Sample Nursing Paper on The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)


The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) entails a condition that is used to describe heart complications that increasingly cause breathing complications. Over the years, the disease has affected more than 30 million people in the United States and records a high mortality rate in the country (COPD Foundation 1).

Risk Factors and Treatment

Although the condition does not have any known cure, different risk factors have been identified over the years. These include smoking, industrial chemicals, and dust, air pollution, genetics, and age. Symptoms of the ailment include frequent coughing, tightness in the chest, increased breathlessness, and wheezing (Cleveland Clinic 1). Although there are no cure mechanisms established for the pulmonary disease rehabilitation, self-care, oxygen therapy, and surgery are often used to treat individuals suffering from the ailment.

Vent System Impact the Patients’ Health

Although the vent system is essential in helping a patient improve on breathing, it has different side effects that are sometimes adverse and may lead to increased complication and deterioration of their health (Florida Hospital 1). Notably, an individual kept under the vent system is prone to infections such as pneumonia. Understandably, the tubes used for the process can allow bacteria to enter the lungs, therefore, developing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Other effects of the system to Mr. C may include lung damage, pneumothorax, damage of the vocal cords, and oxygen toxicity.

Nutrition Therapy Goals

In addition to the constant weight loss of patients suffering from COPD, other symptoms that lead to the deterioration of the health of such patients include coughing, anorexia, and difficulty in swallowing (Florida Hospital 1). The primary purpose for nutritional care on the condition is to provide enough energy that will enable the reduction in weight loss rate, as well as avoiding reduction of fat-free mass to improve the pulmonary status and prevent malnutrition (COPD Foundation 1). Notably, through the improvement in malnutrition, the health professional will help the patient to improve pulmonary functions, reduce susceptibility to infections, and increase exercise capacity.

Specific Nutritional Recommendations

COPD patients need special diets that will enable them to improve on breathing and reduce the rate of unwanted weight loss. Additionally, a healthy diet helps in minimizing the rate of lungs infections and reducing the effects of the diseases’ symptoms. According to Jr, a healthy diet for a COPD patient includes fruits vegetables, low-fat milk whole grains, and milk foods that provide essential vitamins for the body (6). It also includes lean meat such as fish and chicken eggs and nuts, as well as foods that are not rich in cholesterol. In essence, a person suffering from COPD needs an average of 430 to 720 calories in a day which is enough to facilitate effective breathing (COPD Foundation 1).

Recommended Therapy for Mr. C

Determining the best nutritional method to use depends on the current medical status of the patient, lung tolerance, and exercise tolerance. In the Case of Mr. C, the eternal system is the most appropriate as it will help in increasing the overall body weight and the pulmonary function due to its effectiveness.


Some of the foods that Mr. C should use after discharge include vegetables, grains, meat and beans, oils, and milk. After discharge, different precautions should be taken into consideration to avoid adverse side effects of the method of medication the patient is using (Jr 7). Notably, the patient should change their lifestyle by quitting smoking, avoiding stress, and visiting caregivers regularly.



Works Cited

Cleveland Clinic. “Cite A Website – Cite This For Me.” Cleveland Clinic. N.p., 2017. Web. 21 Nov. 2017.Retrieved from:

COPD Foundation. “What Is COPD? | COPD Symptoms, Signs & Risk Factors | COPD Definition.” N.p., 2017. Web. 21 Nov. 2017.Retrieved form:

Florida Hospital. “Side Effects of Ventilator Treatment.” Florida Hospital. N.p., 2017. Web. 21 Nov. 2017.retrieved from:

Jr, DeBellis. “Enteral Nutrition in the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patient. – Pubmed – NCBI.” N.p., 2017. Web. 21 Nov. 2017.retrived from



Appendix 1: ADIME Nutritional plan

Name:  Mr. C

Nutritional Plan

  Date time  
Assessment Pertinent information provided by the  patient Obesity,  sleep apnea, HTN depression, excessive smoking
Age gender; dx PMH Male
Ht; Wt; UBW/%UBW; IBW %IBW;BMI 5’10

240 pounds

Labs CO2, BUN/Cr. ph, normal urine output
Meds glycopyrrolate




EER;EPR fluid requirement  
Current diet  
Diagnosis PES #1 Depleted total protein


PES #2 Decreased BMI


PES #3 Decreased muscle mass
Intervention Nutrition Prescription Grain group

Whole grains


Treatment plan , nutritional therapy, education, acquisition of additional information Other grains

6 ounce/day,3ounce/ day, 3ouTreatments

Recommend intake of: Carbohydrates 7g, Protein, 2g, Vitamins 7g, Fats 1.5g.nce/ day



Monitoring Plan  for  evaluating outcomes of interventions listed above; plan for  follow up N/A