Part A: Quantitative Research
Siegrist et al. (2016) explored how the implementation of multifactorial fall prevention programs can significantly influence the delivery of primary care in a health setting. The study aimed at examining whether or not the implementation of the multifactorial fall prevention program in a particular German health setting can help address the issue of increased falls in the surrounding community that comprises majorly of elderly individuals (Siegrist et al., 2016). The study also aimed at examining the positive and negative outcomes related to the implementation of the program in relation to the health status of elderly individuals residing in the surrounding community. Moreover, the study also aimed at exploring the incidence of fall-related injuries among community-dwelling elderly individuals (Siegrist et al., 2016). For their discussion, the researchers relied on thirty-three peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the subject matter and scope of their study. The study utilized a quantitative cluster-randomized methodology coupled with a random sampling of participants. The participants of the study included 33 general practices and 378 elderly individuals randomly sampled in Germany (Siegrist et al., 2016). The researchers analyzed the data collected during the study using a generalized linear mixed-effects Poisson model. The study adopted the use of two generalized linear logistic regression models to establish the relationship between various variables.
The evidence presented throughout the research article conducted by Siegrist et al. supports the findings of the study and their implications for future research. The introduction highlights the numerous cases of falls and fall-related injuries among the elderly in Germany and the glaring lack of research on the effectiveness of exercise-based fall prevention programs. By highlighting the scope and severity of falls and fall-related issues in Germany, the study showcases the severity of the nursing problem and the importance of the study’s implications for future elderly nursing care in the nation. The study’s cluster randomized trials methodology supported the findings of the research as it enabled the researchers to consider intracluster correlation. Intracluster correlation is essential in cluster randomized trials as it provides researchers with a vivid picture of the relationship between different variables, thus resulting in inaccurate results (Siegrist et al., 2016). The discussion part of the article connects the study’s findings with the conclusions arrived at by several divergent fall risks research studies. The discussion clarifies the various relations between exercise-fall prevention programs and the elderly, thereby supporting the study’s findings.
Siegrist et al. (2016) undertake various cultural considerations and steps to protect their human subjects during the course of their study. All participants involved in the study gave written informed consent of their decision to participate in the research (Siegrist et al., 2016). The informed consent signed by the study’s participant is attached to the research article as proof that the researchers adhered to the ethical standards regulating nursing research. The ethics committee of the University Hospital, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen gave the approval to allow for the study to be conducted (Siegrist et al., 2016). The approval by the ethics committee confirmed that the study was conducted in a manner protective of its human subjects and conformation with relevant cultural considerations.
Though quite strong, the study also has weaknesses. The impeccable statistical analysis done by Siegrist et al. (2016) is the main strength of the study. The study utilizes a linear mixed-effects Poisson statistical analysis model that enables it to comprehensively investigate the differences in the cumulated number of falls per individual within 12 months, both in the trial and control groups. Besides, the study utilizes two hierarchical logistics regression models to analyze various aspects between the test and control groups including the relative risk of falls among the elderly individuals. One weakness of the study lies with the fact that its researchers did not mask participants during selection. Masking is an integral part of sampling, particularly when applying random sampling, as it minimizes bias in participant selection (Siegrist et al., 2016). The participants were not masked in the study during the selection and recruitment process. This is because nearly half of the participants were allocated to the usual care, and this implies that they were not enrolled in any care intervention. The lack of masking, therefore, weakens the results of the study as it poses questions of bias.
The evidence from the study provides valuable insight into contemporary nursing practice, particularly in elderly nursing care. The study’s finding that exercise reduces falls among the aged can be used to develop appropriate nursing interventions based on physical exercises for the elderly. Falls among the elderly can be prevented through the gradual adoption of light physical exercises into nursing care for the elderly.
Part B: Qualitative Research
The purpose of the study by Pohl et al. (2015) is to explore older men’s and women’s understanding of fall risks and their experiences with safety precautions. The research article reviews forty-one relevant peer-reviewed journal articles dealing with the nursing problem of fall risk and safety precautions. The study utilizes a qualitative content analysis methodology based on focus group discussions. The study’s focus group discussions are based on a participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach that enables the researchers to explore not only older people’s behavior but also social lives and cultures (Pohl et al., 2015). To get participants, Pohl et al. (2015) utilized purposive sampling that enabled them to recruit the elderly from seven senior citizen associations (Pohl et al., 2015). The study adopted the use of an inductive qualitative content analysis approach to assess and evaluate the data that had been gathered from the participants’ responses.
The evidence presented in all parts of the research article supports the study’s outcome and implications for future research. In the introduction, the study’s researchers adduce evidence on the scarcity of research on fall risks among the elderly and the efficacy of safety precautions in Sweden (Pohl et al., 2015). By highlighting the scarcity of pertinent research on fall risks, the article showcases the importance of its outcomes in shaping future nursing care for the elderly in Sweden. The methodology applied by the study supports its findings by establishing the relationship between feelings and fall risk awareness. The participatory and appreciative action and reflection (PAAR) method used during the study enables the researchers to detect the relationship between feelings of the elderly and fall risk awareness by fostering a continuous exchange of fall-risk experiences by the participants (Pohl et al., 2015). The discussion part of the study integrates how the elderly recognize their fall risks, face various feelings, and take precautions against falls. The discussion part fully supports the study’s findings by integrating evidence from other relevant research articles to reveal the intricate relationship between risk awareness and safety precautions.
The study by Pohl et al. (2015) observes several cultural considerations, as well as protects its human subjects. All forms of scientific studies need to be approved to ensure that they meet both ethical and cultural requirements. Before commencing the research, the study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Umea, Sweden (Pohl et al., 2015). The study’s approval by the Regional Ethical Review Board means that it met all ethical and cultural requirements. Moreover, all participants provided informed written consent, thus approving their willful participation in the study.
The study by Pohl et al. (2015) has both strengths and weaknesses. The main strength of the research study is its analysis of the various feelings associated with fall risk awareness. Several studies investigating the nursing problem of falls do not delve into the relationship between feelings of the elderly and fall-risk awareness (Pohl et al., 2015). The analysis of how elderly persons’ feelings affect their perception and awareness with regard to falls is groundbreaking through offering immense implications for future nursing practice. The weakness of the study lies in its reliance on the inductive approach of qualitative content analysis. The inductive approach of qualitative analysis is quite limiting as it opposes divergent reasoning (Pohl et al., 2015). Therefore, it is an inappropriate method of highlighting the similarities and differences in people’s thoughts about their experiences and actions.
The evidence from the study provides valuable insight to contemporary nursing practice. The findings of the study, particularly the relationship between feelings and fall risk awareness, can be utilized to shape pertinent fall prevention awareness programs for the elderly. The findings of the study can enable nurses to focus on harnessing positive feelings among the elderly to prevent them from falls and related injuries.
Pohl, P., Sandlund, M., Ahlgren, C., Bergvall-Kåreborn, B., Lundin-Olsson, L., & Wikman, A. M. (2015). Fall risk awareness and safety precautions are taken by older community-dwelling women and men—A qualitative study using focus group discussions. PLoS one, 10(3), e0119630. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119630
Siegrist, M., Freiberger, E., Geilhof, B., Salb, J., Hentschke, C., Landendoerfer, P. … & Blank, W. A. (2016). Fall prevention in a primary care setting: the effects of a targeted complex exercise intervention in a cluster randomized trial. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 113(21), 365. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2016.0365