- China’s Territorial Disputes
China’s major territorial disputes are believed to have originated from the ill treaties that were signed between the Qing government and the foreign nations. The approach to these unequal treaties by the subsequent government brought about the conflicts. Most of these disputes are connected to the geopolitical interests between China, her neighbors and the rest of the world (Chi-kin n.d).
Sino-Indian dispute of 1962 was caused by the forward policy formulated by India and the Indian press speculation over the possible war in China. The Chinese thought that the Indians could collude with the enemies such as the Soviet Union to attack them because they had some internal weaknesses. They offensively attacked India by military. The dispute changed the Chinese foreign policy about the Indians.
The Sino-Soviet dispute involved the Chinese government and Soviet Union in 1969. China set up the patrol on the disputed border after the collapse of border talks in 1964. The military confrontation and the Soviet Union attack on Czechoslovakia ignited the war. China wanted to use this war to deter external attacks from the enemies. The dispute resulted in the change in foreign relations policy and adoption of diplomatic ways to deal with any further dispute.
The biggest territorial dispute took place between China and Paracel & Spratly Islands in 1974. The cause of the dispute was claim of ownership of the Islands by China and the French Colonial administration in Vietnam after the pacific war. Vietnam sent the patrol troops on the Islands, China responded by settling there. The withdrawal of US troops in Asia also ignited the rise of other superpowers. The presence of oil on the banks of South China Sea and on the islands prompted China to change their policy to control the entire maritime. This led to changes in China’s ocean policy take the ownership of the Islands thus maritime super power in Asia (Chi-kin n.d).
- The Role of Women in China to Serve the Nation
There has been gender inequality in China. However, some women have played a key role in the leadership of China. Wang Cong er was born in a peasant family and brought up by her mother after the death of the father when still young. Due to the difficulties in the family built her character and endurance. The mother did not restrict her but empowered her to support herself through arts. She served others equally in her group.
She later became a military leader during the White Lotus Rebellion against the Qing dynasty in the 19th century. She showed bravery and confidence as she led the army during the war. The women who participated in Lotus rebellion were taught art by her thus empowering them to earn a living from arts. The fight against Qing operation led by her later as it brought to the end the violence in the nation. From her character, women were respected for their military leadership skills, fighting capabilities, and idealisms (Bennett 351).
Empress Dowager Cixi was born during the times when women in China were under oppression. Young daughters did not have any right to inherit the family wealthy while most were being forced to get married at their early age. Education was only offered to sons. Some women suffered a lot in the empire as the palace maids and emperor’s concubines. She later became the imperial consort. She served the emperor by reading all the leaders sent to him from the provinces. These new tasks increased her desire for power.
After China had lost the opium wars, she offered the advice to the emperor to remain in the city but chose to do otherwise. She had learned civil service examinations and appointments during her time in the empire. She became China’s leader after the opium wars. The country was divided after these wars; she successively suppressed the rebellious groups thus improving cohesion in the country. She set up the policies that led to the recovery of the nation after the wars. This was seen in the effective taxation, economic recovery, and use of western technology. The balance between the national government and the local authorities was also struck. The education and examination system for all was revived making China a competitive nation. The authority exempted foreigners from taxation to encourage the foreign investment (Bennett 357).
Lo, Chi-kin. China’s policy towards territorial disputes: the case of the South China Sea islands. Vol. 10. Routledge, 2013.
Peterson, Barbara Bennett, ed. Notable women of China: Shang dynasty to the early twentieth century. ME Sharpe, 2000.