The Italian unification was as a result of sixty days of daring action, revolutionary ideas and events. The timeline of the unification is as indicated below:
- 1796-Italy is invaded by Napoleon
- 1815-At the Vienna congress, the powers that defeated Napoleon-Russia, Great Britain, Prussia and Austria draw a new geopolitical map of Europe with the objective of renegotiating spheres of balance and influence of all powers to ensure a season of peace and restoration of monarchial absolutism in order to protect themselves from revolutionary revolts.
- 1820-In some states, there are nationalist revolutions.
- 1830-More nationalist revolutions are reported
- 1831-Mazzini forms ‘Young Italy’ and meets Garibaldi who inspires him. A second revolutionary wave sentiment begins spreading from Modena to Perugia because of the liberal aristocracy support.
- 1833-Garibaldi gets sentenced to death for having played a part in the revolution in Piedmont and goes to exile.
- 1846-Pius IX becomes the pope and he is seen as a liberal
1848- Time for Revolutions
- In January, revolution breaks out in Sicily to break from Naples. On 13th March, Metternich falls from Austria power.
- March 17th to 22nd– 5 days revolutions breaks out in Milan
- March 22nd– Venetia declares its independence from Austria
- March 23rd-King Charles Albert of Piedmont declares car on Austria to assist Venetia and Lombardy.
- April 29th– Pope issues Allocution says he is not in support of the revolutions
- May-An Austrian army is defeated by king Charles Albert
- June General Radetsky arrives from Austria with reinforcements
- July 24th– Charles Albert is defeated by Austria during the Custoza battle and he abdicates.
- Sept-Troops from Naples manage to crush the Sicily revolution
French troops retreat from Papal States as Italian government renounces its wish to take over Rome as its capital. Agreement between France and Italy results to transfer o the capital city from Turin to Florence.
Austrian Prussian war gives Italy the opportunity to become partners with Prussia in a bid to liberate Venetia under Austrian rule. The third independence war breaks out and despite the defeats of Italian army in Custoza and Lissa, Prussia won the war annexing Venetia to Italy. Though Garibaldi defeats Austrians in Bezzecca in Trentino, he is forced to withdraw following orders from the King because the war had come to an end.
Garibaldi cannot do away with the idea of making Rome the capital and he makes the attempt to conquer it with a group of volunteers. The French protect the pope and stop the expedition in Mentana at the Rome gates. Garibaldi is forced to return to Caprera.
France declares war on Prussia and withdraws the last of its troops from Rome. Napoleon III gets defeated in Sedan and Italian government capitalizes on this to send military expeditions to fight Papal States.
Rome becomes the capital of Italy and parliament approves a law that declares the pope as the spiritual leader in the nation.
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