Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease which affects both humans and animals, it can cause adverse effects when it goes undiagnosed and is not controlled early enough. It can lead to kidney failure, meningitis, liver failure or even death when it is not treated. The aim of this research paper is to find out the health effects of leptospirosis among men aged between 50 to 65 years old in Florida State and to find out ways in which they can be educated to reduce the prevalence of the disease. The paper begins with background information on the condition, then provides an epidemiological analysis. It concludes with a program plan to help in the prevention of leptospirosis among the target population.
Leptospirosis in Florida is documented to so many years back; the first cases were only five in the year 1957. Later, analysis taken proved that most cases were male and were attributed to the bacteria l, Carniola which is associated with dogs (Goarant, 2016). Most other cases were epidemiologically associated with cattle, swine and contact with water surface. Some years later, the highest prevalence of leptospirosis was recorded in Florida where an analysis showed that the infection came about due to the contact with the milking areas (Goarant, 2016). Reported cases of human leptospiros have declined due to some unknown reason.
Some risks of the disease include; uveitis which is mostly common in horses but sometimes prevails on humans too. It is a delayed complication of leptospirosis, involving autoimmune mechanisms. Miscarriages are also caused by leptospirosis and this is mostly common in mammals too suffering from the condition (Goarant, 2016). Cardiac manifestations mostly include arrhythmia, but myocarditis has also been frequently reported. They usually occur during the acute phase; they might be considered as a sign pointing to possible leptospirosis in differential diagnosis. Delayed neurological complications might also present as Guillain–Barre syndrome. All these complications, are symptomized by severe diarrheas, fever and vomiting (Goarant, 2016). Adventure racing occurs in the USA and it includes a paddling section, swamp race events are less common but pose an increased risk of substantial and prolonged exposure to surface water leading to leptospirosis (Goarant, 2016).
The leptospirosis notification rate decreased slightly over the previous years due to some reasons not well understood. The disease is always mostly prevalent in water clogged humid areas, this is because the areas provide the favorable temperatures for the bacteria to harbor. In most cases, males between the age of 45-65 years are always affected whereas younger people tend not to be affected more (Jobbins & Alexander, 2015). The risk population includes the hunters, farmers, sewage workers, veterinarians and those associated with water contact or animals and plants handling.
The spread and infection by leptospirosis can be analyzed using various methods that helps in finding the most reliable outcome and deductions. Some methods that can be used to gather information and that can help in the analysis include; examining rates by time using the line graph, the secular trend which involves the observing of diseases over a long period of time such as a decade or a century, and using seasonal and cyclical patterns (Jobbins & Alexander, 2015). The population mostly at risk includes the males aged between 45-65 years old in Florida and those exposed to humid areas and the animals such as horses, cattle and swine. Scholarly evidence includes screening of some kidneys from suspected animals where some were found to have the bacteria whereas other animals didn’t have the bacteria in sub Saharan Africa (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2017).
The goal of HP 2020 is to reduce the mortality rate by 2020 and to save more lives through vaccination and immunization. This goal entails increasing the immunization rate for leptospirosis and to prevent or reduce its infection among the risk population (Reid, Kama, & Mangum, 2015). The objective is to increase life expectancy by increasing technological advancements and by ensuring that the state and NGOs are strong partners to ensure that the disease is controlled. The objectives of Healthy People 2020 about leptospirosis includes to determine the roles and evidence of key stakeholders affected, to determine which animal species is the source of infection and to determine the clinical outcomes and factors associated with laboratory confirmed cases (Reid et al., 2015).
The healthy people 2020 goals for various problems involves identifying research, evaluation and data collection need, identify health improvement priorities, increase public awareness and understanding of the determinants of health, provide measurable objectives and goals that are applicable (Healthypeople.gov, 2019).
The plan for the control and prevention of leptospirosis has been approved. Some of the action plans include; strengthening of patient management facilities, trained man power development, strengthening of intersectional coordination and early diagnosing by strengthening of laboratory diagnosing facilities and creating awareness in the general community. These can be implemented by the HP 2020 to ensure that the prevalence of the disease reduces and that those at risk are well educated to prevent the spread in Florida (Day, n.d).
Day, N. (n.d). Epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. Up to Date. Retrieved from www.uptodate.com/contents/leptospirosis-epidemiology-microbiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis
Goarant, C. (2016). Leptospirosis: Risk factors and management challenges in developing countries. Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine, 7, 49-62. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6028063/
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2017). Leptospirosis – annual epidemiological report 2016 [2014 data]. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved from ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/leptospirosis-annual-epidemiological-report-2016-2014-data
Healthypeople,gov. (2019). About healthy people. Retrieved from www.healthypeople.gov/2020/About-Healthy-People
Jobbins, S.E. & Alexander, K.A. (2015). Evidence of Leptospira sp. infection among a diversity of African wildlife species: beyond the usual suspects. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 109(5), 349-351. Retrieved from academic.oup.com/trstmh/article-abstract/109/5/349/1939069?redirectedFrom=fulltext
Reid, S., Kama, M., & Mangum, B. (2015). Studies on the epidemiology of leptosporosis in Fiji. Fiji Health Research Portal. Retrieved from health.gov.fj/fijihrp/index.php?journal=hrp&page=search&op=viewProposal&path%5B%5D=23