Sample Geology Annotated bibliography on Hydraulic fracking

Hydraulic fracking: Annotated bibliography

Chen, Jiangang, Mohammed Al-Wadei, Rebecca C.M Kennedy and Paul D. Terry. “Hydraulic fracturing: Paving the way for a sustainable future?” Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2014.

The article by Chen and others is a review of various articles on hydraulic fracturing, what it encompasses, its advantage over the conventional vertical well drilling and the potential impacts of the process. The objective of the work done by the authors is to fill the gap they identify as the lack of knowledge about hydraulic fracturing among the masses. It is on this foundation that they review articles and conclude that while hydraulic fracturing enhances the life of drilled wells as well as optimizing the gas output, the lack of transparency on the fluids used makes it a potentially dangerous process. The authors therefore make a recommendation that any drilling companies should be obliged to disclose fully the nature of fluid they use for drilling since some of the fluid mixture components such as diesel are bound to cause negative environmental impacts. The article has succeeded in providing sufficient information about the process within the 10 pages of its content.

Boudet, Hilary, Christopher Clarke, Dylan Bugden, Edward Maibach, Connie Roser- Renouf and Anthony Leiserowitz.`Fracking Controversy and communication: using national survey data to understand public perceptions of hydraulic fracking”. Elsevier. 2013

Based on a survey they carried out in 2012, Boudet and others wrote an article to report on the perceptions of the American people on hydraulic fracking. The objective of the survey and subsequent article authorship was to understand what the American masses knew about hydraulic fracking and thus use this knowledge to convince stake holders about the importance of the process. The survey results indicated that most Americans who were informed in the more politically oriented fields supported hydraulic fracking but were unaware of its impacts on the environment. On the other hand, those who were more informed on general knowledge knew about it and would most likely be against it. The authors thus identify the gap of knowledge among the masses and recommend risk communication for the benefit of the masses as well as deeper research into the implications of hydraulic fracking. The article has effectively captured the importance of environmentally safe energy policies without ignoring the input of the public.

Burnett, Wesley. “Hydraulic Fracturing and U.S water policy”. GWF Discussion paper 1309, Global Water Forum, Canberra, Australia. 2013

The discussion paper by Burnett recognizes the implications of the recent boom in natural gas production and the potential it gives for the long term sustainability. The process that results in the increased natural gas production is identified by the author as hydraulic fracking. With a motive of identifying how this process impacts the underground water sources and how the impacts can be controlled, the author suggests that the federal water policy has been ineffective towards addressing the impacts of hydraulic fracking in water. He further asserts that stronger oversight by the federal systems can be able to curb long term effects of hydraulic fracking on water as well as on the environment as a whole. While the main title focused on water policy, the article itself diversifies its ideas into a wide area. As such, it is difficult to garner sufficient amount of information on any issue from this paper. This is probably because it was a presentation rather than academic piece.

Garavaglia, Babra. “Hydraulic fracturing: sources of law and information”. Mich. B.J. 92. 9(2013); 58- 59

The article is written based on motivation by public protests against hydraulic fracking. The author focuses on the negative environmental implications of the hydraulic fracking process, based on the claims that it causes worries due to the large water inputs it requires. Besides this, the author clearly indicates that while it is important to understand the effects of the hydraulic fracking process, it is also essential that the process be considered as probably beneficial and only disadvantageous due to the lack of convergence of federal and state laws. The process is however said to be capable of causing contamination of water and recommendations made that federal and state regulations should be convened towards conservation of the environment. The objectives of the paper are met entirely, regardless of the paper’s shallowness in reference.

Hall, Keith. “Hydraulic fracturing and the baseline testing of ground water”. Journal article (2014).

