Sample History Paper on Hypotheses on Evolution Theory

Question 1

Evolution has several theories that explain bipedalism. One such theory argues that because the upper limbs are free, it is assumed that the use of the hands for making items for use such as farming and hunting tools contributed to the adoption of upright posture. Another theory reasons that because they had to carry items and foods on their heads while walking in the forests and waters in search of food, bipedalism helped them save energy in the process of hunting and gathering. Another theory explains that the upright position helped in adverse environmental conditions as a little portion of the body is exposed to rain or sunshine thus allowing comfort. Another theory argues that primates not being water animals had to assume upright position to walk in the waters; this allowed them self-defense in case of attacks. Not much is known about emergence of bipedalism; however, some theories try to explain when they first emerged.

Question 2

Some of the anatomical features of bipedalism include the position of the spinal cord, long femur bones, as well as strong feet that handles impact to the positioning of the brain. The pelvic structures also support upright posture. The climate is believed to have had a great effect on the movement of the bipedal as it determined places they would occupy and also determined their adaptations. Homo-erectus had larger bodies exposed thus suffered setbacks in adverse climatic conditions. Neanderthals had more muscles on them, their female gender were shorter, they also had a bigger brain; their eye sockets were round and had bigger noses. They had larger jaws with bigger teeth. The Neanderthals and Homo sapiens share features like long bones, similar jawbones, and growth developmental stages. It is believed that Homo sapiens and Neanderthals interbred, and therefore, have similar genetic structures. Neanderthal genome supports the theory of interbreeding between modern man and Neanderthals.

Question 3:

According to Clovis, the first Native Americans must have moved while hunting and crossed over and upon returning they found the routes closed and thus settled in the continent 13,500 years ago. One theory that challenges Clovis is why he opted to get away from home into foreign land. Archeological attributes have also disputed Clovis’ theory as discoveries made showed that there existed presence of human in America. One theory explains that Americans could have used a footbridge that crossed from Asia into America. Archeological facts on sites confirm this theory. Foragers adapted to their environment using their skills to pass information to each other thus working together to hunt for food. The foragers lived in temporary places depending on climatic conditions that influenced availability of food. During rainy seasons, for example, they would gather green vegetables. They also distributed work amongst them according to gender and the environmental conditions prevailing in the temporary structures they lived in.

Question 4:

The san used their knowledge on plants and grouped them according to their uses; others for food and some for treatment. Their knowledge also assisted them to know the different types of animals for food. The men had good skills on hunting and they would make holes in the sandy deserts to get water. Their diet includes wild animal meat, vegetables, eggs, fish and even insects, which were mostly roasted. On the other hand, most Americans do not eat animals like hyenas that the san people ate. They rather use foods that are more in fats and sugars and also consume high calorie foods.