Sample Nursing Paper on Conceptual models and frameworks

Conceptual models and frameworks


Given that knowledge development is cumulative, understanding how it is integrated into and expands on previous research sets the stage for contextual significance, specifically theoretical context. Through theoretical context, the structure and system of concepts arise. Theory, then, can be used as a conceptual model to inform a study.

For this Discussion, you will explore how a theoretical/conceptual model can demonstrate the relationship and interrelationships of key variables or concepts in a study and provide guidance to inform the study design, analysis, and results.

Note: You will prepare a concept map as part of your Discussion post, which will also be the basis of the Assignment this week. You are encouraged to review both the Week 4 Discussion and Assignment directions before preparing your Discussion post.


Required readings



  • Review the Week 4 Learning Resources. Pay particular attention to the text readings and other resources with guidance for developing a concept map; for example, in the study by Thomas et al. (2015), a table shows how the three major concepts in the theory are linked operationally.
  • Based on your Discussion 2 in Week 3, choose one nursing theory as the focus of this Week 4 Discussion. Your focus theory may be one you selected or a theory recommended to you by a colleague responding to your Discussion 2 post.
  • Review the concepts used in the theory and how the concepts interrelate.
  • Consider how you would develop a concept map as a visual representation of the theory and that shows how concepts interact within a framework.

With these thoughts in mind …

Post an explanation of a concept map of your selected theory from Week 3 that applies to your social problem or research problem of interest, and include a diagram of your concept map. State the problem and the theoretical framework or conceptual model you used to develop your concept map. Explain how the concepts interact within your framework. Then, explain how you would use this specific theory to guide a research study and what changes you might make in the model as you developed your research. Explain how you could use concepts in your study to promote social change.



This was my post in week 3

Concepts in a Theory
As a nursing researcher interested in population health, my focus is on investigating why men fail to take their hypertensive medications in The Bahamas. Some nursing theories that could guide my research include the Health Promotion Model (HPM) and the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The HPM is a middle-range nursing theory that explains the multidimensional nature of people’s health behaviors (McEwen & Wills, 2019). The theory is based on the belief that individuals’ positive health behaviors are influenced by their characteristics, the environment, and interactions with these factors (Aqtam & Darawwad, 2018). It involves six interrelated concepts: individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, behavioral outcomes, perceived benefits of action, perceived barriers to action, and cues to action. These influence health-promoting behavior and provide a framework for understanding the factors that motivate people to engage in positive health behaviors.

Similarly, SCT is a social learning theory that seeks to explain how people learn and change behavior. The theory is predicated on the belief that people’s behavior is influenced by their environmental factors and their interactions with these factors (Shamizadeh et al., 2019). The SCT has three main concepts: behavioral capability, expectations, and self-efficacy. Behavioral capability refers to an individual’s knowledge and skills to perform a behavior, while expectations refer to the anticipated outcomes. Self-efficacy, the central concept of the SCT, refers to one’s confidence in their ability to perform the behavior successfully. These concepts interrelate to influence behavior change and provide a framework for understanding how people can learn and change behavior.

While the HPM focuses on health-promoting behaviors, the SCT focuses on behavior change. However, both theories emphasize the interrelatedness of personal and environmental factors in influencing behavior, with the HPM emphasizing the role of individual characteristics and experiences. At the same time, the SCT focuses on the role of self-efficacy. The two theories can help guide my research. The HPM could help me identify the factors that motivate men to engage in positive health behaviors, such as taking their medications, while the SCT could help me understand how men can learn and change their behavior to take their medications regularly (Obirikorang et al., 2022; Smith et al., 2020). For instance, I could use the SCT to develop a self-efficacy intervention to improve men’s confidence in regularly taking their medications. Therefore, nursing theories, such as the HPM and SCT, can provide a framework for understanding the complex interrelationships between personal and environmental factors that influence health behaviors and behavior change and guide the development of effective interventions to improve population health.

Aqtam, I., & Darawwad, M. (2018). Health promotion model: An integrative literature review. Open Journal of Nursing, 8(7), 485-503.
McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.
Obirikorang, Y., Acheampong, E., Anto, E. O., Afrifa-Yamoah, E., Adua, E., Taylor, J., Fondjo, L. A., Lokpo, S. Y., Adu, E. A., Adutwum, B., Antwi, E. O., Acheampong, E. N., Gyamfi, M. A., Aidoo, F., Owiredu, E., & Obirikorang, C. (2022). Nexus between constructs of social cognitive theory model and diabetes self-management among Ghanaian diabetic patients: A mediation modelling approach. PLOS Global Public Health, 2(7), e0000736.
Shamizadeh, T., Jahangiry, L., Sarbakhsh, P., & Ponnet, K. (2019). Social cognitive theory-based intervention to promote physical activity among prediabetic rural people: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Trials, 20(1).
Smith, Y., Garcia-Torres, R., Coughlin, S. S., Ling, J., Marin, T., Su, S., & Young, L. (2020). Effectiveness of social cognitive theory–based interventions for glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. JMIR Research Protocols, 9(9), e17148.


Focusing on SCT may be beneficial because the study’s goal would be to assist and teach men the importance of taking their meds to live a long, healthy life free of complications that could have been avoided.