The article by Keith presented for a university journal repository is motivated by the lack of unity in the idea of hydraulic fracking. The paper focuses mainly on the issue of ground water contamination, with claims that it has not been proven that hydraulic fracking results in ground water contamination. The author is of the opinion that a confirmation of this can only be made through baseline ground water testing procedures. This, he says can help in recognizing the actual effects of the process on ground water and eventually help in laying down regulations for preventing this contamination. It can effectively be said that the paper has efficiently addressed its core objective of giving a recommendation on how to solve the divergence of ideas on the impacts of hydraulic fracking on ground water. It is thus essential for further research to be carried out on how this can be achieved through simulation and technologically advanced processes.

King, George. Hydraulic Fracturing 101: what every representative, environmentalist, regulator, reporter, investor, university researcher, neighbor and engineer should know about estimating frac risk and improving frac performance in unconventional gas and oil wells. Apache Corporation. 2012.

This paper presented for consideration of hydraulic fracking impacts was written by King motivated by the lack of chemical disclosure in the use of hydraulic fracking for natural gas extraction processes. The author suggests that hydraulic fracking is a disruptive technology and should be considered in depth. The profitability of the process is suggested to be dependent on its sustainability. The author recommends that greater transparency should be advocated for in the use of hydraulic fracking for gas extraction. He says that the dissemination of information about the process, as well as the potential impacts on the environment and the community as a whole is bound t o create greater understanding of the process and thus gain more support for it. The paper effectively does what it advocates for by giving details of the process as well as highlighting some of the potential process risks and their mitigation measures. It is thus efficiently written for the original purpose.

Li, Quanshu, Huilin Xing, Jianjun Liu and Xiangchon Liu. “A review on hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir”. Petroleum Journal 1. 1(2015):8-15.

The article “A review on hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir” by Quanshu Li and others focuses on the influences of various aspects such as in situ stresses and complex geological structures on the process of hydraulic fracturing. Using a review of aspects such as experimental and field studies as well as numerical simulations of the hydraulic fracturing process, the authors bring out the influences supposedly leading to proposals on how to master the process of initiation and propagation of hydraulic fracking. The article’s contents are within the expectations of the reader based on what is given in the abstract. However, it fails to identify the key challenges of the hydraulic fracking process and how they can also be addressed. The proposals made are also for research rather than for mastering the process. The work can therefore be said to be less informative than expected.

McKalip, Karole, Elizabeth Lonoff and Rona Ackerman. “Hydraulic fracturing: Making the Headlines in 2011”. Journal Of Peace and Politics 8. 2011. Web. 18 March 2016.

The article describes the process of hydraulic fracturing in depth. According to the authors, the objective is to give sufficient information about the process to enable decision making on whether to support the process or not. From the information given, it is possible to gather details such as the definition of the terms, history of the process, present applications, possible effects, and health and legislative implications. It is the position of this bibliography that the article, though not academic per se is quite informative. This is what motivated its inclusion in the bibliography. The authors have thus effectively addressed the issue of concern in the area of hydraulic fracking since most article focus on its impacts without giving thought to what it is. The authors have thus shown thoughtfulness in their work and consequently deserve to be commended for the work they have done. It can form a good foundation for readers whose desire to know more about hydraulic fracking.

Pierce, Richard. “Natural Gas fracking addresses all of our major problems”. Journal of Energy and Environmental Law. 2013

Contrary to the common place arguments which present the pros and cons of the hydraulic fracking process, Professor Richard offers an exceptional presentation in the form of this research paper. With focus solely on the benefits of hydraulic fracking, the professor gives details that would make one accept the process as it is with all the limitations it presents. Economic benefits to the country, the whole world, and the environment have been mentioned as being core in the application of hydraulic fracking. However, the article fails to recognize any potential limitations of the process and concludes that the process is entirely beneficial to the country and to the world. It can be said that this paper, despite covering an area in which most of the studies have left a gap, it also leaves out essential information on the negative aspects of the process. This makes the paper skewed in its information provision.

