There is an increasing level of occurrence of both natural and human-made disasters across the globe that has significantly affected the life, livelihood, and economy of the people. Climate change is believed to be the enhancer of the natural catastrophes; hence, has a significant health impact to the population such as spread of waterborne diseases (Nies & McEwen, 2014). Evading disaster is a challenging task since no communities are resistant to the dangers brought by the calamity. However, with appropriate planning in response and preparedness strategies, destruction of properties and the level of deaths can be reduced. Scarcity of information and coordination among the response team makes the management of to be a strenuous activity (Dash, Mishra & Mishra, 2013). The process is marked by high uncertainties, which facilitate failure of the rescue supply chain.
Types of Natural Disaster
Tornadoes are the most current natural disaster in the United States affecting over one million individuals every year across the states of America. Cyclones are the violent circulating columns of air that creates contact with the surface and has a substantial effect on the people’s livelihood (Guo, Wang & Bluestein, 2016). The high prevalence of the disaster in the country is due to the conducive topographic and meteorological conditions that favor tornadoes of all kind. During the formation of a tornado, the central vortex of the cyclone is measured to be 328 ft. while the wind velocity is estimated to be 220 mph (Tornado – Tornado Characteristics, 2018). The intense winds not only cause massive destruction of properties but also make the air pressure in the tornado to fall to a level lower than the usual atmospheric pressure.
The low pressure found within the vortex carry remains like soil elements, which gives the tornado an ominous dark color. Effective management of tornadoes entails a broad range of techniques such as disaster mitigation, developing emergency plans and trainings, and creation of disaster response and recovery team (Chaney, Weaver, Youngblood & Pitts, 2013). Equally, the process involves educating the public and business entities on sheltering actions, how to use the sirens, and facilitating the development of personal plans. Collaboration between the governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations is also one of the ways used to protect the citizens during disaster happenings.
Roles and Responsibilities of Nurses about Disaster Preparedness
The work settings during a disaster occurrence significantly differ with the day-to-day activities of the nurses. The most significant feature of a catastrophe is the shortage of materials such as food, shelter, medication, and safe water. Areas, where nurses operate in times of a calamity, comprise the evacuation centers, local health facilities, and the nursing homes found in the affected regions (Kako, Ranse, Yamamoto & Arbon, 2014). As such, communication is one of the critical roles of the nurses as they help to coordinate information between the injured, health institutions, and the non-governmental agencies like Red Cross. Equally, exchange of informative materials among the nurses not only assist in controlling patient transfer but, is also meaningful in enhancing appropriate care.
Nurses are involved in danger assessment and development of plans before the occurrence of a calamity, responding when a catastrophe occurs, and helping in averting the threats during the whole rescue process. Equally, the practitioners are engaged in creating awareness among women and their families on how to plan and stay safe in case a disaster strike (Grochtdreis, de Jong, Harenberg, Görres & Schröder-Bäck, 2016). Additionally, nurses provide medication to the injured personnel to avoid high death rate. The health personnel are required to provide leadership in the emergency departments to facilitate effective operation and communication with other stakeholders involved in the adversity management.
Natural Disaster Preparedness in Ohio
Natural disaster preparedness is one of the important factors under consideration by the governmental agencies and the non-governmental organizations in the state of Ohio. Some of the safety precautions include avoiding windows and loose objects, closing of doors and windows, and searching for shelter when issued with a notice. Additionally, individuals are required to be attentive to weather reports and to monitor and adhere to directions offered by the local authorities (Disaster Preparedness | Troy, OH, 2018). As a way of protecting the citizens from catastrophes like floods, people are required to evacuate when directed by authorities, never drive on flooded areas, and avert from building in regions prone to floods. Equally, when the disaster occurs, one is required to be calm and patient, conform to their emergency plans, and provide help to those with special needs.
Across the globe, there is an increasing level of disaster occurrence, which has led to a significant impact on people’s livelihoods, destruction of properties, and loss of lives. Evading calamities is one of the most challenging issues since no country is immune to catastrophes, hence, governments are required to prepare to help reduce the degree of effects. The United States of America is profoundly the affected nation due to the favorable topographies and meteorological conditions that enhance the occurrence of tornadoes. In times of disasters, nurses are responsible for coordinating care between the injured, health facilities, and other stakeholders. Natural disaster preparedness in Ohio entails issuing of evacuation notice to individuals in susceptible areas.
Chaney, P. L., Weaver, G. S., Youngblood, S. A., & Pitts, K. (2013). Household preparedness for tornado hazards: The 2011 disaster in DeKalb County, Alabama. Weather, Climate, and Society, 5(4), 345-358. https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/full/10.1175/WCAS-D-12-00046.1
Dash, S. R., Mishra, U. S., & Mishra, P. (2013). Emerging issues and opportunities in disaster response supply chain management. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 2(1), 55-61. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298693693_Emerging_issues_and_opportunities_in_disaster_response_supply_chain_management
Disaster Preparedness | Troy, OH. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.troyohio.gov/502/Disaster-Preparedness
Grochtdreis, T., de Jong, N., Harenberg, N., Görres, S., & Schröder-Bäck, P. (2016). Nurses’ roles, knowledge and experience in national disaster pre-paredness and emergency response: A literature review. South Eastern European Journal of Public Health, 7(1). http://www.seejph.com/index.php/seejph/article/view/133
Guo, L., Wang, K., & Bluestein, H. B. (2016). Variability of tornado occurrence over the continental United States since 1950. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(12), 6943-6953. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/2015JD024465
Kako, M., Ranse, J., Yamamoto, A., & Arbon, P. (2014). What was the role of nurses during the 2011 Great East Earthquake of Japan? An integrative review of the Japanese literature. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 29(3), 275-279. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262225736_What_Was_the_Role_of_Nurses_During_the_2011_Great_East_Earthquake_of_Japan_An_Integrative_Review_of_the_Japanese_Literature
Nies, M. A., & McEwen, M. (2014). Community/Public Health Nursing-E-Book: Promoting the Health of Populations. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Tornado – Tornado Characteristics (2018). Retrieved from http://science.jrank.org/pages/6868/Tornado-Tornado-character