The modern mathematics of probability dates back to the 16th and 17th century. Two famous French mathematicians, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat, develop the theory of probability drawing inspiration from a problem with dice game experiences by a renowned philosophical gambler Chevalier de Mere (“The Beginning Of Probability And Statistics”). De mere proposed an enquiry to the proper division of the stakes upon interruption of a game of chances. The games of opportunities date as old as human history. Gambling, directly and indirectly, influenced the development of the theory of probability following a series of exchange of letters between the two mathematicians, which later became the foundations of probability, which eventually changed mathematicians and scientists’ perceptions about uncertainty and risks.
The problem in the game of chances was the number of turns required to attain a six in the roll of two dices. De Mere profound gambling rule inspired the belief that betting on a double six in 24-throw would be profitable. However, the results indicated something entirely different. Although the approaches of previous Italian mathematicians of the 15th and 16th century had solved some unique problems with the games of chances, there was no established theory. Fermat and Pascal introduced an entirely new set of different solutions (“July 1654: Pascal’S Letters To Fermat On The”). Fermat proposed a solution based his solutions on probabilities while Pascal thought of a solution to the problem not in terms of probability but terms of quantity commonly known as expectations. Although different in approach, the two theorists mostly agree on the numerical answers for the problem. Pascal later works propose the calculation of numbers of combinations and grouping them to solve primary gambling challenges.
The most famous proposal in the development of probability theory follows the realization that one could predict the outcomes of a game of chances to a certain degree of accuracy. The second accomplishment saw the interaction of probability and statistics to form a distinct, firmly grounded scientific approach with extensive application and probable outcomes (“A Short History Of Probability”). The initial works of Pascal, Fermat, Graunt, and Laplace, set the probability theory and later statistics that form the valuable inferential science of today.
“A Short History Of Probability”. Homepages.Wmich.Edu, http://homepages.wmich.edu/~mackey/Teaching/145/probHist.html.
“July 1654: Pascal’S Letters To Fermat On The”. Aps.Org, 2009, https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200907/physicshistory.cfm.
“The Beginning Of Probability And Statistics”. Math.Utep.Edu, http://www.math.utep.edu/Faculty/mleung/probabilityandstatistics/beg.html