Sovacoola, Benjamin. “Cornucopia or Curse? Reviewing the costs and benefits of Shale gas hydraulic fracturing (fracking)”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37. (2014): 249-264

The study carried out by Sovacoola was aimed at determining whether the hydraulic fracking process could be considered as a blessing or a curse to the extraction of oil and gas. In accomplishing the objectives of the study, Sovacoola does a review of more than 100 articles in the subject of hydraulic fracking and comes up with the conclusion that effective process management can lead to profitability through increased production, greater energy sustainability and better drilling performance. On the other hand, when poorly done, the process can result in myriad negative impacts such as environmental degradation, initiation of earthquakes and several other negative eventualities which translate more into a loss than profit. The author thus suggests that policy makers should be taken to task in ensuring that the process is done efficiently and with minimum negative impacts. With over 100 articles for reference, it can be said that the conclusion is well informed.

The Independent Petroleum Association of America: Hydraulic fracturing: Effects on energy supply, the economy and the environment. IPAA. 2014.

The association, it a bid to negate the image of hydraulic fracking among the public, focuses on giving information about the process. From the definition to all aspects of the process, the objective of the association in writing this paper is to give information that can help in decision making. The need for the process is described as being the increasing need for sustainable energy. This implies that the association bases its argument that the process is more beneficial than detrimental on the presenting need. However, it also says that the process may be potentially dangerous but the danger associated with the process is based solely on poor management. From the article’s outlook, it can be concluded that the author of this paper advocates for the drillers as is expected since it is a body that advocates for the rights of the drillers. The information given therein is however sincere as it has been proven by other sources.

Vinciguerra, Timothy, Simon Yao, Joseph Dadzie, Alexa Chittams, Thomas Deskins, Sheryl Ehrman and Russel Dickerson. Regional air quality impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale natural gas activity: Evidence from ambient VOC observations. Elsevier. 2014

The authors of the paper suggest that there have been increased air emissions due to hydraulic fracking processes. The emissions are said to occur both during the process and during transportation activities. As an example, the methane levels are said to have increased immensely, due to greater gas productions. However, the authors identify a gap in the leakage estimation processes which is said to be the cause of ineffective control measures. The paper can be said to be articulated efficiently and has succeeded in achieving its objective of giving sufficient information about the impacts of the hydraulic fracking process. It has covered the areas of environmental impacts intensely and has even given recommendation on how machinery used in the process also contribute to the increase in emissions. It can thus be used as a blue print for how research into the impacts of hydraulic fracking can be carried out.

Watson, Blake. “Hydraulic fracturing tort litigation summary”. Selected articles on fracking contamination and tort litigation. 19 January 2016.

Blake Watson summarizes various cases involving fracking and its impacts on the environment. In summarizing these cases reported from North Dakota to Texas, the author aims at bringing out the perception that hydraulic fracking during drilling activities has the potential of resulting in environmental degradation. Through the summary of case from 2011 to 2003, the article written clearly gives a view of hydraulic fracking as potentially dangerous, with some of the reports involving the escape of gas and oil and their subsequent trespass into neighboring properties, pollution and general cause of public nuisance. In most of the cases presented, the drilling companies have been held liable in cases of material trespass, and have been made to take responsibility for the impacts of their activities. The article is therefore very informative, especially with regards to the application of environmental law on fracking. It however fails to give recommendations for addressing the issues associated with hydraulic fracking hence presents and information gap.

Whalen, Christina. The environmental, social and economic impacts of hydraulic fracturing, horizontal drilling, and acidization in California. 2014. CMC Senior Thesis Paper 969.

The paper focuses on the impacts of various gas and oil drilling processes on the environment. With sufficient literary evidence, Christina mentions some of the possible effects of the hydraulic fracking process on the environment, with the intention of creating public awareness of the process risks and thus initiating the process of improving on the legislation to cater for public needs. Some of the possible effects are mentioned as contamination of water, consumption of large water amounts by processes that use water based fluids, effects on agricultural activities due to soil contamination, and the possibility of inducing seismic activity. To make the claims more authentic, the writer includes some of the current legislations that guide the operation of hydraulic fracking systems as well as recommendations for the future. The differences in the federal and state legislations have been quoted to be a source of challenge for the process control and recommendations have been made to consolidate the process. The piece is professionally written and well supported with sufficient evidence from literature.

