Sample Geology Paper on Demographic Transition Theory

Demographic Transition Theory

The Demographic Transition Concept and the Process of its Development

Demographic transition is a concept that delineates variations in the level of birth and death in a given population. A transformation in the socio-economic conditions causes a change in the rates of birth and mortality, which are eventually reflected in the populace rise. The theory is signified by the levels of mortality, the natural increase in population, births, urbanizations, and the number of elderly individuals (Islam, 2016). Warren Thompson, an American demographer who identified alterations in the magnitudes of birth and deaths among industrialized countries, initiated the model in 1929. Adolphe Landry made a similar observation on the demographic behaviors and a potential rise in population in 1934 (Nielsen, 2016). Frank Notestein created a more detailed demographic transition theory between 1940 and 1950, which found a negative relationship between fertility and industrial expansion.

The Four Phases of Demographic Transition

The demographic transition model is divided into four segments: the pre-industrial period, early industrial age, late transition, and the post-demographic transformation.

The Pre-Industrial Period

The pre-industrial stage is signified by a high level of crude births and an increased crude death. As such, the demographic size of the population remains constant. The slow expansion of the population is due to the unavailability of food materials based on lack of technologies to improve food production (Nielsen, 2016). Similarly, insufficient medical care, unhygienic conditions, malnutrition, and prevalence of bacterial infections characterized this populace. This stage was marked by a persistent struggle for survival, which negatively affected the population growth.

Early Industrial Age

High crude birth rate and a decreased level of mortality identify the early industrial age. The stage is considered as the period of population influx since it was associated with rapid industrial development (Nielsen, 2016). The decline in deaths was mainly due to enhanced living conditions, such as improved health care, hygiene, availability of clean and safe water, better sanitation, and augmented food production.

Late Transition Period

The late transition period is marked by a decline in the crude birth rates and low level of crude deaths, leading to a reduction in the size of the population (Nielsen, 2016). The decrease in the populace is due to an alteration in the peoples’ preferences, which is escalated by elements, such as women empowerment, improved educational standards, and the availability of contraceptives.

Post-Demographic Transition

The post-demographic transition is a stage in which the population size is stable, characterized by a close equilibrium between the crude birth and mortality rates. There is a decline in the population size because of a reduction in the degree of births and deaths (Nielsen, 2016). The low levels of birth are delineated by individual inclinations to substitute quantity with quality. Consequently, the effects of infectious ailments are insignificant, and mortality is due to smoking, obesity, and other factors, like suicides and homicides.

Type of Program that Helps Developing Countries Attain Food Security Goals

Food for Peace (FFP) is a program funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) aimed at enhancing food security in most of the developing countries. The project focuses on hunger and malnutrition reduction by promoting availability and access to safe and nutritious food materials (Tappis, Doocy, & Amoako, 2013). The scheme promotes sustainable agriculture through the empowerment of small-scale farmers, facilitating gender equity, mitigating climate change, and enhancing healthy living.



Islam, M. M. (2016). Demographic transition and the emerging windows of opportunities and challenges in Bangladesh. Journal of Population Research, 33(3), 283-305.

Nielsen, R. W. (2016). Demographic transition theory and its link to the historical economic growth. Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 3(1), 32-49. Retrieved from:

Tappis, H., Doocy, S., & Amoako, S. (2013). Food commodity pipeline management in transitional settings: Challenges and lessons learned from the first USAID food development program in South Sudan. Global Health: Science and Practice, 1(2), 193-202. Retrieved from: