Sample Geography Paper on Climate Change in Romania

Climate change in Romania


Climate change is caused by direct or indirect interaction of anthropogenic activities that alters the composition of the atmosphere and that which is observed over a given period of time (Iorga, 2016). Coupled with increased world population and technological advancements since industrialization, the demand of land and energy has gradually increased and has resulted to change in climate.  Essentially, due to industrialization, air pollution has significantly increased in Romania (Cuculeanu, Tuinea, & Bǎlteanu, 2002). However, the federal government of Romania is committed to combating climate change by pursuing low carbon development. This paper seek to analyze climate change in Romania as a result of air pollution.

Air Pollution in Romania

Majority of scientific research and studies have recognized that increased greenhouse gases including Carbon IV Oxide, ozone gases and atmospheric humidity has significantly influenced climate change in Romania (Cuculeanu, Tuinea, & Bǎlteanu, 2002). Effects of concentration of such gases are clearly visible in changes of temperatures, ice depth and sea levels in the country. Subsequently, sufficient evidence shows that climate change resulting from air pollution has impacted forests, agriculture, and water resources, especially in countries like Romania with vulnerability and limited potential to adapt to such changes.

Diagram 1 showing sources of Air pollution and their impacts on ecosystem and human in Romania

Source (Iorga, 2016).

Carbon Emissions

Currently, energy and the carbon intensity of Romania is still significantly high compared to the advised average in the EU. Data from the country’s meteorological department shows that carbon emission has continued to increase in Romania due to the country’s unbarred efforts in industrialization and urbanization. It is expected that the economic growth in the future will result to increase of GHG emissions of about 40 percent compared to 20 percent in the contemporary days. Consequently, increase in such emissions will result to subsequent increase in airborne disease which has serious implications to the country’s economy (Iorga, 2016).

Diagram 2 showing effects of air pollution on vegetation in Romania

Source (Iorga, 2016).

Air Temperature

Since the 19th century, the mean annual temperatures in Romania has increased by approximately 0.5 degrees (Iorga, 2016). Data obtained from Meteorological stations highlight crucial, yet intriguing changes in average seasonal temperatures. Approximately two degrees increase of temperatures amid summer, winter and spring, and an insignificant decrease of average temperatures amid autumn were experienced. Similarly, other air pollution measuring parameters such as maximum and minimum daily temperatures shows air temperature extremes. Additionally, scientific evidence shows that daily maximum and minimum temperatures continue to increase as the country continues to industrialize and urbanize. Although such changes and implications seems insignificant, they influence the daily life significantly (Iorga, 2016).

Changes in precipitation

Information from 94 meteorological-stations demonstrate a pattern of decreased average precipitation particularly in summer and winter, and a pattern of increasing precipitation in autumn. Additionally, a huge increase in the frequency of extremely wet days and maximum daily amount of precipitation amid autumn between 1961– 2010 exists (Iorga, 2016). An expansion of the most extreme length of the periods without precipitation has been seen in the course of the most recent decades in the south of the nation in the winter and in the west in the late spring. An expansion of the maximum length of days with in excess of 10 mm/day of precipitation (up to 4 days) has been observed in South Romania, over the last few decades, particularly in autumn (Cuculeanu, Tuinea, & Bǎlteanu, 2002).. Such changes in precipitation combined with varying temperatures has impacted the vegetation periods, forests and general agriculture.  Areas affected by drought have increased over the last few decades, changes which are blamed on air pollution. Together with floods caused by increased snow melts, prolonged dry periods result to high economic losses in agriculture, transports health and households, and water management sectors.

Decreased Snow Cover

Since industrialization, Romania has experienced increased greenhouse gases which has resulted to the greenhouse effect. This has significantly changed the winter season in Romania. A scientific statistical analysis carried out of trends in daily snow depth, precipitation and temperature using daily information from more than 100 meteorological stations in Romania supports the same. The amount of snow falls decreased at approximately 82 percent, reduced and intense period of snow falls. This is correlated with increased daily temperatures and decreased winter precipitation as a result of greenhouse effect.


Air pollutants are emitted from various economic and social activities including but not limited to factories and aerosols sprays. Across Romania, air pollution has increased over the past few decades resulting to change in climate patters. Subsequently, air pollution has resulted to increased greenhouse gases which have altered snow levels, carbon cycle, and has increased atmospheric temperatures and airborne diseases in Romania. However, the federal government of Romania is committed to reducing overall pollution endeavoring to improve the air quality in the country. Hence, much progress has been made in tackling air pollutants such as Sulphur and carbon oxides, as well as Benzene. Through the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, the government of Romania has requested the World Bank for provision of advisory services to help meet the commitment.




Cuculeanu, V., Tuinea, P., & Bǎlteanu, D. (January 01, 2002). Climate change impacts in Romania: Vulnerability and adaptation options. Geojournal, 57, 3, 203-209. Retrieved from

Iorga, G. (December 14, 2016). Air Pollution Monitoring: A Case Study from Romania. Retrieved from