Wiseman, Hannah. “Untested waters: the rise of hydraulic fracturing in oil and gas production and the need to revisit regulation”. FORDHAM E NVTL L.R. EV 20. 115(2009).

Wiseman concentrates on the process of hydraulic fracking with particular interest on the gaps left by previous EPA research into the area. The author asserts that while there is no particular method that can be used to regulate the process across all states, it is possible for federal systems to incorporate regulations that help in the control of the process impacts. She cites the negative impacts of hydraulic fracking as water contamination, potential for initiating earthquakes and the gas emissions from the gas resources. Control of leakages is also cited as one of the issues to be addressed by any legislation that will be beneficial in the control of the process impacts. She thus concludes that the Environmental Protection Authority should engage in greater research for the benefit of the environment. The paper is well written, deep and highly informative. By citing gaps in the EPA research, the author makes it a personal responsibility to call relevant authorities to action in an issue of concern.

 

Works Cited

Chen, Jiangang, Mohammed Al-Wadei, Rebecca C.M Kennedy and Paul D. Terry. “Hydraulic fracturing: Paving the way for a sustainable future?” Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2014.

Boudet, Hilary, Christopher Clarke, Dylan Bugden, Edward Maibach, Connie Roser- Renouf and Anthony Leiserowitz.`Fracking Controversy and communication: using national survey data to understand public perceptions of hydraulic fracking”. Elsevier. 2013

Burnett, Wesley. “Hydraulic Fracturing and U.S water policy”. GWF Discussion paper 1309, Global Water Forum, Canberra, Australia. 2013

Garavaglia, Babra. “Hydraulic fracturing: sources of law and information”. Mich. B.J. 92. 9(2013); 58- 59

Hall, Keith. “Hydraulic fracturing and the baseline testing of ground water”. Journal article (2014).

King, George. Hydraulic Fracturing 101: what every representative, environmentalist, regulator, reporter, investor, university researcher, neighbor and engineer should know about estimating frac risk and improving frac performance in unconventional gas and oil wells. Apache Corporation. 2012.

Li, Quanshu, Huilin Xing, Jianjun Liu and Xiangchon Liu. “A review on hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir”. Petroleum Journal 1. 1(2015):8-15.

McKalip, Karole, Elizabeth Lonoff and Rona Ackerman. “Hydraulic fracturing: Making the Headlines in 2011”. Journal Of Peace and Politics 8. 2011. Web. 18 March 2016.

Pierce, Richard. “Natural Gas fracking addresses all of our major problems”. Journal of Energy and Environmental Law. 2013

Sovacoola, Benjamin. “Cornucopia or Curse? Reviewing the costs and benefits of Shale gas hydraulic fracturing (fracking)”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 37. (2014): 249-264

The Independent Petroleum Association of America: Hydraulic fracturing: Effects on energy supply, the economy and the environment. IPAA. 2014.

Vinciguerra, Timothy, Simon Yao, Joseph Dadzie, Alexa Chittams, Thomas Deskins, Sheryl Ehrman and Russel Dickerson. Regional air quality impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale natural gas activity: Evidence from ambient VOC observations. Elsevier. 2014

Watson, Blake. “Hydraulic fracturing tort litigation summary”. Selected articles on fracking contamination and tort litigation. 19 January 2016.

Whalen, Christina. The environmental, social and economic impacts of hydraulic fracturing, horizontal drilling, and acidization in California. 2014. CMC Senior Thesis Paper 969.

Wiseman, Hannah. “Untested waters: the rise of hydraulic fracturing in oil and gas production and the need to revisit regulation”. FORDHAM E NVTL L.R. EV 20. 115(2009).