Safavid Empire was based in Persia (now known as Iran) and it ruled over a large portion of Southwestern Asia from 1501 through to 1736. Members of the Empire were of Kurdish Persian descent and part of the unique Sufi-infused order known as Safaviyya.
At the height of the Empire, the dynasty controlled not only Iran, Azerbaijan and Armenia but it also had control over most of Iraq, Caucasus, Georgia and Afghanistan. In addition to this, it also had control over parts of Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey and Turkmenistan.
- January 1, 1501-Safavid Empire is founded by Ismail I and he declares himself the Shah of Azerbaijan.
- 1507-The island of Hormuz is taken over by the Portuguese
- 1508-Baghdad is conquered by Ismail
- November 12, 1508-The Al-Kazimiyyah Shrine which was built in 799 original is reconstructed
- 1510-Shah Ismail had conquered the all of Iran by this time
- 1514-Ottomans attack causing breakout of a war in what came to be known as the Battle of Chaldiran west of Tabriz
- 1555-Safavid and Ottomans declare peace
- 1587 to1629-Shah Abbas begins his reign at the age of sixteen.
- November 12, 1611-Under the rule of Abbas I, the Shaj Mosque is built and during his rule, he built several mosques.
- 1598-The capital is moved from Tabriz to Isfahan. Mashhad and Heart are also recaptured the same year.
- 1609 to 1610-The war between the Kurdish tribes and the Ottoman’s begins
- 1638-Truce is made between Safavid and the Ottomans
- 1666-This makes the start of the Safavid empire decline
- November 12, 1694-The downfall of Safavid Empire is witnessed under the rule of Husayn
- 1722-Safavid is invaded and taken over by the Afghans. The Hotaki Dynasty invades Safavid and the Empire is beaten though later, it regains control.
- 1723- This marks the collapse of the empire.
- November 12, 1736-By the turn of the 17th century, Safavid was facing a large number of enemies and in 1736, the empire was disestablished.
Despite the demise of the Safavid Empire in 1736, the legacy the Empire left behind was revival of Persia as the economic stronghold between the West and East. In addition to this, they also left behind the establishment of bureaucracy and efficient state based upon ‘balances and checks’, their patronage of fine arts and architectural innovations. Safavid also left its mark on the present era by spreading Shi’a Islam in Iran and major ports such as Central Asia, Caucasus, South Asia and Anatolia.
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