provides that the insufficiency and excess of one-carbon nutrients over the period an expectant mother is about to deliver has been realized and acknowledged with gestational diabetes mellitus. A sheer change in one-carbon nutrient concentration has the consequence of causing physiologic changes and illness risks in future affiliated to gestational diabetes mellitus. In conclusion food and fluids have both preventive and treatment properties that must be appreciated. Practitioners must endeavour to enlighten their patients on the same. Further, research proves that not all hope should be lost in efforts to find cure for diabetes.
American Diabetes Association. (2010). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 33(Suppl 1), S62.
Chernoff, R. (2013). Geriatric nutrition. Jones & Bartlett Punlishers