Sample Medical Sciences Paper on Pharmacology


In the recent years, medicine and the entire clinical field have been changing. The global research and the practitioners clinical experience in line with medicine, has played a key role in broadening our knowledge and comprehension. However, modern advancements in treatment and drug therapy are required in the health sector. This paper focuses on teratogenic and orphan drugs and the six rights of medication administration in the field of medicine.

Teratogenic drugs are those drugs that are capable of acting as teratogens in the human body.  Teratogens are identified as agents that can disturb the growth and development of embryo or foetus. Moreover, they are identified as a cause of child defects and an automatic hinder to pregnancies outrights. Example of teratogenic drugs are angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors like benazepril (brand name: Lotensin), captopril (brand name: Capoten). In addition, modern advancements have helped in the global drug research and development. This has seen the development of orphan drugs. Orphan drugs are identified as drugs that can treat rare medical conditions knowns as orphan diseases. Examples of orphan drugs are Albendazole (brand name: Albenza) used in the treatment of hydatid disease, and Aldesleukin (brand name: Proleukin) used in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (voor de Gezondheidszorg, 2009).

Moreover, in the clinical practice, the significant objective is to maximize the health and wellbeing of patients. Therefore, the patient’s safety and quality of health care has recently been encompassed on. Rights of medication administration have been identified and formulated to guide the patient’s safety and maximize on the quality of health care services. First, is that the medication should be administered to the rightfully prescribed patient. However, administration of medication to the wrong patient has become a common error. Therefore, medical practitioners should use the available identifiers such as a patient’s name and date of birth records each time they administer medication. This should be done despite how long the practitioner has known and been caring for the patient (voor de Gezondheidszorg, 2009).

Second is that a patient is entitled to the right drug during the administration of medication (Hughes & Blegen, 2008). Practitioners need to consult on the drug prescriptions before administering any medication to the right patient. The rationale for this is that many medications may have similar names. Therefore, they need to inquire on their generic names when the medications are prescribed. Besides, practitioners also need to consult in case of sloppy handwritings and ensure that the right patient is not allergic to the right drug. Third, practitioners are advised to use the right route prescribed. They should administer medication orally or by injection as prescribed. In any case of omission, the practitioners are required to notify or consult physicians for clarification.

Fourth, administration of medication must be done at the right time (Hughes & Blegen, 2008). Medications are often prescribed to be given or administered at certain frequencies or time intervals. Practitioners are required to be conversant with the prescribed frequencies of medications. Fifth, a patient is entitled to the right dose. In the clinical practice, practitioners are required to administer the right dose that has been prescribed by the physician. This is to ensure a patient’s safety as wrong dosage can result to severe patient’s conditions. Sixth is the right to documentation. Practitioners should sign the medication charts. This identify that medication had been provided to the patient.

In brief, medical practitioners should have a better knowledge and comprehension of the scope of clinical practice. This will ensure that the patient’s safety is observed and the medical services are maximized. Practitioners also need to engage professional own decisional making when necessary.



Hughes, R. G., & Blegen, M. A. (2008). Medication administration safety. Retrieved from

voor de Gezondheidszorg, F. K. (2009). Policies for Rare Diseases and Orphan Drugs. Retrieved from