Sample Ethics Paper on Ethical Hacking as a Defence Mechanism and Operation


            Cybersecurity is becoming an issue of disturbance in most of the world’s organizations. Understanding the risks and the types of vulnerabilities is not an easy task. There are various attacks in the world. Defensive security is one of the latest outcomes meant to improve awareness about cyber attacks. One of the most adept ways is by the introduction of ethical hacking. It is a technique that familiarizes about how the attackers think and the routes they choose to perform their attacks. In this way, security experts are able to tailor the most appropriate defence mechanism to emerging cybersecurity threats and trends. Ethical hacking has been widely escalated across organizations. Businesses can hire their own security experts or from outsourced companies. The major motive being to create cyber-attack awareness and learn about the company’s defences.

Computer Crime Definition and Description

            Computer crime is performed by a knowledgeable individual where they engage other people’s personal computers to steal information (Weulen, 2018). This is also seen as hacking where a criminal performs some penetrations actions against another computer with the motive of stealing valuable information. In some instances, the individual is triggered to inject malicious codes and software. This contributes to corrupted files and even hidden privileges. In most of the instances, computer crime is done for monetary gains. The recent trends in computer crimes have increased today. Computer crime does not only seek monetary values but also could instinct harm to the affected individual. A lot of people are currently subjected to computer crimes. A brief history could tell the dangers of this act in the modernized information technology trends (Saini, Rao and Panda, 2012).

Traditional Crime Computer Crime
Force involvement

Force involvement is evident in traditional forms of crime (Ayswariya and Rajan, 2018). For this part, people are subjected to a lot of force and other threats. They could result in physical harm or trauma.

Force Involvement

For this part, computer crime involves digitalized ways. It is minimal or even no use of force. Basically, the attackers use stolen identities where they steal from their victims.

Evidence of offenses

For the traditional crime, the criminals will always fall victims of leaving marks after they conduct their actions. This includes fingerprints and even other physical evidence.

Evidence of offenses

In computer crime, most of the actions are internet-based. Due to the millions of people surfing on the internet, it is difficult to trace them (Ayswariya and Rajan, 2018). Actually, a few of them are caught. The only way the security experts do is to reduce the severity of the attack.

Length of investigations

For these kinds of crime, there a minimal room for investigations. Often with the evidence being left behind, it is easier to identify the culprits using digitalized aids.

Length of investigations

Cybercrime is mostly based on falsified identities and other entries. The attackers will often use a remote location where they perform their activities. It would take a lot of time for the actual realization of the person behind a computer crime. In fact, a great number of these criminals will evade the law.


Traditional crime could use any form as long as they are able to perform their illegalities. We can deduce most of the traditional forms are not complex at all (Ayswariya and Rajan, 2018).


For this part, it is clear that cybercriminals take extreme lacunas to develop attacks. We all know computing is complex and understanding programming tools are hectic. Therefore, these criminals take the presence of this harshness to trigger them cyberattacks. Most of their programmes will take the innocence of many people who are caught unaware.


Computer Criminal Activity Discussion

There are various forms of computer crime activity. A crime is anything that intends to harm or steal valuable information from another user. In its extension, it has been escalated to other dangerous criminal elements like terrorism where one group conducts a crime for the purpose of a political wellbeing. Let us assume some of the well-known criminal activities today.

  1. Child Pornography

The internet has taken another shape today. Most of the children are subjected to the internet even without the presence of their parents. A lot of the guardians are not responsible or taking time to understand what their kids explore using the web. Therefore, criminals take realization of this and spread porn content. In the end, they earn massively.

  1. Cyber Terrorism

Cyber terrorism has taken place in many countries today. Lead by a terrorist group, they mostly blackmail for the purpose of gaining power relevance. They will also issue threats that they could cause an attack if their demands aren’t heeded.

  1. Malware

This is another form of widely spread computer crime. In fact, it is one of the leading. Here, attackers use available malware or create new ones like viruses and spyware. They will inject them to other computers to gain unauthorized access.

  1. Human Trafficking

The internet has taken another level where some criminals engage in the illegal selling of other humans. Most people are blackmailed mostly by job offerings and other ways where they are wrongly lured.

  1. Identity Theft

This involves stealing of ones’ identity. A person could assume another person’s role for their own gains.

  1. Phishing

This is mostly used by hackers or other illegal intruders. They will gain access to the computing devices and fetch all privacy about the victim.

  1. Spamming

It is a form of computer crime where the criminals are able to send unsolicited messages to a lot of people. Most of the people will fall, victims, when they fail to realize the spam content.

Ethical Hacking

            Hacking is normally identified as the action where an individual uses tools to forcefully access another person’s computer. The result of hacking is normally stolen identities and other valuable information. For the part of ethical hacking, it is dissimilar from the normal hacks. In this one, there is a well-established security organ that strives to imitate hacker’s activities. They enter into an organization’s systems, performs their actions with the motive of testing the enterprise defence mechanism (Lakshmi and Basarkod, 2015). Are the security measures inside the organization effective? It is a basic security question considered before engaging in an ethical hack program. A company could use its own experts or hire a professional team from outside to perform an ethical hack. Here, an ethical hacker is able to use their knowledge to assimilate the behaviors of a true hacker. They will engage in all activities so as they are able to discuss the best values towards enhancement and strengthening of security measures (Farsole, Kashikar and Zunzunwala, 2010). It is a time to identify all the loopholes. Ethical hacking tests for various threat agents.

Threat agents impose as a threat to the computer system. There are three major classes of threat agents (Jouini, Rabai and Aissa, 2014). In the first place, human threats are those actions triggered by the actions of individuals. They include a lack of knowledge and misuse of privileges. The other agent tested in an ethical hack is environmental factors. They could be caused by a non-human factor like earthquakes, fire, floods, and theft. Finally, technological threats target the hardware and software elements. They are malicious codes, physical theft, phishing, trojan horses. Ethical hacking tests for all these agents with a motive of correcting the existing cybersecurity infrastructure (Jouini, Rabai and Aissa, 2014).

Critical Discussion

            Ethical hacking has received mixed reactions over the past decades. In an actual realization of the core concept, this is one of the most appropriate techniques meant to strengthen the security of a firm. It provides a proper information and identities regarding cybercriminal elements. It insinuates that there are major loopholes in the existing infrastructure that could be used by the attackers when making attempts to perform their actions. It proves the existence of these cyberattacks and how the systems could be compromised. Therefore, the organizations are able to put many efforts into ensuring they will make the best use of the gathered reports and strengthen their security forces.


            Ethical hacking should be seen as a leading way towards the identification of possible attacks. Organizations are able to enhance their awareness relating to cyber threats. They will ensure they integrate the right measures for the purpose of their security well-being. Ethical hacking brings a closer look at the hacktivist activity. It is a time when they are able to determine their readiness to deal with security uncertainties. The resulting is adept measures and relevant upgrades meant to heighten the security capabilities of a company.



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