Sample Essay on Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide simply called NAD refers to a coenzyme that is found in every living cell. This compound is the dinucleotide and since it has two nucleotides that are joined via phosphate groups. One of the nucleotides has a nicotinamide and the other an adenine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually found in two forms. These are the reduced form and in the oxidized forms abbreviated as NADH and NAD respectively.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually involved in the redox reactions in metabolism. It carries electrons across different reactions. Therefore, the coenzyme is found in two different forms in the living cells. These are the oxidizing agent NAD+ which accepts electrons from the other molecules becoming reduced. The reaction forms the NADH with is then possible to reduce as the reducing agent that donates electrons.

Image 2The electron transfer reactions are the major role of the NAD. Nevertheless, NAD is also used in cellular processes with enzyme substrate being the most notable that removes or add chemical groups from the proteins in the posttranslational modifications. Due to the crucial role of the functions of NAD, the enzymes that are involved in its metabolism are the targets of drug discovery.

In living organisms, synthesis of NAD can result from the simple building blocks the de novo. This is from amino acids aspartic acid and tryptophan. In the alternative fashion, complex components of coenzymes are usually taken up from the food in form of a vitamin known as niacin.

There are similar compounds that are released by the reactions that break NAD’s structure down. The preformed components pass via salvage pathway recycling them into an active form. There is also NAD that is converted to Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, simplified as NADP. Chemistry of the coenzyme is like that of the NAD. However, its roles in the metabolism process are different.

Despite NAD+ being written with the sign of superscript plus due to its formal charge in a certain nitrogen atom, for most part at the physiological pH is a singly-charged anion. The charge is that of minus 1. On the other hand, NADH is doubly-charged anion. For Haemophilus influenza growth, NAD is considered as the V factor. Just like other dinucleotides, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has the two nucleotides that are joined by phosphate groups as their bridge. They also have ribose rings with one having adenine that is attached to first atom of carbon while the other is with the nicotinamide.

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