Sample Geography Questions and Answers


  1. The fundamental explanation to subtropical dryness are those of Hadley circulation, a meridional overturning organized in a cell like structure for a limited latitudinal band located in equatorial regions and very wide latitudinal bands in the subtropical regions in each hemisphere. This continuously changing pattern is highly associated with narrow band of strong precipitation in the deep tropics and dry conditions in the subtropical regions.
  2. The Bermuda high is an example of a high pressure system primarily located in the Atlantic Ocean. Clockwise circulations around this system helps in directing the path of hurricanes and play a big part in determining their landfall. Along the East coasts, summer months are often relatively wet and humid because the wind around the Bermuda system blows moist air from the ocean inland. This highly explain why southern east USA experience rise in humidity throughout summer. Strong gulf currents are caused by surface water pushed by winds around the Bermuda high system.
  3. The Arctic region has been warming fast, about twice as fast as the other parts of the globe. Since the 20th century, the average global temperatures have increased with about 0.6°C, and temperatures have increased twice as fast in the Arctic regions as I the middle latitudes, this phenomenon is referred to as Arctic amplification
  4. Global warming increases the water cycle, increased evaporation and evapotranspiration causes increased precipitation and increased snow and ice melt. As a result the wet regions become wetter and sea level rises. Due to increase in the amount of temperatures the dry regions become drier. As global warming increase, animals adapted to cold climate tend to move poleward in order to stay within the temperature range to which they are adapted to.
  5. Tree rings can be used to determine temperatures and precipitation from millions of years ago. The growth of trees is significantly influenced by climate, the width of the tree ring, tree density and its isotopic composition is a general reflection of the climate that the tree grew in. Adequate moisture and favorable climatic conditions results to formation of wide ring while adverse climatic conditions like high temperatures and drought results to formation of very narrow growth rings.
  6. Ice cores can be used to accurately determine the amount of carbon IV oxide and methane dating thousands and millions of years ago. Ice cores acts as direct archives of past atmospheric gases. The air trapped in the ice cores is obtained and detailed records of carbon iv oxide , methane and other greenhouse gases is obtained. Carbon IV oxide from older ice in arctic regions is less reliable as it is highly soluble in water, thus older records of carbon IV oxide are better obtained from ice cores in Antarctic regions.
  7. Positive feedback is a process occurring in a feedback loop, where the effects of a minimal disturbance on any system results to an increase in the magnitude of the results. In climate change, positive feedback accelerates temperature rise. Example of a positive feedback is melting of ice.
  8. The three natural cycles that control global climate are; carbon cycle water cycle and solar cycle. Changes in the amount of solar energy getting on earth can cause mild impacts on global climate, changes in the way the earth orbit the sun can cause significant changes on climate. Changes in carbon cycle can have adverse effects on the global climate, too much carbon dioxide and methane causes greenhouse effect. Water cycle entail the energy exchange which leads to changes in amount of temperature.
  9. Global warming of a few degrees rise may have adverse effects on climate as it is associated with high widespread changes in regional temperatures, precipitation and increase in other types of extreme weather occurrences. Changes such as rise of the sea level and storm surges have adverse effects on climate and the natural world of living.
  10. Human activities such as burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and urbanization have serious effects on climate. Earth balance models can be used to validate the impact of human on climate, these models significant in that they encompasses the interaction of human and nature and how these interactions affects the climate.
  11. Topsoil has the highest concentration of organic matter and important microorganisms. Most of biological activities occur on this layer, loss of topsoil results to reduced vegetation cover and decrease in land productivity. The main causes of topsoil loss is erosion, loss of topsoil can be prevented by undertaking measures that mitigate soil erosion. Such measures includes; afforestation, strip cropping, terracing and planting of cover crops on bare land.