Sample Nursing Paper on Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular is the system that supplies blood to the body. It is made up of the veins,

arteries, heart and capillaries. Cardiovascular diseases are the heart conditions that

interfere with this system. Among the conditions are congenital heart disease, angina,

heart attack, coronary artery disease, heart failure, mitral regurgitation, mitral valve

prolapse, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, radiation heart disease, rheumatic heart disease and

atrial fibrillation. These conditions have different causes and symptoms associated to them.

Signs of prolonged chest pain indicate that a patient could be suffering from angina.

Low blood pressure, tachycardia and crackles in the lungs are signs of arrhythmia. The

patient experiences heart beats more than a hundred times per minute. These heart arrhythmias

are due to a faulty heart. Tachycardia can originate either from the atria or the ventricle of the


Primary diagnosis for acute coronary syndrome can be chest pain with dyspnea. Other

assessments are electrocardiography, risk factors evaluation, the symptoms and signs that could

be presented. Measuring serum cardiac troponin is also used. Risk score validation like

myocardial infarction thrombolysis presence is also considered( American Family Physician,


Electrocardiogram is a test carried out on a heart at rest to record its functioning. It takes

information on the rhythm as well as the rate of the heart, showing any heart enlargement

resulting from hypertension or any previous signs of heart attack. The test is needed when the

patient has problems such as hypertension, heart disease symptoms like paining chest and

irregular heartbeat. This test is important as soon as possible so that the patient can know the

problems they could be having and take medication or the control measures needed.

Myocardial Infarction is heart condition where the heart muscle is permanently

damaged due to insufficient blood supply. This is caused by blocking of coronary

artery because of plaque. This starves the heart of oxygen and nutrients that are essential for its

proper workability. One sign is chest pains, where in complete blockage heart attack can result.

Some blood studies can be conducted to tests for acute myocardial infarction. Cardiac biomarker

and Creatine-Kinase-MB isoform are majorly relied upon to confirm diagnosis of acute

myocardial infarction, on patients experiencing chest pains(US Cardiology, 2007;4(2):30-1).

In defining acute myocardial infarction, cardiac troponin is important. Guidelines given by

American College of Cardiology and Cardiology Society in Europe recommend the cardiac

biomarker because it has proved to be accurate and super sensitive. Complete blood cell count,

lipid profile, comprehensive metabolic panel and troponin level. Negative values of creatine

kinase-MB and high levels of troponin in a patient who formerly tested unstable angina positive

is said to be non-ST-segment elevation MI.

Diminished pedal pulses and bruits suggest a patient’s increased probability of a

cardiovascular disease. As one examines the patient’s rhythm and rate of

the heart according to the ECG test results, one may be able to determine the cardiovascular

problem characterized by reduced pedal pulse and bruits. A patient suffering from heart

arrhythmia disease could show this sign alongside with chest pains where the chest feels tight,

generally resulting from physical or emotional pressure. This could also be caused by insufficient

blood flow. Other signs are crushing of pressure, short breath, tachycardia and the heart beat

could be slow .

Myocardial infarction is more likely to occur in the left ventricle than in the right

ventricle. The left ventricle is mainly affected because of the its anatomy, as it experiences

much resistance in its contraction due to systemic circulation pressure. The work load is higher

on the left  than on the right ventricle, therefore the oxygen demand is higher on the left

than on the right ventricle. Right ventricle has a thinner wall thickness than the left ventricle,

making it harder for the left ventricle to put into use the oxygen available in the ventricular

cavity .

Dizziness comes due to reduction in blood pressure in the systole. This may

happen when one stands or sits too quickly. It may also be brought by a reduction in the blood

volume thus causing inadequate flow of blood to the inner ear and or brain. Family Nurse

Practitioners focus on the heart so as to monitor the heart’s rate and rhythm. Light headaches are

due to the inadequate blood supply to the brain and inner ears, therefore there is insufficient

oxygen supply(Mayo clinic,2019).

Unstable angina occurs in an unpredictable angina symptoms pattern, which should be

treated as an emergency, as it could signal a heart attack. Stable angina, the symptoms are easily

predicted on the next time they occur. A patient with a stable angina well knows the symptoms

and knows how to relieve them. A heart attack however, occurs when blood is blocked from

flowing to the heart. Heart attacks results from plaque build-up in the coronary arteries. When

plaque breaks, the body forms a clot around the open plaque so as to fix it. The clotting

therefore causes the artery blockage limiting oxygen and blood entry to the heart. The plaque

build-up process is referred to as the coronary artery disease, which can take place as from

childhood. A heart attack cannot be relieved; a patient has to seek for medical assistance (Health

wise Staff, 2018).

Atherosclerosis disease results from deposition of plagues in the arteries. It starts with

formation of fatty streaks, then atheroma formation and eventually atherosclerotic plagues form.

Risk factors associated can be modifies by reducing cholesterol intake, hypertension, checking

body weight by eating balanced diet and keeping physical fitness, diabetes mellitus check-ups,

and living an active lifestyle ( Mayo Clinic, 2019). This is important to reduce the risk of

contracting other cardiovascular diseases.





Amaziar Zafari , May 07, 2019

American Family Physician, 2017

Health wise Staff, 2018.

Mayo Clinic, Heart arrhythmia. 2019

Mayo Clinic, Dizzinness. 2019


Roffi M, et al., 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in

patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: Task Force for the

Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-

Segment Elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2016 Jan

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