Protein biosynthesis is the process through which biological cells build new proteins and is balanced by loss of cellular proteins through export or degradation. Translation which is protein assembly by ribosomes plays an important role in the pathway of biosynthetic along with messenger RNA generation (mRNA), post-translational modification, co-translational transport and aminoacylation of RNA transfer (tRNA).
Protein biosynthesis is regulated strictly at multiple steps and there are mechanisms for error checking in place. This process is initiated in the nucleus of the cell where specific enzymes unwind need DNA sections which make DNA in the region accessible and a copy of RNA is made.
All cells will function through their proteins and the function of protein is defined by molecular function, involvement of a biological process and localization within the cells. All protein components functions are defined by the exact structure, conformation and composition of the proteins encrypted in the DNA region (known as locus) encoding that protein.
The cistron DNA gets transcribed into RNA intermediate varieties and the last version gets used in the synthesis of polypeptide chain. Protein is also often synthesized directly from genes through translation of mRNA.
When there is need for protein to be available within short notice or in larger quantities, there is production of a protein precursor. Proprotein is an inactive protein that contains one or more inhibitory peptides that can be easily activated when inhibitory sequence gets removed by proteolysis especially during posttranslational modification. An mRNA chain is generated during transcription with one DNA strand double helix in genome as a template. The strand is known as template strand. Transcription is divided into three stages which include:
Each of the stages mentioned above is regulated by a high number of proteins like coactivators and transcription factors that ensure the correct gene is transcribed. Transcription will take place where DNA is held which is the cell nucleus. The structure of the DNA cell so made of two helixes made up of phosphate and sugar held together by hydrogen bonds between bases of opposite strands.
The phosphate and sugar in each of these strands are joined by stronger phosphodiester covalent bonds. Synthesis of proteins from RNA is referred to as translation and it occurs in the cytoplasm where ribosomes are located. The ribosomes make up large and small subunits that surround mRNA. The capacity of inhibiting or disabling protein biosynthesis is used by some antibiotics like cycloheximide, anisomycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, puromycin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin.
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