Sample Nutrition Question Paper on Lactose intolerance
Lactose intolerance is a condition where an individual’s body is unable to digest a naturally occurring sugar in milk called lactose (WebMD, 1). According to WebMD (1), members of the same family can have a problem of lactose intolerance, but the symptoms usually develop when an individual reaches teenage or adulthood. A person with lactose intolerance condition will experience mild or severe symptoms, such as stomach bloating, pain or cramps, gas and diarrhoea. In many cases of lactose intolerance, the small intestine cannot digest lactose, and hence it moves through the large intestines without being absorbed. When lactose moves through the colon, it causes symptoms of belly pain, bloating and gas (WebMD, 1). A person who has mild lactose intolerance problem should consume small amounts of milk products. However, patients who present severe symptoms of lactose intolerance should refrain from consuming milk products altogether.
The process of refining grains occurs through a milling process that removes the germ and bran from the grain (USDA, 1). People refining grains to increase shelf life and to give the grains a different texture. While the process of refining grains occurs improves the shelf life and texture of the grain, it depletes the grain of essential vitamins and minerals. Examples of vitamins and minerals depleted from refining grains include B vitamins, fibre and iron. However, many milling companies add the depleted vitamins and minerals back to the grains. The B vitamins enriched after processing are riboflavin, folic acid, thiamin and niacin V. An example of a whole grain is millet; millets are grasses with small seeds with significant nutritional value. According to USDA (1), millets are very nutritious and provide 378 calories, which is 20% of the daily value. Furthermore, millets are a source of B vitamins and carbohydrates. According to USDA (1), millets are composed of proteins, carbohydrates and fat; proteins consist of 11% protein, 4% fat and 73% carbohydrates.
The pros of consuming sugar alcohols include the low-calorie composition. According to Wadsworth (1), sugar alcohols contain 1.5 to 3 calories per gram. However, sugar contains four calories per gram, making it higher than sugar alcohol. Secondly, sugar alcohols have added textures to foods. Also, they have the ability to retain moisture better than sugar (Wadsworth 1). The cons of sugar alcohols include bloating stomachs and diarrhoea. Furthermore, sugar alcohols are said to act as laxatives hence cause diarrhoea in some cases. Lastly, sugar alcohols cause extreme weight gain when consumed in excess. Erythritol is an example of a sugar alcohol that does not have extreme side effects compared to other sugar alcohols (Dr Axe, 1). However, the reason for minor adverse effects is because it is impossible for the body to metabolize erythritol. An example of a synthetic sweetener is sodium cyclamate, which is more than 30 times sweeter than local sugar. Cyclamate is used as a sweetener during processing of sugar-free beverages.
High Fructose Corn Syrup is commonly used as a sweetener in processed foods (White 1). High Fructose Corn Syrup should not be added to processed foods because it causes obesity. Furthermore, the use of HFCS in developed countries is the primary reason for high cases of obesity. Also, HFCS is not a natural food substance, but a chemical produced in the lab. According to White (1), HFCS contain contaminants, such as mercury, which is not safe for consumption. In comparison to sucrose, HFCS are 53% glucose, 42% fructose and the rest are polysaccharides (White 1). Because of its chemical composition, HFCS are simple carbohydrates.
Dr Axe. “Caution: Not All Natural Sweeteners Are Safe.” Dr. Axe, 2017, https://draxe.com/erythritol/.
USDA. “All About The Grains Group.” Choose Myplate, 2016, https://www.choosemyplate.gov/grains.
Wadsworth, Lynne. “Sugar Alcohol: Good Or Bad.” 2017, http://holistic-healthandwellness.com/sugar-alcohol/.
WebMD. “Lactose Intolerance-Topic Overview.” Webmd, 2017, http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/tc/lactose-intolerance-topic-overview#1.
White, John. “Straight Talk About High-Fructose Corn Syrup: What It Is And What It Ain’t.” 2017, ajcn.nutrition.org/content/88/6/1716S.full