The medieval period spans a period of over seven hundred years starting from the year 800. During this period, key advances were made in government, religion as well as society. The term “medieval” is derived from Latin and means “middle age”. The term was first introduced during the nineteenth century into English. This was during season of increased interest in history and art.
To date though, there is disagreement on when actually the medieval period begun with some historians arguing it was during the third century while others argue it was during the 4th century. Still there are those who argue this period was during the 5th century. The period is mostly associated with Roman Empire collapse which begun in 410 AD by most scholars. Similarly, scholars also disagree on when the period came to an end with some placing it towards the beginning of fifteenth century (Renaissance Period rise) while others place it in 1453 (when Constantinople was captured by Turkish forces,
William the Conqueror in 1066 led Norman Conquest of England and it caused feudalism and castles building. Feudalism developed continuously from that point till it reached its height. At that time, there weren’t much regional boundaries or unity outside large cities and as such, feudal system was form giving the societal climate a governmental structure basis.
Under this system, individuals had no option but that of serving under a superior. At the top, there was the king with knights, lords, nobles and the barons serving below him. Individuals were given protection in return for their services. Constitutional government basis can be traced to this period as well with signing of the Great Charter in 1215.
Following Charlemagne rule, Christianity spread quickly throughout Europe and service as the unifying force. This was greatly as a result of the 1054 Great Schism in which 2 religious competing authorities, Patriarch Michael I of Eastern Orthodox Church and Pope Leo IX of Roman Catholic Church excommunicated one another on the basis of authority dispute.
The crusades were a central part of this period as well. After the church split and Christianity expanded, crusades were launched with the aim of defending Christianity from the Islamic religion. Europeans amounting to the thousands found their way to Jerusalem where they waged war with the forces of Islam. They also settled in that area with the intention of regaining control over the Holy Land. For some time, the quest was a successful one and the crusades came to an effective end with the 1291 fall of Acre. Thousands died during these crusades however, the Europeans were enlightened with new technologies and they also discovered new trade routes.
Men, during medieval ages were supposed to be knowledgeable about fighting so they could serve the king upon demand. During this time, the soldiers were Archers, Foot Soldiers and Medieval Knights while some of the weapons used included crossbows, battle axes, spears, swords and flails etc.
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