Sample Medicinal Sciences Paper on Teratogenic drugs

Teratogenic drugs are medicinal substances that have the capacity to interfere with the normal development of the embryo. These elements either stop the pregnancy or create an unexpected congenital malfunction that results in a birth defect (Hughes, 2008). These drugs result in a functional or structural altercation in the foetus. These drugs are, however, only dangerous to pregnant women. All elements containing alcohol and illegal substances like cocaine are high in teratogenic agents. An example of a teratogenic drug is isotretinoin, which is a curative medication prescribed to acne patients.

An orphan drug generally refers to a medication that is used to cure an orphan or rare disease. An orphan disease is a condition that affects a relatively fewer proportion of the population such as less than 200,000 persons in the United States and fewer than 50,000 in Japan. An orphan disease can also be mean a disease that has been isolated and neglected by professional health practitioners. Such diseases include intermittent porphyria and Fabry’s disease. An example of an orphan drug is haem arginate used to cure acute intermittent porphyria.

A generic name, in the context of drugs, may refer to the chemical name of the medication, the chemical make-up of the drug rather than its selling name, or the drug’s chemical name under which it is sold without advertising. Drugs sold under their generic identities are less expensive than those marketed under their brand names although both are identical. An example of a generic identity is diazepam. This is a common sedative that is marketed under the brand name vazepam by some companies.

A brand name refers to a drug’s market/trade name. Unlike the generic name that is obtained from the drug’s chemical make-up, brand names are chosen by the companies selling the drugs. It is a common phenomenon to find different companies dealing with the same generic drug but with different brand names. An example of a brand name is Panadol. This medicine’s generic name is paracetamol.

Medication administration is a very sensitive part of professional health care. With several reported cases of errors at this stage, several corrective measures have been instituted including the six rights of medication administration. These rights help prevent medication errors associated with drugs having similar packaging and names. Other errors include commonly prescribed drugs, medications to which most patients’ are allergic and those that require testing to ensure nontoxicity. These rights include right patient, right time, right dose, right medication, right documentation, and right route. The right patient involves noting the patient’s correct names to ensure that these match the order. The right medication involves evaluating the prescribed drugs to ensure they match the order. This means checking vigilantly for look-alikes and sound-alikes. This right is especially crucial when children are involved. The drugs should be checked to ensure that the dosage and strength match with the order.

The right time entails administering medication at the required time or after the intended time interval. The administration time should match the order especially for PRN drugs. For a drug to be effective, it should be administered in the required manner either mixed with other substances or in powder form. The health care personnel administering the medication should ensure that the route is in tandem with the order. Lastly, a clear documentation should be taken immediately following a medication administration. This avoids repetition and allows for supervision of the patient and the drugs.




Works Cited.

Hughes, R. (Ed.). (2008). Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses (Vol. 3). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.